Sweating Abstracts 1

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Drug residues store in the body following cessation of use: impacts on neuroendocrine balance and behavior--use of the Hubbard sauna regimen to remove toxins and restore health.
            (Cecchini and LoPresti, 2007) Download
For decades, scientists have investigated the environmental and human health effects of synthetic chemicals. A growing body of research has illuminated the spectrum of consequences deriving from our reliance these substances and their proliferation in air, water, soil and the food chain. Of particular concern is the fact that residues of many man-made chemicals are now detectible in virtually every person. A key to a chemical's tendency to persist in tissues once it has entered the body is its lipophilicity. Substances that are poorly soluble in water and quite soluble in fat have relatively free access, via lipid-rich cellular membranes, to the cells of all organs including the ability to cross the blood-brain and placental barriers. Substantial data exist demonstrating that in addition to pollutants, drugs and their metabolites dispose to tissues high in fat content, including brain and adipose. While their characteristic lipophilicity permits drugs and medications to reach target tissues, thereby producing therapeutic effects in the present, current perceptions of risk may be ignoring the possibility that adipose accumulations of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals may lead to future patterns of ill health similar to those associated with exposure to other categories of xenobiotic chemicals. Empirical data are beginning to characterize the myriad regulatory functions of adipose hormones, including roles in cravings, cognitive function, energy level, and inflammation as well as changes in adipose hormone levels associated with drug use. Included in this data are the observation that a rehabilitative treatment intervention introduced by L. Ron Hubbard in 1978 to aid in the broad elimination of chemicals from body stores improves symptoms common to both chemical exposure and drug addiction. The regimen, which includes exercise, sauna bathing, and vitamin and mineral supplementation, is utilized by nearly 70 drug rehabilitation and medical practices in over 20 countries. At present, much more is unknown than is known regarding long-term drug retention and effects. This subject deserves careful evaluation given its potential implications for health and chronic illnesses of poorly defined etiology (such as chronic fatigue syndrome), as well as drug abuse prevention, drug rehabilitation, forensic and legal areas.


 

Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.
            (Genuis et al., 2013) Download
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body.

Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.
            (Genuis et al., 2016) Download
Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

Human Excretion of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Flame Retardants: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.
            (Genuis et al., 2017) Download
Commonly used as flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely detected in the environment, animals, and humans. Although these persistent organic pollutants are increasingly recognized as having serious health implications, particularly for children, this is the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate an intervention for human elimination of bioaccumulated PBDEs. Objectives. To determine the efficacy of blood, urine, and perspiration as PBDE biomonitoring mediums; assess excretion of five common PBDE congeners (28, 47, 99, 100, and 153) in urine and perspiration; and explore the potential of induced sweating for decreasing bioaccumulated PBDEs. Results. PBDE congeners were not found in urine samples; findings focus on blood and perspiration. 80% of participants tested positive in one or more body fluids for PBDE 28, 100% for PBDE 47, 95% for PBDE 99, and 90% for PBDE 100 and PBDE 153. Induced perspiration facilitated excretion of the five congeners, with different rates of excretion for different congeners. Conclusion. Blood testing provides only a partial understanding of human PBDE bioaccumulation; testing of both blood and perspiration provides a better understanding. This study provides important baseline evidence for regular induced perspiration as a potential means for therapeutic PBDE elimination. Fetotoxic and reproductive effects of PBDE exposure highlight the importance of further detoxification research.

The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects.
            (Gryka et al., 2014) Download
OBJECTIVES:  The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. MATERIAL AND METHODS:  Sixteen male subjects (20-23 years) were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5-16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mass, heart rate, body skinfold thickness. The percentage fat content and then, the lean body mass were calculated. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, lipoprotein cholesterol LDL and HDL were measured in blood samples. RESULTS:  A statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was observed during 3 weeks of sauna treatment and in the week afterwards. A significant decline in triacylglycerols was found directly after the 1st and 24 h directly after the 10th sauna session. After the 10th sauna session the level of HDL cholesterol remained slightly increased, but this change was not statistically significant. A decrease in blood plasma volume was found directly after the 1st and the last sauna bathing session due to perspiration. An adaptive increase in blood plasma volume was also found after the series of 10 sauna sessions. CONCLUSIONS:  Ten complete sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna caused a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol fraction levels during the sessions and a gradual return of these levels to the initial level during the 1st and the 2nd week after the experiment. A small, statistically insignificant increase in HDL-C level and a transient decline in triacylglycerols were observed after those sauna sessions. The positive effect of sauna on lipid profile is similar to the effect that can be obtained through a moderate-intensity physical exercise.

