Xanthurenic Acid Abstracts 2

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Overview of the role of vitamins and minerals on the kynurenine pathway in health and disease.
            (Majewski et al., 2016) Download
The kynurenine pathway (KP) of L-tryptophan metabolism produces several neuroactive metabolites with an amino acid structure. These metabolites may play an important role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, schizophrenia, AIDS-dementia complex, depression, epilepsy and the aging process. Modulation of the KP through inhibition or stimulation of enzyme synthesis and activity can be an alternative approach to traditional therapy. Furthermore, it may be responsible for the altered functioning of the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system. There is evidence that the KP is sensitive to changes in the concentration of many vitamins and minerals that play a crucial role as coenzymes and cofactors in the de novo synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide coenzyme. A reduction in the availability of the active form of vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, PLP) is known to affect tryptophan hydroxylase, kynurenine aminotransferase and kynureninase (KYNU). Vitamin B2 deficiencies result in a reduction in the activity of the flavin adenine dinucleotide dependent enzyme, kynurenine 3-monooxygenase. Minerals are also responsible for the proper functioning of enzymes engaged in L-tryptophan metabolism. Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+) influence KYNU activity, and Mg(2+) regulates quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase. Fe(2+) is responsible for the proper functioning of both indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and 3-hydroxy-anthranilic acid dioxygenase. Changes in the concentration of KP metabolites and in enzymatic activity have been found in many pathological states. Therefore, it is justifiable to regulate the concentration of certain kynurenines or enzymes in the KP which may provide a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of various health impairments. This review demonstrates the role of vitamin and mineral activity on the KP, which may have an effect on the proper functioning of the human organism. Surplus administration of vitamins did not elicit any beneficial effects on L-tryptophan metabolism. Whether a mineral surplus influences L-tryptophan metabolism is still not established. It seems that cofactor deficiencies influence the KP far more than surpluses.


 

Urinary excretory ratio of anthranilic acid/kynurenic acid as an index of the tolerable amount of tryptophan.
(Okuno et al., 2008) Download
Some people may take excessive tryptophan as a supplement in the expectation that the tryptophan metabolite, melatonine, will help to induce sufficient sleep. We investigated the basis for a useful index to assess the risk of a tryptophan excess. Young rats were fed on a 20% casein diet with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 5.0% added tryptophan for 30 d the apparent toxicity and growth retardation was observed in the 5.0% tryptophan-added group. Metabolites of the Tryptophan-nicotinamide pathway and such intermediates as kynurenic acid (KA), anthranilic acid (AnA), xanthurenic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and quinolinic acid in 24-h urine increased in a dose-dependent manner. Of those metabolites and intermediates, the urinary excretion of KA progressively increased, and that of AnA dramatically increased in the 2.0 and 5.0% tryptophan-added groups. The urinary excretory ratio of AnA/KA was a high value for both the groups. These results suggest that the urinary ratio of AnA/KA could be a useful index to monitoran excessive tryptophan intake.

Relationship Between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males.
            (Shibata et al., 2014) Download
Excess water-soluble vitamins are thought to be eliminated in the urine. We have reported a strong relationship between water-soluble vitamin intake and urinary excretion in females. The relationship, however, is not well understood in males. In the present experiment, 10 Japanese male subjects were given a standard Japanese diet for the first week. The subjects remained on the same diet, and a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture containing one time the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese was given for the second week, three times the DRIs for the third week, and six times the DRIs for the fourth week. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected each week. Urinary excretion levels for seven of the nine water-soluble vitamin levels, excluding vitamin B12 and folate, increased linearly and sharply in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins can be good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes in humans.


 

Method for Evaluation of the Requirements of B-group Vitamins Using Tryptophan Metabolites in Human Urine.
            (Shibata et al., 2015) Download
Tryptophan metabolism is directly involved with B-group vitamins such as vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin B6, and indirectly with vitamin B1 and pantothenic acid. We evaluated the validity of requirements of B-group vitamins set by the Dietary Reference Intakes for the Japanese (DRI-J). We investigated the fate of dietary tryptophan in 10 Japanese adult men who ate the same diet based on DRI-J during a 4-week study. Vitamin mixtures were administered based on the amounts in the basal diet during weeks 2, 3, and 4. Daily urine samples were collected eight times (days 1 and 5 in each week). Administration of vitamin mixtures had no effect on tryptophan metabolites such as anthranilic acid, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and quinolinic acid within individuals. Surplus administration of B-group vitamins against DRI-J requirements did not elicit beneficial effects on tryptophan metabolism. Our findings supported the requirements of B-group vitamins set by the DRI-J.

