Taurine Abstracts 8

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Taurine improves functional and histological outcomes and reduces inflammation in traumatic brain injury.
            (Su et al., 2014) Download
We investigated the effect of taurine on inflammatory cytokine expression, on astrocyte activity and cerebral edema and functional outcomes, following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. 72 rats were randomly divided into sham, TBI and Taurine groups. Rats subjected to moderate lateral fluid percussion injury were injected intravenously with taurine (200mg/kg) or saline immediately after injury or daily for 7days. Functional outcome was evaluated using Modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS). Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) of the brain was measured using immunofluorescence. Concentration of 23 cytokines and chemokines in the injured cortex at 1 and 7days after TBI was assessed by Luminex xMAP technology. The results showed that taurine significantly improved functional recovery except 1day, reduced accumulation of GFAP and water content in the penumbral region at 7days after TBI. Compared with the TBI group, taurine significantly suppressed growth-related oncogene (GRO/KC) and interleukin (IL)-1β levels while elevating the levels of regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) at 1day. And taurine markedly decreased the level of 17 cytokine: eotaxin, Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, leptin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and only increased the level of MIP-1α in a week. The results suggest that taurine effectively mitigates the severity of brain damage in TBI by attenuating the increase of astrocyte activity and edema as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Cooperation of taurine uptake and dopamine D1 receptor activation facilitates the induction of protein synthesis-dependent late LTP.
            (Suárez et al., 2014) Download
Co-activation of NMDA and dopamine receptors is required for the induction of the late phase of LTP (L-LTP) that is dependent on new protein synthesis. Other neuromodulatory substances may also contribute to this process. Here, we examined whether taurine is one of the neuromodulators contributing to L-LTP induction, since it is known that taurine uptake induces a long-lasting synaptic potentiation dependent on protein synthesis, and taurine uptake inhibition blocks L-LTP induced by tetanization. Experiments were conducted using rat hippocampal slices where field synaptic potentials were evoked and recorded in CA3-CA1 synapses. Taurine (1 mM) applied 10 min before a high frequency stimulation (HFS) train converted a transitory early-LTP (E-LTP) into an L-LTP dependent on protein synthesis. This taurine effect was blocked by a taurine uptake inhibitor. A facilitation of L-LTP induction was also obtained by pre-application of SKF38393, a D1/D5 dopamine receptor (D1R) agonist. In this case, LTP facilitation was not affected by the taurine uptake inhibitor. Nevertheless, when taurine and SKF38393 were simultaneously pre-applied at a concentration that individually did not modify E-LTP, they produced a synergistic mechanism that facilitated the induction of L-LTP with a sole HFS train. This facilitation of L-LTP was blocked by inhibiting either taurine uptake or D1R activation. Taurine and SKF38393 activated different signaling pathways to transform E-LTP into L-LTP. Taurine-induced L-LTP facilitation required MAPK activation, while D1R-agonist-induced facilitation depended mainly on PKA activation and partially on MAPK activation. On the other hand, the synergistic mechanisms induced by the cooperative action of taurine and SKF38393 were impaired by inhibitors against MAPK, PKA and PI3-K. This pharmacological profile resembles that displayed by L-LTP induced by three HFS trains at 10-min intervals. These results indicate that taurine uptake is necessary and cooperates with other neurotransmitter systems in the induction of L-LTP.