Atomic absorption spectrometry of nickel, copper, zinc, and lead in sweat collected from healthy subjects during sauna bathing.
            (Hohnadel et al., 1973) Download
Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in sweat samples obtained by the arm-bag technique from 48 healthy adult subjects (33 a” , 15 ) during sauna bathing (15 mm at 93 #(Hohnadel et al., 1973)rCy, heat). The men sweated more profusely than the women (volume, in milliliters, of sweat collected: mean, SD, and range: 23 ± 12 (3- 55) and 7 ± 3 (2-13), respectively. The concentrations, in pg/liter, (mean, SD, and range) of trace metals in sweat of men and women, respectively, were: nickel, 52 ± 36 (7-180) and 131 ± 65 (39- 270); copper, 550 ± 350 (30-1440) and 1480 ± 610 (590-2280); zinc, 500 ± 480 (130-1460) and 1250 ± 770 (530-2620); and lead, 51 ± 42 (8-184) and 118 ± 72 (49-283). In sweat samples from 11 women on oral contraceptives, concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb did not differ significantly from the values in the 15 control women. Sweating is a demonstrably significant route for excretion of trace metals, and sweating may play a role in trace-metal homeostasis. Essential trace metals could conceivably be depleted during prolonged exposure to heat; conversely, sauna bathing might provide a therapeu- tic method to increase elimination of toxic trace metals.

Health effects and risks of sauna bathing.
            (Kukkonen-Harjula and Kauppinen, 2006) Download
OBJECTIVES:  To study physiological, therapeutic and adverse effects of sauna bathing with special reference to chronic diseases, medication and special situations (pregnancy, children). STUDY DESIGN:  A literature review. METHODS:  Experiments of sauna bathing were accepted if they were conducted in a heated room with sufficient heat (80 to 90 degrees C), comfortable air humidity and adequate ventilation. The sauna exposure for five to 20 minutes was usually repeated one to three times. The experiments were either acute (one day), or conducted over a longer period (several months). RESULTS:  The research data retrieved were most often based on uncontrolled research designs with subjects accustomed to bathing since childhood. Sauna was well tolerated and posed no health risks to healthy people from childhood to old age. Baths did not appear to be particularly risky to patients with hypertension, coronary heart disease and congestive heart failure, when they were medicated and in a stable condition. Excepting toxemia cases, no adverse effects of bathing during pregnancy were found, and baths were not teratogenic. In musculoskeletal disorders, baths may relieve pain. Medication in general was of no concern during a bath, apart from antihypertensive medication, which may predispose to orthostatic hypotension after bathing. CONCLUSIONS:  Further research is needed with sound experimental design, and with subjects not accustomed to sauna, before sauna bathing can routinely be used as a non-pharmacological treatment regimen in certain medical disorders to relieve symptoms and improve wellness.

Association between sauna bathing and fatal cardiovascular and all-cause mortality events.
            (Laukkanen et al., 2015) Download
IMPORTANCE:  Sauna bathing is a health habit associated with better hemodynamic function; however, the association of sauna bathing with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality is not known. OBJECTIVE:  To investigate the association of frequency and duration of sauna bathing with the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), fatal coronary heart disease (CHD), fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all-cause mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:  We performed a prospective cohort study (Finnish Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study) of a population-based sample of 2315 middle-aged (age range, 42-60 years) men from Eastern Finland. Baseline examinations were conducted from March 1, 1984, through December 31, 1989. EXPOSURES:  Frequency and duration of sauna bathing assessed at baseline. RESULTS:  During a median follow-up of 20.7 years (interquartile range, 18.1-22.6 years), 190 SCDs, 281 fatal CHDs, 407 fatal CVDs, and 929 all-cause mortality events occurred. A total of 601, 1513, and 201 participants reported having a sauna bathing session 1 time per week, 2 to 3 times per week, and 4 to 7 times per week, respectively. The numbers (percentages) of SCDs were 61 (10.1%), 119 (7.8%), and 10 (5.0%) in the 3 groups of the frequency of sauna bathing. The respective numbers were 89 (14.9%), 175 (11.5%), and 17 (8.5%) for fatal CHDs; 134 (22.3%), 249 (16.4%), and 24 (12.0%) for fatal CVDs; and 295 (49.1%), 572 (37.8%), and 62 (30.8%) for all-cause mortality events. After adjustment for CVD risk factors, compared with men with 1 sauna bathing session per week, the hazard ratio of SCD was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.57-1.07) for 2 to 3 sauna bathing sessions per week and 0.37 (95% CI, 0.18-0.75) for 4 to 7 sauna bathing sessions per week (P for trend = .005). Similar associations were found with CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality (P for trend ≤.005). Compared with men having a sauna bathing session of less than 11 minutes, the adjusted hazard ratio for SCD was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.67-1.28) for sauna bathing sessions of 11 to 19 minutes and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.31-0.75) for sessions lasting more than 19 minutes (P for trend = .002); significant inverse associations were also observed for fatal CHDs and fatal CVDs (P for trend ≤.03) but not for all-cause mortality events. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:  Increased frequency of sauna bathing is associated with a reduced risk of SCD, CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality. Further studies are warranted to establish the potential mechanism that links sauna bathing and cardiovascular health.

