Sulforaphane Abstracts 1

© 2011

Broccoli, PTEN deletion and prostate cancer: where is the link?

            (Appendino and Bardelli 2010) Download

The concept that vegetables and fruits are relevant sources of cancer-preventive substances is strongly supported by population studies. Among others, cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts are thought to affect the development of various types of cancers and especially prostate tumors. Yet, the identification of the molecular mechanisms by which the 'active' compounds contained in these vegetables mediate their anticancer activity has historically lagged behind. Accordingly, direct laboratory evidence of how individual nutrients affect cancer genes and the pathways they control remains the major obstacle to progress in this research field. Here we review a recent report investigating the interaction between sulforaphane, a dietary isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, and expression of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene in pre malignant prostate tissue.

Sulforaphane induces cell cycle arrest by protecting RB-E2F-1 complex in epithelial ovarian cancer cells

            (Bryant, Kumar et al. 2010) Download

BACKGROUND: Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate phytochemical present predominantly in cruciferous vegetables such as brussels sprout and broccoli, is considered a promising chemo-preventive agent against cancer. In-vitro exposure to SFN appears to result in the induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in a variety of tumor types. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the inhibition of cell cycle progression by SFN are poorly understood in epithelial ovarian cancer cells (EOC). The aim of this study is to understand the signaling mechanisms through which SFN influences the cell growth and proliferation in EOC. RESULTS: SFN at concentrations of 5-20 microM induced a dose-dependent suppression of growth in cell lines MDAH 2774 and SkOV-3 with an IC50 of ~8 microM after a 3 day exposure. Combination treatment with chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel, resulted in additive growth suppression. SFN at ~8 microM decreased growth by 40% and 20% on day 1 in MDAH 2774 and SkOV-3, respectively. Cells treated with cytotoxic concentrations of SFN have reduced cell migration and increased apoptotic cell death via an increase in Bak/Bcl-2 ratio and cleavage of procaspase-9 and poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP). Gene expression profile analysis of cell cycle regulated proteins demonstrated increased levels of tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein (RB) and decreased levels of E2F-1 transcription factor. SFN treatment resulted in G1 cell cycle arrest through down modulation of RB phosphorylation and by protecting the RB-E2F-1 complex. CONCLUSIONS: SFN induces growth arrest and apoptosis in EOC cells. Inhibition of retinoblastoma (RB) phosphorylation and reduction in levels of free E2F-1 appear to play an important role in EOC growth arrest.

Multi-targeted prevention of cancer by sulforaphane

            (Clarke, Dashwood et al. 2008) Download

Isothiocyanates are found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and cabbage. Epidemiologic studies suggest that cruciferous vegetable intake may lower overall cancer risk, including colon and prostate cancer. Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables and is especially high in broccoli and broccoli sprouts. SFN has proved to be an effective chemoprotective agent in cell culture, carcinogen-induced and genetic animal cancer models, as well as in xenograft models of cancer. Early research focused on the "blocking activity" of SFN via Phase 2 enzyme induction, as well as inhibition of enzymes involved in carcinogen activation, but there has been growing interest in other mechanisms of chemoprotection by SFN. Recent studies suggest that SFN offers protection against tumor development during the "post-initiation" phase and mechanisms for suppression effects of SFN, including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction are of particular interest. In humans, a key factor in determining the efficacy of SFN as a chemoprevention agent is gaining an understanding of the metabolism, distribution and bioavailability of SFN and the factors that alter these parameters. This review discusses the established anti-cancer properties of SFN, with an emphasis on the possible chemoprevention mechanisms. The current status of SFN in human clinical trials also is included, with consideration of the chemistry, metabolism, absorption and factors influencing SFN bioavailability.

Differential effects of sulforaphane on histone deacetylases, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in normal prostate cells versus hyperplastic and cancerous prostate cells

            (Clarke, Hsu et al. 2011) Download

Scope: Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli. The ability of SFN to inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes may be one mechanism by which it acts as a chemoprevention agent. The ability of a chemopreventive agent to specifically cause cytotoxicity in cancer and not normal cells is an important factor in determining its safety and clinical relevance. Methods and results: We characterized the effects of SFN in normal (PrEC), benign hyperplasia (BPH1) and cancerous (LnCap and PC3) prostate epithelial cells. We observed that 15 muM SFN selectively induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in BPH1, LnCap and PC3 cells but not PrEC cells. SFN treatment also selectively decreased HDAC activity, and Class I and II HDAC proteins, increased acetylated histone H3 at the promoter for P21, induced p21 expression and increased tubulin acetylation in prostate cancer cells. HDAC6 over-expression was able to reverse SFN-induced cyotoxicity. In PrEC cells, SFN caused only a transient reduction in HDAC activity with no change in any other endpoints tested. The differences in sensitivity to SFN in PrEC and PC3 are likely not due to differences in SFN metabolism or differences in phase 2 enzyme induction. Conclusion: SFN exerts differential effects on cell proliferation, HDAC activity and downstream targets in normal and cancer cells.

