Vitamin K Abstracts 2


Vitamin K1 versus vitamin K3 for prevention of subclinical vitamin deficiency: a randomized controlled trial

         (Chawla, Deorari et al. 2007) Download

OBJECTIVE: To compare efficacy of intramuscular phytomenadione (fat soluble vitamin K or vitamin K1) with menadione (water soluble vitamin K or vitamin K3) in prevention of subclinical vitamin K deficiency. DESIGN: A doubleblind randomized controlled trial. SETTINGS: Tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Healthy term neonates were randomized to receive 1 mg of either phytomenadione (Group I, n = 85) or menadione (Group II, n = 85) intramuscularly within 2 hours of birth. PIVKA-II, a sensitive and specific marker of vitamin K deficiency was measured by ELISA method (Diagnostica Stago, France). Plasma level > 2 ng/mL was labeled as detectable PIVKA-II. RESULTS: Birth weight (2914 +/- 318 vs 2958 +/- 312 g), gestation (38.4 +/- 1.2 vs 38.4 +/- 1.0 wk) and other baseline variables were comparable between the two groups. 48.2% (41/85) neonates in Group I and 44.7%(38/85) neonates in Group II had detectable PIVKAII levels ([Relative Risk (95% confidence interval): 1.1 (0.8-1.5); P = 0.76]). Median PIVKA-II levels in Group I and Group II were 1.99 ng/mL and 1.97 ng/mL respectively (P = 0.26). At 72 +/- 12 h of age, mean packed cell volume and mean serum bilirubin levels were comparable in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Comparable PIVKAII detection rate and PIVKAII levels in neonates receiving phytomenadione or menadione indicate their similar efficacy in prevention of vitamin K deficiency. However, high PIVKAII detection rate observed with both preparations indicates recent vitamin K deficiency and may be due to either inadequate dose of vitamin K or persistence of PIVKAII of fetal origin.


Dietary induced subclinical vitamin K deficiency in normal human subjects

         (Ferland, Sadowski et al. 1993) Download

A subclinical vitamin K deficiency was induced in 32 healthy subjects (four groups of eight males and females) aged 20-40 and 60-80 yr residing in the Metabolic Research Unit of the Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University. Volunteers were initially fed (4 d) a baseline-period diet containing the recommended daily allowance for vitamin K which is equivalent to 80 micrograms/d of phylloquinone (vitamin K1). During the baseline period various parameters of vitamin K nutritional status were monitored. The baseline period was followed by a 13-d depletion period during which the subjects were fed a very low vitamin K1 diet (approximately 10 micrograms/d). After depletion, the subjects entered a 16-d repletion period (four stages lasting 4 d each) during which time they were repleted with 5, 15, 25, and 45 micrograms of vitamin K1 per day. Vitamin K1 depletion dramatically and significantly decreased plasma vitamin K1 levels (P < 0.0001) in both elderly and young groups to values 13-18% of day 1 (elderly 0.22 nM, young 0.14 nM). Repleting the subjects with up to 45 micrograms of vitamin K1 per day failed, in the case of the young subjects, to bring plasma vitamin K1 levels back into the normal range. Dietary vitamin K1 restriction induced different responses in the urinary excretion of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid between the young and the elderly subjects with values decreasing significantly (P < 0.03) in the young while remaining unchanged in the elderly. The vitamin K1 depletion period had no significant effect on either prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times, or Factor VII and protein C (as determined by antigenic and functional assays). By using a monoclonal antibody, decarboxy prothrombin was found to increase slightly but significantly in both groups (P < 0.05) as a consequence of the low vitamin K1 diet. This study clearly shows that a diet low in vitamin K1 can result in a functional subclinical deficiency of vitamin K (decreased urinary gamma-carboxyglutamic acid excretion) without affecting blood coagulation.

Vitamin K, an example of triage theory: is micronutrient inadequacy linked to diseases of aging?

