This week’s Research Review includes articles on how sex hormones are influenced by fats and calcium. Also included is an interesting article on the use of antimicrobial essential oils to fight hospital-acquired infections, plus an article on DIM and genestein for prostate cancer.
Happy New Year!
3,3'-Diindolylmethane and genistein decrease the adverse effects of estrogen in LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cells
(Smith, Sepkovic et al. 2008) Download
Fat/fiber intakes and sex hormones in healthy premenopausal women in USA
(Aubertin-Leheudre, Gorbach et al. 2008) Download
The mechanisms by which diet affects breast cancer (BC) risk are poorly understood but a positive relationship between fat and a negative association with fiber intake and BC risk have been demonstrated. Here we study the association between dietary fat/fiber ratio and estrogen metabolism. Fifty women were recruited, 22 were included in the low fat/high fiber and 22 were in the high fat/low fiber group and 6 did not meet our criteria. Estrogens (determined in plasma, urine and feces) and dietary records were collected during 3 following days. All data were collected in winter and in summer. The high fat/low fiber group had significantly higher urinary total estrogens, estriol-3-glucuronide, 2-hydroxyestradiol, 16alpha-hydroxyestrone, and a higher 2-hydroxyestrone/4-hydroxyestrone ratio. Total fat intake correlated significantly with plasma estrone, estradiol, urinary 2-hydroxyestrone, 2-hydroxyestradiol, 2-hydroxyestrone/4-hydroxyestrone ratio, and total urinary estrogens, even after adjustment for total fiber intake. The high fat/low fiber diet was associated with high values both for catechol and 16alpha-hydroxylated estrogens and a high 2-hydroxyestrone/4-hydroxyestrone ratio, but 2-hydroxyestrone/16alpha-hydroxyestrone ratio was not different between the groups. Our results suggest that fat affects estrogen metabolism more than does fiber and that one mechanism resulting in high estrogen values is an increased reabsorption of biliary estrogens.
Effects of dietary calcium compared with calcium supplements on estrogen metabolism and bone mineral density
(Napoli, Thompson et al. 2007) Download
BACKGROUND: High calcium intake has been associated with both high bone mineral density (BMD) and high urinary estrogen metabolites. However, the role of dietary calcium and calcium supplements on estrogen metabolism and BMD remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the importance of the source of calcium intake on estrogen metabolism and BMD. DESIGN: The average total daily calcium intake from supplements and diet, urinary estrogen metabolites, and spine and proximal femur BMD were studied in 168 healthy postmenopausal white women. RESULTS: Women who obtained calcium primarily from the diet or from both the diet and supplements had significantly (P=0.03) lower ratios of nonestrogenic to estrogenic metabolites (2-hydroxyestrone 1/16 alpha-hydroxyestrone) than did those who obtained calcium primarily from supplements. Adjusted BMD z scores were significantly greater in the subjects who obtained calcium primarily from the diet or from both the diet and supplements than in those who obtained calcium primarily from calcium supplements at the spine (P=0.012), femoral neck (P=0.02), total femur (P=0.003), and intertrochanter (P=0.005). This difference was evident especially in those who obtained calcium primarily from the diet, whose total calcium intake was lower than that in those who obtained calcium primarily from supplements. CONCLUSION: Calcium from dietary sources is associated with a shift in estrogen metabolism toward the active 16 alpha-hydroxyl metabolic pathway and with greater BMD and thus may produce more favorable effects in bone health in postmenopausal women than will calcium from supplements.
Dietary calcium, the 16alpha-hydroxyl metabolic pathway of steroids, and sex hormones in blood and urine
(Remer 2008) Download
The battle against multi-resistant strains: Renaissance of antimicrobial essential oils as a promising force to fight hospital-acquired infections
(Warnke, Becker et al. 2009) Download
Aubertin-Leheudre, M., S. Gorbach, et al. (2008). "Fat/fiber intakes and sex hormones in healthy premenopausal women in USA." J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 112(1-3): 32-9.
Napoli, N., J. Thompson, et al. (2007). "Effects of dietary calcium compared with calcium supplements on estrogen metabolism and bone mineral density." Am J Clin Nutr 85(5): 1428-33.
Remer, T. (2008). "Dietary calcium, the 16alpha-hydroxyl metabolic pathway of steroids, and sex hormones in blood and urine." Am J Clin Nutr 87(1): 192-3; author reply 193-4.
Smith, S., D. Sepkovic, et al. (2008). "3,3'-Diindolylmethane and genistein decrease the adverse effects of estrogen in LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cells." J Nutr 138(12): 2379-85.
Warnke, P. H., S. T. Becker, et al. (2009). "The battle against multi-resistant strains: Renaissance of antimicrobial essential oils as a promising force to fight hospital-acquired infections." J Craniomaxillofac Surg 37(7): 392-7.