UVBI Abstracts 5

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Ultraviolet blood irradiation therapy (Knott technic) in thrombophlebitis.
            (Miley and Dunning, 1949) Download
Since the first report on the use of ultraviolet blood irradiation therapy in thrombophlebitis’ was published, we have used this method in an additional eighteen cases of thrombophlebitis; of these eighteen, ten were acute and eight chronic. As a result of our experience and observations in these eighteen cases as well as the original thirteen we have come to the following conclusions: Following the use of ultraviolet blood irradiation in acute thrombophlebitis we found that pain was the first symptom to disappear, the time of disappearance normally varying from two to twelve hours; very often some slight pain persisted as long as seventy-two hours.

Control of deltoid bursitis with the Knott technic of blood irradiation therapy.
            (Miley and Laplume, 1953) Download
The first report of the use of the Knott technic of blood irradiation in deltoid bursitis and calcareous tendinitis was made in 1951 by Neff and Anderson, who presented their results in seventeen cases of this syndrome, stating that 88.2 per cent of the patients treated received relatively rapid and complete relief of symptoms including those with both considered as diagnostic criteria for deltoid acute and chronic types of the disease. We have had a somewhat similar experience in twenty-two consecutive unselected cases, eighteen acute and four chronic, of deltoid bursitis with or without calcareous tendinitis.

Ultraviolet irradiation of autotransfused blood in the treatment of puerperal sepsis
            (Rebbeck, 1941) Download
After seven years of clinical research, several physicians in various parts of the United States compiled clinical evidence on a treatment for pyogenic infections that, to date, has not been widely published. This paper will deal only with the treatment of puerperal sepsis by that method.


 

Ultraviolet irradiation of autotransfused blood in the treatment of postabortional sepsis
            (Rebbeck, 1942) Download
The use of ultraviolet irradiation of autotransfused blood in postabortional sepsis has markedly influenced the prognosis in this pathological condition. We believe because of the histories of instrumentation, septic fever, pelvic complications and even septicemia very few of these patients would be considered in conventional surgical practice as safe operative risks because of the well grounded fear of spreading infection both locally and  ...

Double septicemia following prostatectomy treated by the knott technic of ultraviolet blood irradiation: Case report
            (Rebbeck and Walther, 1942) Download
A case of this nature occurred in the writers’ practice which was treated with ultraviolet blood irradiation and which had a satisfactory conclusion.


 

Irradiation techniques for the release of bound heavy metals in natural waters and blood
            (Batley and Farrar, 1978) Download
Irradiation techniques are compared with conventional acid digestion procedures for the release of bound heavy metals in natural waters and in blood, before their determination by anodic stripping voltammetry. Ultra-violet irradiation of acidified water with a 550-W mercury vapour lamp releases bound zinc, cadmium, lead and copper after 4 h. The same results can be achieved with a 30-Mrad dose of high-energy γ-irradiation.  ...

Inactivation behaviors of selected bacteria in ultraviolet-C-treated human breast milk
            (Gabriel and Marquez, 2017) Download
This study determined the inactivation behaviors, which include inactivation pattern, sublethal injury development, and inactivation kinetic parameters of selected bacteria in UV-C treated human breast milk. Multi strain mixtures of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157: H7, non-pathogenic E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, and a lone strain of Staphylococcus aureus were inoculated into donated breast milk prior to  ...

New Molecular Aspects of Ultraviolet-Induced Immunosuppression
            {Grundmann, 2011, Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, 107–113} Download
Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is one of the major environmental factors affecting human health during normal occupational and recreational exposure. It modulates the immune system in several ways and, therefore, exerts a broad spectrum of potential beneficial and hazardous effects. UV-mediated immunosuppression and carcinogenesis are based on a highly complex cellular–cytokine crosstalk, involving both direct and indirect factors. Mechanisms of action may involve chromophores, programmed cell death, regulatory T cells, and antigen-presenting cells. Rather than causing general immunosuppression, UV inhibits immunity in an antigen-specific manner. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms underlying UV-induced immunosuppression and postulates how UV may act as a pathogen and as a therapeutic modality.


 