Anti-inflammatory mechanism of taurine against ischemic stroke is related to down-regulation of PARP and NF-κB.
            (Sun et al., 2012) Download
Taurine is reported to reduce tissue damage induced by inflammation and to protect the brain against experimental stroke. The objective of this study was to investigate whether taurine reduced ischemic brain damage through suppressing inflammation related to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) in a rat model of stroke. Rats received 2 h ischemia by intraluminal filament and were then reperfused. Taurine (50 mg/kg) was administered intravenously 1 h after ischemia. Treatment with taurine markedly reduced neurological deficits, lessened brain swelling, attenuated cell death, and decreased the infarct volume 72 h after ischemia. Our data showed the up-regulation of PARP and NF-κB p65 in cytosolic fractions in the core and nuclear fractions in the penumbra and core, and the increases in the nuclear poly (ADP-ribose) levels and the decreases in the intracellular NAD+ levels in the penumbra and core at 22 h of reperfusion; these changes were reversed by taurine. Moreover, taurine significantly reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and intracellular adhesion molecule-1, lessened the activities of myeloperoxidase and attenuated the infiltration of neutrophils in the penumbra and core at 22 h of reperfusion. These data demonstrate that suppressing the inflammatory reaction related to PARP and NF-κB-driven expression of inflammatory mediators may be one mechanism of taurine against ischemic stroke.


 

Protective effects of taurine against closed head injury in rats.
            (Sun et al., 2015) Download
Taurine, an abundant amino acid in the nervous system, is reported to reduce ischemic brain injury in a dose-dependent manner. This study was designed to investigate whether taurine protected the brain against closed head injury (CHI) in rats. Taurine was administered intravenously 30 min after CHI. It was found that taurine lessened body-weight loss and improved neurological functions at 7 days after CHI. Moreover, it lowered brain edema and blood-brain barrier permeability, enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase and the level of glutathione, and reduced levels of malondialdehyde and lactic acid in traumatic tissue 24 h after CHI. In addition, it attenuated neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields 7 days after CHI. All of these effects were dose dependent. These data demonstrated the dose-dependent protection of taurine against experimental CHI and suggest that taurine treatment might be beneficial in reducing trauma-induced oxidative damage to the brain, thus showing the potential for clinical implications.

Taurine Supplementation Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Vascular Function in Prehypertension: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.
            (Sun et al., 2016) Download
Taurine, the most abundant, semiessential, sulfur-containing amino acid, is well known to lower blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive animal models. However, no rigorous clinical trial has validated whether this beneficial effect of taurine occurs in human hypertension or prehypertension, a key stage in the development of hypertension. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of taurine intervention on BP and vascular function in prehypertension. We randomly assigned 120 eligible prehypertensive individuals to receive either taurine supplementation (1.6 g per day) or a placebo for 12 weeks. Taurine supplementation significantly decreased the clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs, especially in those with high-normal BP. Mean clinic systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 7.2/2.6 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 4.7/1.3 mm Hg. Mean ambulatory systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 3.8/0.3 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 3.5/0.6 mm Hg. In addition, taurine supplementation significantly improved endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation and increased plasma H2S and taurine concentrations. Furthermore, changes in BP were negatively correlated with both the plasma H2S and taurine levels in taurine-treated prehypertensive individuals. To further elucidate the hypotensive mechanism, experimental studies were performed both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that taurine treatment upregulated the expression of hydrogen sulfide-synthesizing enzymes and reduced agonist-induced vascular reactivity through the inhibition of transient receptor potential channel subtype 3-mediated calcium influx in human and mouse mesenteric arteries. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of chronic taurine supplementation shows promise in the treatment of prehypertension through improvement of vascular function.
Circulating Glutamate and Taurine Levels Are Associated with the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation.
            (Takano et al., 2016) Download
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, but its proarrhythmic mechanism remains to be elucidated. Glutamate (Glu) and taurine (Tau) are present in the myocardium at substantially higher concentrations than in the plasma, suggesting their active role in myocardium. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the metabolism of Glu and Tau is altered in association with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in patients with AF. Fifty patients with paroxysmal AF and 50 control subjects without a history of AF were consecutively enrolled. Circulating Glu and Tau levels were measured and correlations between Glu/Tau and ROS levels were examined. Glu/Tau content was significantly higher in patients with AF versus controls (Glu: 79.2 ± 23.9 versus 60.5 ± 25.2 nmol/L; Tau: 78.8 ± 19.8 versus 68.5 ± 20.8 nmol/L; mean ± standard deviation (SD), p < 0.001 for both). Glu/Tau levels also showed an independent association with AF by multiple logistic regression analysis. Glu and Tau levels both showed significant positive associations with plasma hydroperoxide concentrations. These data suggest a novel pathophysiological role of Glu and Tau in association with ROS production in paroxysmal AF, providing new insights into the elevated amino acid content in cardiac disease.