Meat Intake and the Dose of Vitamin B3 - Nicotinamide: Cause of the Causes of Disease Transitions, Health Divides, and Health Futures
            (Hill and Williams, 2017) Download
Meat and vitamin B3 - nicotinamide - intake was high during hunter-gatherer times. Intake then fell and variances increased during and after the Neolithic agricultural revolution. Health, height, and IQ deteriorated. Low dietary doses are buffered by 'welcoming' gut symbionts and tuberculosis that can supply nicotinamide, but this co-evolved homeostatic metagenomic strategy risks dysbioses and impaired resistance to pathogens. Vitamin B3 deficiency may now be common among the poor billions on a low-meat diet. Disease transitions to non-communicable inflammatory disorders (but longer lives) may be driven by positive 'meat transitions'. High doses of nicotinamide lead to reduced regulatory T cells and immune intolerance. Loss of no longer needed symbiotic 'old friends' compounds immunological over-reactivity to cause allergic and auto-immune diseases. Inhibition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide consumers and loss of methyl groups or production of toxins may cause cancers, metabolic toxicity, or neurodegeneration. An optimal dosage of vitamin B3 could lead to better health, but such a preventive approach needs more equitable meat distribution. Some people may require personalised doses depending on genetic make-up or, temporarily, when under stress.


 

Big brains, meat, tuberculosis and the nicotinamide switches: co-evolutionary relationships with modern repercussions on longevity and disease
            (Williams and Dunbar, 2014) Download
Meat eating has been an important trigger for human evolution however the responsible component in meat has not been clearly identified. Here we propose that the limiting factors for expanding brains and increasing longevity were the micronutrient nicotinamide (vitamin B3) and the metabolically related essential amino-acid, tryptophan. Meat offers significant sourcing challenges and lack causes a deficiency of nicotinamide and tryptophan and consequently the energy carrier nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) that gets consumed in regulatory circuits important for survival, resulting in premature ageing, poor cognition and brain atrophy. If a trophic supply of dietary nicotinamide/tryptophan is so essential for building brains, constraining their size and connectivity, we hypothesise that back-up mechanisms to ensure the supply evolved. One strategy may be increasing the reliance on gut symbionts to break down celluloses that produces NADH and only nicotinamide indirectly, and may cause diarrhoea. We suggest that a direct supplier was the chronic mycobacterial infection tuberculosis (TB) that is a surprise candidate but it co-evolved early, does not inevitably cause disease (90-95% of those infected are healthy), and secretes (and is inhibited by) nicotinamide. We hypothesise that TB evolved first as a symbiont that enabled humans to cope with short-lived shortages of meat and only later behaved as a pathogen when the supply deteriorated chronically, for those in poverty. (TB immunology and epidemiology is riddled with paradoxes for a conventional pathogen). We test this in pilot data showing that sharp declines in TB (and diarrhoea) - `environmental enteropathy' strongly correlate with increasing meat consumption and therefore nicotinamide exposure, unlike later onset cancers and Parkinson's disease that increased in incidence, perhaps - as we propose a hypothetical hypervitaminosis B3 (to include obesity and the metabolic syndrome) - as the trade-off for increased brain power and longevity, a recently evolved human characteristic.

Meat and Nicotinamide: A Causal Role in Human Evolution, History, and Demographics.
            (Williams and Hill, 2017) Download
Hunting for meat was a critical step in all animal and human evolution. A key brain-trophic element in meat is vitamin B3 / nicotinamide. The supply of meat and nicotinamide steadily increased from the Cambrian origin of animal predators ratcheting ever larger brains. This culminated in the 3-million-year evolution of Homo sapiens and our overall demographic success. We view human evolution, recent history, and agricultural and demographic transitions in the light of meat and nicotinamide intake. A biochemical and immunological switch is highlighted that affects fertility in the 'de novo' tryptophan-to-kynurenine-nicotinamide 'immune tolerance' pathway. Longevity relates to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide consumer pathways. High meat intake correlates with moderate fertility, high intelligence, good health, and longevity with consequent population stability, whereas low meat/high cereal intake (short of starvation) correlates with high fertility, disease, and population booms and busts. Too high a meat intake and fertility falls below replacement levels. Reducing variances in meat consumption might help stabilise population growth and improve human capital.

 


References

Hill, LJ and AC Williams (2017), ‘Meat Intake and the Dose of Vitamin B3 - Nicotinamide: Cause of the Causes of Disease Transitions, Health Divides, and Health Futures’, Int J Tryptophan Res, 10 1178646917704662. PubMed: 28579801
Majewski, M, et al. (2016), ‘Overview of the role of vitamins and minerals on the kynurenine pathway in health and disease.’, J Physiol Pharmacol, 67 (1), 3-19. PubMed: 27010891
Okuno, A, T Fukuwatari, and K Shibata (2008), ‘Urinary excretory ratio of anthranilic acid/kynurenic acid as an index of the tolerable amount of tryptophan.’, Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 72 (7), 1667-72. PubMed: 18603814
Shibata, K, J Hirose, and T Fukuwatari (2014), ‘Relationship Between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males.’, Nutr Metab Insights, 7 61-75. PubMed: 25210461
——— (2015), ‘Method for Evaluation of the Requirements of B-group Vitamins Using Tryptophan Metabolites in Human Urine.’, Int J Tryptophan Res, 8 31-39. PubMed: 25987848
Williams, AC and RI Dunbar (2014), ‘Big brains, meat, tuberculosis and the nicotinamide switches: co-evolutionary relationships with modern repercussions on longevity and disease’, Med Hypotheses, 83 (1), 79-87. PubMed: 24767939
Williams, AC and LJ Hill (2017), ‘Meat and Nicotinamide: A Causal Role in Human Evolution, History, and Demographics.’, Int J Tryptophan Res, 10 1178646917704661. PubMed: 28579800