Short-term uvb-irradiation leads to putative limbal stem cell damage and niche cell-mediated upregulation of macrophage recruiting cytokines.
            (Notara et al., 2015) Download
Ultraviolet light B (UVB)-irradiation is linked to various ocular pathologies such as limbal stem cell defects in pterygium. Despite the large circumstantial evidence linking UVB irradiation and limbal epithelial stem cell damage, the precise molecular responses of limbal stem cells to UVB irradiation are unclear. Here the effect of UVB irradiation on the putative stem cell phenotype, limbal niche cells and the subsequent effects on corneal (lymph)angiogenic privilege were investigated. Primary human limbal epithelial stem cells and fibroblasts were irradiated with 0.02 J/cm(2) of UVB, a low dose corresponding to 3 min of solar irradiation. UVB irradiation caused significant reduction of limbal epithelial and limbal fibroblast proliferation for 24 h, but apoptosis of limbal epithelial stem cells only. Moreover, UVB induced stem-like character loss of limbal epithelial cells, as their colony forming efficiency and putative stem cell marker expression significantly decreased. Interestingly, limbal epithelial cells co-cultured with UVB-irradiated limbal fibroblasts also exhibited loss of stem cell character and decrease of colony forming efficiency. Conditioned media from limbal epithelial cells inhibited lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and tube network complexity; however this effect diminished following UVB irradiation. In contrast, pro-inflammatory and macrophage-recruiting cytokines such as TNFα, IFNγ and MCP1 were significantly upregulated following cell irradiation of limbal fibroblasts. These data demonstrate the key role of the limbal stem cell niche in response to UVB and subsequent (lymph)angiogenic and inflammatory events. These data suggest that the known pro(lymph)angiogenic effect of UVB irradiation in pterygium is not linked to a direct up-regulation of pro-angiogenic cytokines, but rather to indirect macrophage-recruiting cytokines being upregulated after UVB irradiation.

 

The rationale and use of platelet concentrates irradiated with ultraviolet-B light.
            (Pamphilon, 1999) Download
Data show that transfusion of UVB-irradiated platelet concentrates (PCs) reduces HLA immunization and platelet refractoriness when compared with transfusion of unmodified PCs. 3UV-B irradiation prevents the interaction of dendritic cells contained in transfusates with recipient T lymphocytes, which may be central to prevention of HLA alloimmunization. This review summarizes data on UVB irradiation and its utility in transfusion practice.


 

Light based anti-infectives: ultraviolet C irradiation, photodynamic therapy, blue light, and beyond.
            (Yin et al., 2013) Download
Owing to the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance, researchers are investigating alternative anti-infective strategies to which it is supposed microorganisms will be unable to develop resistance. Prominent among these strategies, is a group of approaches which rely on light to deliver the killing blow. As is well known, ultraviolet light, particularly UVC (200-280 nm), is germicidal, but it has not been much developed as an anti-infective approach until recently, when it was realized that the possible adverse effects to host tissue were relatively minor compared to its high activity in killing pathogens. Photodynamic therapy is the combination of non-toxic photosensitizing dyes with harmless visible light that together produce abundant destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Certain cationic dyes or photosensitizers have good specificity for binding to microbial cells while sparing host mammalian cells and can be used for treating many localized infections, both superficial and even deep-seated by using fiber optic delivered light. Many microbial cells are highly sensitive to killing by blue light (400-470 nm) due to accumulation of naturally occurring photosensitizers such as porphyrins and flavins. Near infrared light has also been shown to have antimicrobial effects against certain species. Clinical applications of these technologies include skin, dental, wound, stomach, nasal, toenail and other infections which are amenable to effective light delivery.

 


References

Batley, GE and YJ Farrar (1978), ‘Irradiation techniques for the release of bound heavy metals in natural waters and blood’, Analytica Chimica Acta, 99 (2), 283-92. PubMed:
Gabriel, AA and GGF Marquez (2017), ‘Inactivation behaviors of selected bacteria in ultraviolet-C-treated human breast milk’, Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 41 216-23. PubMed:
Miley, GP and PM Dunning (1949), ‘Ultraviolet blood irradiation therapy (Knott technic) in thrombophlebitis.’, Am J Surg, 78 (6), 892. PubMed: 15393536
Miley, GP and AA Laplume (1953), ‘Control of deltoid bursitis with the Knott technic of blood irradiation therapy.’, Am J Surg, 86 (4), 401-3. PubMed: 13092347
Notara, M, et al. (2015), ‘Short-term uvb-irradiation leads to putative limbal stem cell damage and niche cell-mediated upregulation of macrophage recruiting cytokines.’, Stem Cell Res, 15 (3), 643-54. PubMed: 26520427
Pamphilon, DH (1999), ‘The rationale and use of platelet concentrates irradiated with ultraviolet-B light.’, Transfus Med Rev, 13 (4), 323-33. PubMed: 10553274
Rebbeck, EW (1941), ‘Ultraviolet irradiation of autotransfused blood in the treatment of puerperal sepsis’, The American Journal of Surgery, 54 (3), 691-700. PubMed:
——— (1942), ‘Ultraviolet irradiation of autotransfused blood in the treatment of postabortional sepsis’, The American Journal of Surgery, 55 (3), 476-86. PubMed:
Rebbeck, EW and RA Walther (1942), ‘Double septicemia following prostatectomy treated by the knott technic of ultraviolet blood irradiation: Case report’, The American Journal of Surgery, 57 (3), 536-38. PubMed:
Yin, R, et al. (2013), ‘Light based anti-infectives: ultraviolet C irradiation, photodynamic therapy, blue light, and beyond.’, Curr Opin Pharmacol, 13 (5), 731-62. PubMed: 24060701