Taurine protects cerebellar neurons of the external granular layer against ethanol-induced apoptosis in 7-day-old mice.
            (Taranukhin et al., 2012) Download
Acute alcohol administration is harmful especially for the developing nervous system, where it induces massive apoptotic neurodegeneration leading to alcohol-related disorders of newborn infants. Neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis may save neurons and reduce the consequences of maternal alcohol consumption. Previously we have shown that taurine protects immature cerebellar neurons in the internal granular layer of cerebellum from ethanol-induced apoptosis. Now we describe a similar protective action for taurine in the external layer of cerebellum of 7-day-old mice. The mice were divided into three groups: ethanol-treated, ethanol + taurine-treated and controls. Ethanol (20% solution) was administered subcutaneously at a total dose of 5 g/kg (2.5 g/kg at time 0 h and 2.5 g/kg at 2 h) to the ethanol and ethanol + taurine groups. The ethanol + taurine group also received subcutaneously two injections of taurine (1 g/kg each, 1 h before the first dose of ethanol and 1 h after the second dose of ethanol). To verify apoptosis, immunostaining for activated caspase-3 and TUNEL staining were made in the mid-sagittal sections containing lobules I-X of the cerebellar vermis at 8 h after the first ethanol injection. Ethanol induced apoptosis in the cerebellar external granular layer. Taurine treatment significantly reduced the number of activated caspase-3-immunoreactive and TUNEL-positive cells. Taurine has thus a neuroprotective antiapoptotic action in the external granular layer of the cerebellum, preserving a number of neurons from ethanol-induced apoptosis.

Antinociceptive effect of intrathecal administration of taurine in rat models of neuropathic pain.
            (Terada et al., 2011) Download
PURPOSE:  Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in many tissues. Although taurine has been shown to be antinociceptive, in this report, our focus is to elucidate the mechanism and action site on neuropathic pain. This study used behavioural assessments to determine whether taurine attenuates neuropathic pain in the spinal cord. METHODS:  Chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve and streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy were introduced to male Sprague-Dawley rats. We then assessed the antinociceptive effect of spinal injections of taurine (100, 200, 400, or 800 μg) using electronic von Frey, paw pressure, and plantar tests. To explore the effect of taurine on motor function, a rotarod test was performed, and in order to determine which neurotransmitter pathway is involved in taurine's action, we examined how several antagonists of spinal pain processing receptors altered the effect of taurine 400 μg in a paw pressure test. RESULTS:  Taurine alleviated mechanical allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia, and thermal hyperalgesia in CCI rats and suppressed mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. Significant effects were observed at 200 μg in both models. On the other hand, taurine dose-dependently affected motor performance, and a significant effect was seen at 400 μg. The antinociceptive effects were reversed completely by pretreatment with an intrathecal injection of strychnine, a glycine receptor antagonist. CONCLUSION:  The present study demonstrated that intrathecal administration of taurine attenuates different models of neuropathic pain, and these effects seem to be mediated by the activation of glycinergic neurotransmission. These findings suggest that taurine may be a candidate remedy for neuropathic pain.