Sulforaphane improves cognitive function administered following traumatic brain injury

            (Dash, Zhao et al. 2009) Download

Recent studies have shown that sulforaphane, a naturally occurring compound that is found in cruciferous vegetables, offers cellular protection in several models of brain injury. When administered following traumatic brain injury (TBI), sulforaphane has been demonstrated to attenuate blood-brain barrier permeability and reduce cerebral edema. These beneficial effects of sulforaphane have been shown to involve induction of a group of cytoprotective, Nrf2-driven genes, whose protein products include free radical scavenging and detoxifying enzymes. However, the influence of sulforaphane on post-injury cognitive deficits has not been examined. In this study, we examined if sulforaphane, when administered following cortical impact injury, can improve the performance of rats tested in hippocampal- and prefrontal cortex-dependent tasks. Our results indicate that sulforaphane treatment improves performance in the Morris water maze task (as indicated by decreased latencies during learning and platform localization during a probe trial) and reduces working memory dysfunction (tested using the delayed match-to-place task). These behavioral improvements were only observed when the treatment was initiated 1h, but not 6h, post-injury. These studies support the use of sulforaphane in the treatment of TBI, and extend the previously observed protective effects to include enhanced cognition.

Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HT29 human colon cancer cells

            (Gamet-Payrastre, Li et al. 2000) Download

Sulforaphane is an isothiocyanate that is present naturally in widely consumed vegetables and has a particularly high concentration in broccoli. This compound has been shown to block the formation of tumors initiated by chemicals in the rat. Although sulforaphane has been proposed to modulate the metabolism of carcinogens, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that sulforaphane inhibits the reinitiation of growth and decreases the cellular viability of quiescent human colon carcinoma cells (HT29). Moreover, the weak effect observed on differentiated CaCo2 cells suggests a specific anticancer activity for this compound. Here we investigated the effect of sulforaphane on the growth and viability of HT29 cells during their exponentially growing phase. We observed that sulforaphane induced a cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner, followed by cell death. This sulforaphane-induced cell cycle arrest was correlated with an increased expression of cyclins A and B1. Moreover, we clearly demonstrated that sulforaphane induced cell death via an apoptotic process. Indeed, a large proportion of treated cells display the following: (a) translocation of phosphatidylserine from the inner layer to the outer layer of the plasma membrane; (b) typical chromatin condensation; and (c) ultrastructural modifications related to apoptotic cell death. We also showed that the expression of p53 was not changed in sulforaphane-treated cells. In contrast, whereas bcl-2 was not detected, we observed increased expression of the proapoptotic protein bax, the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol, and the proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that in addition to the activation of detoxifying enzymes, induction of apoptosis is also involved in the sulforaphane-associated chemoprevention of cancer.

Sulforaphane destabilizes the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells by inactivating histone deacetylase 6

            (Gibbs, Schwartzman et al. 2009) Download

High consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer in epidemiological studies. There is preliminary evidence that sulforaphane, derived from glucoraphanin found in a number of crucifers, may prevent and induce regression of prostate cancer and other malignancies in preclinical models, but the mechanisms that may explain these effects are not fully defined. Recent reports show that sulforaphane may impair prostate cancer growth through inhibition of histone deacetylases, which are up-regulated in cancer. Indeed, one of these enzymes, histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), influences the acetylation state of a key androgen receptor (AR) chaperone, HSP90. AR is the central signaling pathway in prostate cancer, and its inhibition is used for both prevention and treatment of this disease. However, it is not known whether the effects of sulforaphane involve suppression of AR. We hypothesized that sulforaphane treatment would lead to hyperacetylation of HSP90 and that this would destabilize AR and attenuate AR signaling. We confirmed this by demonstrating that sulforaphane enhances HSP90 acetylation, thereby inhibiting its association with AR. Moreover, AR is subsequently degraded in the proteasome, which leads to reduced AR target gene expression and reduced AR occupancy at its target genes. Finally, sulforaphane inhibits HDAC6 deacetylase activity, and the effects of sulforaphane on AR protein are abrogated by overexpression of HDAC6 and mimicked by HDAC6 siRNA. The inactivation by sulforaphane of HDAC6-mediated HSP90 deacetylation and consequent attenuation of AR signaling represents a newly defined mechanism that may help explain this agent's effects in prostate cancer.