         (McCann and Ames 2009) Download

The triage theory posits that some functions of micronutrients (the approximately 40 essential vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, and amino acids) are restricted during shortage and that functions required for short-term survival take precedence over those that are less essential. Insidious changes accumulate as a consequence of restriction, which increases the risk of diseases of aging. For 16 known vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins, we evaluated the relative lethality of 11 known mouse knockout mutants to categorize essentiality. Results indicate that 5 VKD proteins that are required for coagulation had critical functions (knockouts were embryonic lethal), whereas the knockouts of 5 less critical VKD proteins [osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (Mgp), growth arrest specific protein 6, transforming growth factor beta-inducible protein (Tgfbi or betaig-h3), and periostin] survived at least through weaning. The VKD gamma-carboxylation of the 5 essential VKD proteins in the liver and the 5 nonessential proteins in nonhepatic tissues sets up a dichotomy that takes advantage of the preferential distribution of dietary vitamin K1 to the liver to preserve coagulation function when vitamin K1 is limiting. Genetic loss of less critical VKD proteins, dietary vitamin K inadequacy, human polymorphisms or mutations, and vitamin K deficiency induced by chronic anticoagulant (warfarin/coumadin) therapy are all linked to age-associated conditions: bone fragility after estrogen loss (osteocalcin) and arterial calcification linked to cardiovascular disease (Mgp). There is increased spontaneous cancer in Tgfbi mouse knockouts, and knockdown of Tgfbi causes mitotic spindle abnormalities. A triage perspective reinforces recommendations of some experts that much of the population and warfarin/coumadin patients may not receive sufficient vitamin K for optimal function of VKD proteins that are important to maintain long-term health.

Interaction between vitamin K nutriture and bacterial overgrowth in hypochlorhydria induced by omeprazole

         (Paiva, Sepe et al. 1998) Download

Subjects taking a hydrogen pump blocking agent (omeprazole) develop bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. We tested the hypothesis that this bacterial overgrowth produces menaquinones, which would meet the vitamin requirement in situations of vitamin K deficiency. In a crossover-type design, 13 healthy volunteers eating a phylloquinone-restricted diet for 35 d were randomly assigned to take omeprazole during the first period of study or starting on day 15 until the end of the study. Coagulation times, serum osteocalcin [total osteocalcin and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC)], plasma phylloquinone, urinary gamma-carboxyglutamic acid, and plasma undercarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA-II) were measured. Plasma phylloquinone concentrations declined 82% with dietary phylloquinone restriction (P < 0.05) and were not significantly different in the period when the diet was combined with omeprazole treatment (P > 0.05). The mean value for PIVKA-II during the phylloquinone-restricted diet significantly increased 5.7-fold from baseline (P < 0.05); however, the combination of omeprazole treatment and the phylloquinone-restricted diet significantly reduced PIVKA-II values by 21% (P < 0.05) compared with the diet period alone. There were no alterations in total or percentage ucOC concentrations during the phylloquinone-restricted diet or during the period of diet plus omeprazole treatment. Our data support the hypothesis that bacterial overgrowth results in the synthesis and absorption of menaquinones. These menaquinones contribute to vitamin K nutriture during dietary phylloquinone restriction, but not enough to restore normal vitamin K status.

Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7

         (Schurgers, Teunissen et al. 2007) Download

Vitamin K is a cofactor in the production of blood coagulation factors (in the liver), osteocalcin (in bone), and matrix Gla protein (cartilage and vessel wall). Accumulating evidence suggests that for optimal bone and vascular health, relatively high intakes of vitamin K are required. The synthetic short-chain vitamin K(1) is commonly used in food supplements, but recently the natural long-chain menaquinone-7 (MK-7) has also become available as an over-the-counter (OTC) supplement. The purpose of this paper was to compare in healthy volunteers the absorption and efficacy of K(1) and MK-7. Serum vitamin K species were used as a marker for absorption and osteocalcin carboxylation as a marker for activity. Both K(1) and MK-7 were absorbed well, with peak serum concentrations at 4 hours after intake. A major difference between the 2 vitamin K species is the very long half-life time of MK-7, resulting in much more stable serum levels, and accumulation of MK-7 to higher levels (7- to 8-fold) during prolonged intake. MK-7 induced more complete carboxylation of osteocalcin, and hematologists should be aware that preparations supplying 50 mug/d or more of MK-7 may interfere with oral anticoagulant treatment in a clinically relevant way.