Increasing taurine intake and taurine synthesis improves skeletal muscle function in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
            (Terrill et al., 2016) Download
KEY POINTS:  Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress and myofibre necrosis. Cysteine precursor antioxidants such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) reduce dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD, and we propose this is via increased synthesis of the amino acid taurine. We compared the capacity of OTC and taurine treatment to increase taurine content of mdx muscle, as well as effects on in vivo and ex vivo muscle function, inflammation and oxidative stress. Both treatments increased taurine in muscles, and improved many aspects of muscle function and reduced inflammation. Taurine treatment also reduced protein thiol oxidation and was overall more effective, as OTC treatment reduced body and muscle weight, suggesting some adverse effects of this drug. These data suggest that increasing dietary taurine is a better candidate for a therapeutic intervention for DMD. ABSTRACT:  Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease for which there is no widely available cure. Whilst the mechanism of loss of muscle function in DMD and the mdx mouse model are not fully understood, disruptions in intracellular calcium homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress are implicated. We have shown that protein thiol oxidation is increased in mdx muscle, and that the indirect thiol antioxidant l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC), which increases cysteine availability, decreases pathology and increases in vivo strength. We propose that the protective effects of OTC are a consequence of conversion of cysteine to taurine, which has itself been shown to be beneficial to mdx pathology. This study compares the efficacy of taurine with OTC in decreasing dystropathology in mdx mice by measuring in vivo and ex vivo contractile function and measurements of inflammation and protein thiol oxidation. Increasing the taurine content of mdx muscle improved both in vivo and ex vivo muscle strength and function, potentially via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of taurine. OTC treatment increased taurine synthesis in the liver and taurine content of mdx muscle, improved muscle function and decreased inflammation. However, OTC was less effective than taurine treatment, with OTC also decreasing body and EDL muscle weights, suggesting that OTC had some detrimental effects. These data support continued research into the use of taurine as a therapeutic intervention for DMD, and suggest that increasing dietary taurine is the better strategy for increasing taurine content and decreasing severity of dystropathology.

Taurine Concentrations Decrease in Critically Ill Patients With Shock Given Enteral Nutrition.
            (Vermeulen et al., 2016) Download
BACKGROUND:  Nutrition studies in the intensive care unit (ICU) have shown that adequate enteral nutrition (EN) support has clinical benefits. However, the course of amino acid concentrations in plasma has never been investigated in patients admitted with shock receiving EN. We hypothesized that plasma concentrations, when deficit, increase during EN and that persistent deficiency is associated with poor outcome. METHODS:  In 33 septic or cardiogenic shock patients receiving EN, plasma amino acid concentrations were measured during 5 days. Changes in amino acid concentrations, correlations with clinical outcome variables, and regression analyses were studied. RESULTS:  On ICU admission, several plasma concentrations were deficient. Plasma concentrations of almost all amino acids increased. In contrast, taurine decreased by >50%, from 47.6 µmol/L on admission to 20.0 µmol/L at day 1, and remained low at day 5. Taurine (admission) correlated with time on mechanical ventilation (R = -0.42, P = .015). Taurine decrease within 24 hours correlated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II predicted mortality (R = 0.43, P = .017) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (R = 0.36, P = .05). Regression analyses confirmed correlations. CONCLUSIONS:  Several amino acids were deficient in plasma on ICU admission but increased during EN. Taurine concentrations declined and were associated with longer periods of mechanical ventilation and ICU support. Fast taurine decline correlated with severity of organ failure. These findings support the role of taurine during ischemia, reperfusion, and inflammation. Taurine may be an essential candidate to enrich nutrition support for critically ill patients, although more research is required.

Protective effects of taurine in traumatic brain injury via mitochondria and cerebral blood flow.
            (Wang et al., 2016) Download
In mammalian tissues, taurine is an important natural component and the most abundant free amino acid in the heart, retina, skeletal muscle, brain, and leukocytes. This study is to examine the taurine's protective effects on neuronal ultrastructure, the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, and on cerebral blood flow (CBF). The model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) was made for SD rats by a fluid percussion device, with taurine (200 mg/kg) administered by tail intravenous injection once daily for 7 days after TBI. It was found that CBF was improved for both left and right brain at 30 min and 7 days post-injury by taurine. Reaction time was prolonged relative to the TBI-only group. Neuronal damage was prevented by 7 days taurine. Mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I and II showed greater activity with the taurine group. The improvement by taurine of CBF may alleviate edema and elevation in intracranial pressure. Importantly taurine improved the hypercoagulable state.

