Taurine Abstracts 2

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The effect of acute taurine ingestion on 3-km running performance in trained middle-distance runners
            (Balshaw et al., 2013) Download
Limited research examining the effect of taurine (TA) ingestion on human exercise performance exists. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute ingestion of 1,000 mg of TA on maximal 3-km time trial (3KTT) performance in trained middle-distance runners (MDR). Eight male MDR (mean +/- SD: age 19.9 +/- 1.2 years, body mass 69.4 +/- 6.6 kg, height 180.5 +/- 7.5 cm, 800 m personal best time 121.0 +/- 5.3 s) completed TA and placebo (PL) trials 1 week apart in a double-blind, randomised, crossover designed study. Participants consumed TA or PL in capsule form on arrival at the laboratory followed by a 2-h ingestion period. At the end of the ingestion period, participants commenced a maximal simulated 3KTT on a treadmill. Capillary blood lactate was measured pre- and post-3KTT. Expired gas, heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and split times were measured at 500-m intervals during the 3KTT. Ingestion of TA significantly improved 3KTT performance (TA 646.6 +/- 52.8 s and PL 658.5 +/- 58.2 s) (p = 0.013) equating to a 1.7 % improvement (range 0.34-4.24 %). Relative oxygen uptake, HR, RPE and blood lactate did not differ between conditions (p = 0.803, 0.364, 0.760 and 0.302, respectively). Magnitude-based inference results assessing the likeliness of a beneficial influence of TA were 99.3 %. However, the mechanism responsible for this improved performance is unclear. TA's potential influence on exercise metabolism may involve interaction with the muscle membrane, the coordination or the force production capability of involved muscles. Further research employing more invasive techniques may elucidate TA's role in improving maximal endurance performance.


 

The potential usefulness of taurine on diabetes mellitus and its complications.
            (Ito et al., 2012) Download
Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a free amino acid found ubiquitously in millimolar concentrations in all mammalian tissues. Taurine exerts a variety of biological actions, including antioxidation, modulation of ion movement, osmoregulation, modulation of neurotransmitters, and conjugation of bile acids, which may maintain physiological homeostasis. Recently, data is accumulating that show the effectiveness of taurine against diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and its complications, including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, atherosclerosis and cardiomyopathy, independent of hypoglycemic effect in several animal models. The useful effects appear due to the multiple actions of taurine on cellular functions. This review summarizes the beneficial effects of taurine supplementation on diabetes mellitus and the molecular mechanisms underlying its effectiveness.

The effect of taurine on chronic heart failure: actions of taurine against catecholamine and angiotensin II.
            (Ito et al., 2014) Download
Taurine, a ubiquitous endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid, possesses numerous pharmacological and physiological actions, including antioxidant activity, modulation of calcium homeostasis and antiapoptotic effects. There is mounting evidence supporting the utility of taurine as a pharmacological agent against heart disease, including chronic heart failure (CHF). In the past decade, angiotensin II blockade and beta-adrenergic inhibition have served as the mainstay in the treatment of CHF. Both groups of pharmaceutical agents decrease mortality and improve the quality of life, a testament to the critical role of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin--angiotensin system in the development of CHF. Taurine has also attracted attention because it has beneficial actions in CHF, in part by its demonstrated inhibition of the harmful actions of the neurohumoral factors. In this review, we summarize the beneficial actions of taurine in CHF, focusing on its antagonism of the catecholamines and angiotensin II.


 

Taurine as the nutritional factor for the longevity of the Japanese revealed by a world-wide epidemiological survey.
            (Yamori et al., 2009) Download
The initial observation that taurine (T) prevented stroke in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) led us to study the effects of T on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), as well as the epidemiological association of T and mortality rates, by using the data from WHO-coordinated Cardiovascular Disease and Alimentary Comparison Study, which covered 61 populations in 25 countries. In this study, 24 hour urine (24-U) samples were examined along with biomarkers of CVD risk. The mortality rate from ischemic heart disease (IHD), which was lowest among the Japanese compared to the populations of other developed countries, was positively related to total serum cholesterol (TC) and inversely related to 24-U taurine excretion (24-UT), as well as the n-3 fatty acid to total phospholipids ratio of the plasma membrane, both biomarkers of seafood intake. Analysis of 5 diet-related factors revealed that TC and BMI were positively associated with IHD mortality in both genders while Mg and T were negatively associated with IHD mortality. TC and sodium (Na) were negatively and positively associated with stroke mortality, respectively. 24-UT was negatively associated with stroke mortality. These five diet-related factors explained 61 and 49% of IHD and stroke variances in male, 63 and 36% of IHD and stroke variances in female, respectively.

 


 

References

Balshaw, T. G., et al. (2013), ‘The effect of acute taurine ingestion on 3-km running performance in trained middle-distance runners’, Amino Acids, 44 (2), 555-61. PubMedID: 22855206
Ito, T, SW Schaffer, and J Azuma (2012), ‘The potential usefulness of taurine on diabetes mellitus and its complications.’, Amino Acids, 42 (5), 1529-39. PubMedID: 21437784
Ito, T, S Schaffer, and J Azuma (2014), ‘The effect of taurine on chronic heart failure: actions of taurine against catecholamine and angiotensin II.’, Amino Acids, 46 (1), 111-19. PubMedID: 23722414
Yamori, Y, et al. (2009), ‘Taurine as the nutritional factor for the longevity of the Japanese revealed by a world-wide epidemiological survey.’, Adv Exp Med Biol, 643 13-25. PubMedID: 19239132