Adulthood obesity is positively associated with adipose tissue concentrations of vitamin K and inversely associated with circulating indicators of vitamin K status in men and women

         (Shea, Booth et al. 2010) Download

Increased adiposity is associated with increased storage of several fat-soluble nutrients. However, the extent to which vitamin K is stored in fat and the association between vitamin K status and adiposity are unknown. Our objectives in this study were to determine whether vitamin K is stored in human adipose tissue and the association between vitamin K status and body fat in older men and women. In study A, the vitamin K concentration of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue was quantified in samples taken from 16 gastric bypass patients [13 women, 3 men, age 40 +/- 10 y (mean +/- SD)] using HPLC. In study B, cross-sectional associations between percent body fat (%BF) and circulating measures of vitamin K status were examined in 260 women and 183 men [age = 68 +/- 5 y]. The phylloquinone (K(1)) concentrations in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue were 148.2 +/- 71.8 and 175 +/- 112 nmol/kg, respectively, which is higher than the reported concentrations of other organs known to store vitamin K. There was an inverse association between %BF and plasma K(1) in women (P-trend < 0.001). Higher %BF was associated with greater circulating concentrations of uncarboxylated prothrombin, indicative of lower hepatic utilization of vitamin K in both men (P-trend = 0.02) and women (P-trend = 0.002) but not with the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin. Adipose tissue contained high concentrations of vitamin K, and increased adiposity was associated with poorer vitamin K status in older adults. Additional studies are needed to further explore the relationships among body fat, storage of vitamin K in adipose tissue, and implications for vitamin K status and function.

Vitamin K deficiency from dietary vitamin K restriction in humans

         (Suttie, Mummah-Schendel et al. 1988) Download

Vitamin K is required for the maintenance of normal hemostatic function. Ten college-aged male subjects chose diets restricted in vitamin K content for 40 d. Median phylloquinone intakes based on analysis of food composites dropped from 82 micrograms/d during the prestudy period to 40 and 32 micrograms/d at d 9 and 27 of dietary restriction, respectively. Serum phylloquinone concentrations fell from a mean of 0.87 to 0.46 ng/mL during a 21-d period of vitamin K restriction. Supplementation with 50 micrograms phylloquinone/d for 12 d increased serum phylloquinone to 0.56 ng/mL, and supplementation with 500 micrograms phylloquinone/d increased serum phylloquinone to 1.66 ng/mL. Vitamin K restriction resulted in alterations in a functional clotting assay that detects undercarboxylated prothrombin species in plasma and in a decrease in urinary gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. Supplementation with either 50 or 500 micrograms of phylloquinone restored both these indices to near normal values. These data are consistent with a human dietary vitamin K requirement of approximately 1 microgram/kg body wt/d.


Chawla, D., A. K. Deorari, et al. (2007). "Vitamin K1 versus vitamin K3 for prevention of subclinical vitamin deficiency: a randomized controlled trial." Indian Pediatr 44(11): 817-22. [PMID: 18057477]

Ferland, G., J. A. Sadowski, et al. (1993). "Dietary induced subclinical vitamin K deficiency in normal human subjects." J Clin Invest 91(4): 1761-8. [PMID: 8473516]

McCann, J. C. and B. N. Ames (2009). "Vitamin K, an example of triage theory: is micronutrient inadequacy linked to diseases of aging?" Am J Clin Nutr 90(4): 889-907. [PMID: 19692494]

Paiva, S. A., T. E. Sepe, et al. (1998). "Interaction between vitamin K nutriture and bacterial overgrowth in hypochlorhydria induced by omeprazole." Am J Clin Nutr 68(3): 699-704. [PMID: 9734750]

Schurgers, L. J., K. J. Teunissen, et al. (2007). "Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7." Blood 109(8): 3279-83. [PMID: 17158229]

Shea, M. K., S. L. Booth, et al. (2010). "Adulthood obesity is positively associated with adipose tissue concentrations of vitamin K and inversely associated with circulating indicators of vitamin K status in men and women." J Nutr 140(5): 1029-34. [PMID: 20237066]

Suttie, J. W., L. L. Mummah-Schendel, et al. (1988). "Vitamin K deficiency from dietary vitamin K restriction in humans." Am J Clin Nutr 47(3): 475-80. [PMID: 3348159]