Taurine supplementation reduces oxidative stress and protects the liver in an iron-overload murine model.
            (Zhang et al., 2014) Download
We previously demonstrated that iron overload induces liver damage by causing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taurine is a potent free radical scavenger that attenuates the damage caused by excessive oxygen free radicals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether taurine could reduce the hepatotoxicity of iron overload with regard to ROS production. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with iron 5 days/week for 13 weeks to achieve iron overload. It was found that iron overload resulted in liver dysfunction, increased apoptosis and elevated oxidative stress. Taurine supplementation increased liver taurine levels by 40% and led to improved liver function, as well as a reduction in apoptosis, ROS formation and mitochondrial swelling and an attenuation in the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Treatment with taurine mediated a reduction in oxidative stress in iron‑overloaded mice, attenuated liver lipid peroxidation, elevated antioxidant enzyme activities and maintained reduced glutathione levels. These results indicate that taurine reduces iron‑induced hepatic oxidative stress, preserves liver function and inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis. Therefore, taurine may be a potential therapeutic drug to reduce liver damage caused by iron overload.

Taurine induces the apoptosis of breast cancer cells by regulating apoptosis-related proteins of mitochondria.
            (Zhang et al., 2015) Download
Taurine (Tau), the most abundant free amino acid in humans has numerous potential health benefits through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, limited studies have assessed its effect on tumors and the antitumor mechanism remains unknown. The present study investigated the cellular and molecular changes induced by Tau, leading to the induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. MCF-7 is p53 proficient (p53+/+) and MDA-MB-231 is a p53 null mutant (p53-/-). Cell proliferation and viability were assessed by MTT. Flow cytometry and hoechst33342 fluorescent staining were employed to detect apoptosis. Spectrophotometry was used to detect caspase-3 activity. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect the levels of mRNA and proteins of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), Bax and Bcl-2. Finally, the affect of Tau on the growth of MDA-MB-231-cell-nude mice xenografts was examined. In the study, Tau inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of the two cell lines in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Notably, the inhibitory effect of Tau on p53-/- cancer cells was clearly significant compared to the p53+/+ cancer cells. Further studies showed that Tau promoted apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and inhibited the growth of tumor in nude mice by inducing the expression of PUMA, which further up- and downregulated the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 protein, giving rise to increased activation of caspase-3. Collectively, these results indicate that Tau is a potent candidate for the chemotherapy of breast cancer through increasing the PUMA expression independent of p53 status.

Taurine Pretreatment Prevents Isoflurane-Induced Cognitive Impairment by Inhibiting ER Stress-Mediated Activation of Apoptosis Pathways in the Hippocampus in Aged Rats.
            (Zhang et al., 2016) Download
Isoflurane, a commonly used inhalation anesthetic, may induce neurocognitive deficits, especially in elderly patients after surgery. Recent study demonstrated that isoflurane caused endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent neuronal apoptosis in the brain, contributing to cognitive deficits. Taurine, a major intracellular free amino acid, has been shown to inhibit ER stress and neuronal apoptosis in several neurological disorders. Here, we examined whether taurine can prevent isoflurane-induced ER stress and cognitive impairment in aged rats. Thirty minutes prior to a 4-h 1.3 % isoflurane exposure, aged rats were treated with vehicle or taurine at low, middle and high doses. Aged rats without any treatment served as control. The brains were harvested 6 h after isoflurane exposure for molecular measurements, and behavioral study was performed 2 weeks later. Compared with control, isoflurane increased expression of hippocampal ER stress biomarkers including glucose-regulated protein 78, phosphorylated (P-) inositol-requiring enzyme 1, P-eukaryotic initiation factor 2-α (EIF2α), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4), cleaved ATF-6 and C/EBP homologous protein, along with activation of apoptosis pathways as indicated by decreased B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2)/BCL2-associated X protein, increased expressions of cytochrome-c and cleaved caspase-3. Taurine pretreatment dose-dependently inhibited isoflurane-induced increase in expression of ER stress biomarkers except for P-EIF2α and ATF-4, and reversed isoflurane-induced changes in apoptosis-related proteins. Moreover, isoflurane caused spatial working memory deficits in aged rats, which were prevented by taurine pretreatment. The results indicate that taurine pretreatment prevents anesthetic isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment by inhibiting ER stress-mediated activation of apoptosis pathways in the hippocampus in aged rats.