Sauna bathing is inversely associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease in middle-aged Finnish men.
            (Laukkanen et al., 2017) Download
Background:  there are no previous studies linking repeated heat exposure of sauna and the risk of memory diseases. We aimed to investigate whether frequency of sauna bathing is associated with risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Setting:  prospective population-based study. Methods:  the frequency of sauna bathing was assessed at baseline in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease population-based prospective cohort study of 2,315 apparently healthy men aged 42-60 years at baseline, with baseline examinations conducted between 1984 and 1989. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dementia and Alzheimer's disease were ascertained using Cox-regression modelling with adjustment for potential confounders. Results:  during a median follow-up of 20.7 (interquartile range 18.1-22.6) years, a total of 204 and 123 diagnosed cases of dementia and Alzheimer's disease were respectively recorded. In analysis adjusted for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, Type 2 diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, resting heart rate and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, compared with men with only 1 sauna bathing session per week, the HR for dementia was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.57-1.06) for 2-3 sauna bathing sessions per week and 0.34 (95% CI: 0.16-0.71) for 4-7 sauna bathing sessions per week. The corresponding HRs for Alzheimer's disease were 0.80 (95% CI: 0.53-1.20) and 0.35 (95% CI: 0.14-0.90). Conclusion:  in this male population, moderate to high frequency of sauna bathing was associated with lowered risks of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Further studies are warranted to establish the potential mechanisms linking sauna bathing and memory diseases.

Effect of a single finnish sauna session on white blood cell profile and cortisol levels in athletes and non-athletes.
            (Pilch et al., 2013) Download
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Finnish sauna bathing on a white blood cell profile, cortisol levels and selected physiological indices in athletes and non-athletes. The study evaluated 9 trained middle-distance runners and 9 male non-athletes. The subjects from both groups participated in 15-minute sauna sessions until their core temperature rose by 1.2°C (mean temperature in the sauna room was 96° ± 2°C; relative humidity was 15 ± 3%) with a 2 minute cool down with water at a temperature of 19-20°C. Body mass was measured before and after the session and blood samples were taken for tests. Rectal temperature was monitored at five-minute intervals during the whole session. Serum total protein, haematological indices and cortisol levels were determined. Sauna bathing caused higher body mass loss and plasma volume in the athletes compared to the group of non-athletes. After the sauna session, an increased number of white blood cells, lymphocyte, neutrophil and basophil counts was reported in the white blood cell profile. Higher increments in leukocyte and monocyte after the sauna bathing session were recorded in the group of athletes compared to untrained subjects. The obtained results indicated that sauna bathing stimulated the immune system to a higher degree in the group of athletes compared to the untrained subjects.