Neuroprotective actions of taurine on hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats.
            (Zhu et al., 2016) Download
Taurine is an abundant amino acid in the nervous system, which has been proved to possess antioxidation, osmoregulation and membrane stabilization. Previously it has been demonstrated that taurine exerts ischemic brain injury protective effect. This study was designed to investigate whether the protective effect of taurine has the possibility to be applied to treat neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with left carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to 8% oxygen to generate the experimental group. The cerebral damage area was measured after taurine post-treatment with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, Hematoxyline-Eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), myeloperoxtidase (MPO), ATP and Lactic Acid productions were assayed with ipsilateral hemisphere homogenates. Western-blot and immunofluorescence assay were processed to detect the expressions of AIF, Cyt C, Bax, Bcl-2 in brain. We found that taurine significantly reduced brain infarct volume and ameliorated morphological injury obviously reversed the changes of SOD, MDA, GSH-Px, T-AOC, ATP, MPO, and Lactic Acid levels. Compared with hypoxic-ischemic group, it showed marked reduction of AIF, Cyt C and Bax expressions and increase of Bcl-2 after post-treatment. We conclude that taurine possesses an efficacious neuroprotective effect after cerebral hypoxic-ischemic damage in neonatal rats.

References
Su, Y, et al. (2014), ‘Taurine improves functional and histological outcomes and reduces inflammation in traumatic brain injury.’, Neuroscience, 266 56-65. PubMed: 24530657
Suárez, LM, et al. (2014), ‘Cooperation of taurine uptake and dopamine D1 receptor activation facilitates the induction of protein synthesis-dependent late LTP.’, Neuropharmacology, 79 101-11. PubMed: 24225198
Sun, M, et al. (2012), ‘Anti-inflammatory mechanism of taurine against ischemic stroke is related to down-regulation of PARP and NF-κB.’, Amino Acids, 42 (5), 1735-47. PubMed: 21409386
Sun, M, et al. (2015), ‘Protective effects of taurine against closed head injury in rats.’, J Neurotrauma, 32 (1), 66-74. PubMed: 23327111
Sun, Q, et al. (2016), ‘Taurine Supplementation Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Vascular Function in Prehypertension: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.’, Hypertension, 67 (3), 541-49. PubMed: 26781281
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Taranukhin, AG, et al. (2012), ‘Taurine protects cerebellar neurons of the external granular layer against ethanol-induced apoptosis in 7-day-old mice.’, Amino Acids, 43 (4), 1705-11. PubMed: 22383089
Terada, T, et al. (2011), ‘Antinociceptive effect of intrathecal administration of taurine in rat models of neuropathic pain.’, Can J Anaesth, 58 (7), 630-37. PubMed: 21512835
Terrill, JR, et al. (2016), ‘Increasing taurine intake and taurine synthesis improves skeletal muscle function in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.’, J Physiol, 594 (11), 3095-110. PubMed: 26659826
Vermeulen, MA, et al. (2016), ‘Taurine Concentrations Decrease in Critically Ill Patients With Shock Given Enteral Nutrition.’, JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 40 (2), 264-72. PubMed: 25587009
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Zhang, X, et al. (2015), ‘Taurine induces the apoptosis of breast cancer cells by regulating apoptosis-related proteins of mitochondria.’, Int J Mol Med, 35 (1), 218-26. PubMed: 25395275
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