 

Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in sweat: a systematic review.
            (Sears et al., 2012) Download
Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposures are ubiquitous. These toxic elements have no physiological benefits, engendering interest in minimizing body burden. The physiological process of sweating has long been regarded as "cleansing" and of low risk. Reports of toxicant levels in sweat were sought in Medline, Embase, Toxline, Biosis, and AMED as well as reference lists and grey literature, from inception to March 22, 2011. Of 122 records identified, 24 were included in evidence synthesis. Populations, and sweat collection methods and concentrations varied widely. In individuals with higher exposure or body burden, sweat generally exceeded plasma or urine concentrations, and dermal could match or surpass urinary daily excretion. Arsenic dermal excretion was severalfold higher in arsenic-exposed individuals than in unexposed controls. Cadmium was more concentrated in sweat than in blood plasma. Sweat lead was associated with high-molecular-weight molecules, and in an interventional study, levels were higher with endurance compared with intensive exercise. Mercury levels normalized with repeated saunas in a case report. Sweating deserves consideration for toxic element detoxification. Research including appropriately sized trials is needed to establish safe, effective therapeutic protocols.

Sauna Bathing and Incident Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study.
            (Zaccardi et al., 2017) Download
BACKGROUND:  Sauna bathing is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect are not entirely understood. We aimed to assess the relationship between sauna bathing and risk of incident hypertension. METHODS:  Frequency of sauna bathing was ascertained using questionnaires in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Study, a prospective cohort study conducted in Eastern Finland that comprised a population-based sample of 1,621 men aged 42 to 60 years without hypertension at baseline. The incidence of hypertension was defined as a physician diagnosis of hypertension, systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure >90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication. RESULTS:  During a median follow-up of 24.7 years, 251 incident cases (15.5%) were recorded. In Cox regression analysis adjusted for baseline age, smoking, body mass index, and SBP; compared to participants reporting 1 sauna session per week, the hazard ratio for incident hypertension in participants reporting 2 to 3 sessions and 4 to 7 sessions was 0.76 (95% confidence interval: 0.57-1.02) and 0.54 (0.32-0.91), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios were similar after further adjustment for glucose, creatinine, alcohol consumption, heart rate, family history of hypertension, socioeconomic status, and cardiorespiratory fitness: 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.59-1.18) and 0.53 (0.28-0.98), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:  Regular sauna bathing is associated with reduced risk of hypertension, which may be a mechanism underlying the decreased cardiovascular risk associated with sauna use. Further epidemiological and experimental studies could help elucidate the effects of sauna bathing on cardiovascular function.

 


References

Cecchini, M and V LoPresti (2007), ‘Drug residues store in the body following cessation of use: impacts on neuroendocrine balance and behavior--use of the Hubbard sauna regimen to remove toxins and restore health.’, Med Hypotheses, 68 (4), 868-79. PubMed: 17045758
Genuis, SJ, S Beesoon, and D Birkholz (2013), ‘Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.’, ISRN Toxicol, 2013 483832. PubMed: 24083032
Genuis, SJ, K Lane, and D Birkholz (2016), ‘Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.’, Biomed Res Int, 2016 1624643. PubMed: 27800487
Genuis, SK, D Birkholz, and SJ Genuis (2017), ‘Human Excretion of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Flame Retardants: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.’, Biomed Res Int, 2017 3676089. PubMed: 28373979
Gryka, D, et al. (2014), ‘The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects.’, Int J Occup Med Environ Health, 27 (4), 608-18. PubMed: 25001587
Hohnadel, DC, et al. (1973), ‘Atomic absorption spectrometry of nickel, copper, zinc, and lead in sweat collected from healthy subjects during sauna bathing.’, Clin Chem, 19 (11), 1288-92. PubMed: 4758604
Kukkonen-Harjula, K and K Kauppinen (2006), ‘Health effects and risks of sauna bathing.’, Int J Circumpolar Health, 65 (3), 195-205. PubMed: 16871826
Laukkanen, T, et al. (2015), ‘Association between sauna bathing and fatal cardiovascular and all-cause mortality events.’, JAMA Intern Med, 175 (4), 542-48. PubMed: 25705824
Laukkanen, T, et al. (2017), ‘Sauna bathing is inversely associated with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in middle-aged Finnish men.’, Age Ageing, 46 (2), 245-49. PubMed: 27932366
Pilch, W, et al. (2013), ‘Effect of a single finnish sauna session on white blood cell profile and cortisol levels in athletes and non-athletes.’, J Hum Kinet, 39 127-35. PubMed: 24511348
Sears, ME, KJ Kerr, and RI Bray (2012), ‘Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in sweat: a systematic review.’, J Environ Public Health, 2012 184745. PubMed: 22505948
Zaccardi, F, et al. (2017), ‘Sauna Bathing and Incident Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study.’, Am J Hypertens, PubMed: 28633297