Sulforaphane inhibits constitutive and interleukin-6-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in prostate cancer cells

            (Hahm and Singh 2010) Download

D,L-sulforaphane (SFN), a synthetic analogue of broccoli-derived L-isomer, inhibits viability of human prostate cancer cells and prevents development of prostate cancer and distant site metastasis in a transgenic mouse model. However, the mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of SFN is not fully understood. We now show that SFN inhibits constitutive and interleukin-6 (IL-6)-inducible activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is an oncogenic transcription factor activated in many human malignancies, including prostate cancer. Growth-suppressive concentrations of SFN (20 and 40 micromol/L) decreased constitutive (DU145 cells) and IL-6-induced (DU145 and LNCaP cells) phosphorylation of STAT3 (Tyr(705)) as well as its upstream regulator Janus-activated kinase 2 (Tyr(1007/1008)). Exposure of DU145 and LNCaP cells to SFN resulted in suppression of (a) IL-6-induced transcriptional activity of STAT3 as judged by luciferase reporter assay and (b) nuclear translocation of phospho-STAT3 as revealed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Levels of many STAT3-regulated gene products, including Bcl-2, cyclin D1, and survivin, were also reduced in SFN-treated cells. The IL-6-mediated activation of STAT3 conferred partial but marked protection against SFN-induced apoptosis as evidenced by cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and procaspase-3. Furthermore, knockdown of STAT3 protein using small interfering RNA resulted in a modest yet statistically significant increase in SFN-induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation in DU145 cells. Suppression of STAT3 activation was also observed in cells treated with naturally occurring analogues of SFN. In conclusion, the present study indicates that inhibition of STAT3 partially contributes to the proapoptotic effect of SFN.


Inactivation of Tautomerase Activity of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor by Sulforaphane: a Potential Biomarker for Anti-inflammatory Intervention

            (Healy, Liu et al. 2010) Download

BACKGROUND: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine with keto-enol tautomerase activity, rises rapidly in response to inflammation and is elevated in many chronic diseases. Isothiocyanates, such as sulforaphane from broccoli, are very potent inactivators of MIF tautomerase activity. A simple rapid method for determining this activity in tissues and body fluids may therefore be valuable for assessing severity of inflammation and efficacy of intervention. METHODS: Existing spectrophotometric assays of MIF, based on conversion of methyl L-dopachrome to methyl 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylate and associated loss of absorption at 475 nm, lack sensitivity. Assay sensitivity and efficiency were markedly improved by reducing the nonenzymatic rate, by lowering pH to 6.2, replacing phosphate (which catalyzes the reaction) with Bis-Tris buffer, and converting to a microtiter plate format. RESULTS: A structure-potency study of MIF tautomerase inactivation by isothiocyanates showed that sulforaphane, benzyl, n-hexyl, and phenethyl isothiocyanates were especially potent. MIF tautomerase could be readily quantified in human urine concentrated by ultrafiltration. This activity comprised: (i) a heat-labile, sulforaphane-inactivated macromolecular fraction (presumably MIF) that was concentrated during ultrafiltration; (ii) a flow-through fraction, with constant activity during filtration, that was heat stable and insensitive to sulforaphane. Administration of the sulforaphane precursor glucoraphanin to human volunteers almost completely abolished urinary tautomerase activity, which recovered over many hours. CONCLUSION: A simple, rapid, quantitative MIF tautomerase assay has been developed as a potential biomarker for assessing inflammatory severity and effectiveness of intervention. Impact: An improved assay for measuring MIF tautomerase activity and its applications are described. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 20(7); 1516-23. (c)2011 AACR.

Dietary sulforaphane, a histone deacetylase inhibitor for cancer prevention

            (Ho, Clarke et al. 2009) Download

The reversible acetylation of histones is an important mechanism of gene regulation. During prostate cancer progression, specific modifications in acetylation patterns on histones are apparent. Targeting the epigenome, including the use of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, is a novel strategy for cancer chemoprevention. Recently, drugs classified as HDAC inhibitors have shown promise in cancer clinical trials. We have previously found that sulforaphane (SFN), a compound found in cruciferous vegetables, inhibits HDAC activity in human colorectal and prostate cancer cells. Based on the similarity of SFN metabolites and other phytochemicals to known HDAC inhibitors, we previously demonstrated that sulforaphane acted as an HDAC inhibitor in the prostate, causing enhanced histone acetylation, derepression of P21 and Bax, and induction of cell cycle arrest/apoptosis, leading to cancer prevention. The ability of SFN to target aberrant acetylation patterns, in addition to effects on phase 2 enzymes, may make it an effective chemoprevention agent. These studies are important because of the potential to qualify or change recommendations for high-risk prostate cancer patients and thereby increase their survival through simple dietary choices incorporating easily accessible foods into their diets. These studies also will provide a strong scientific foundation for future large-scale human clinical intervention studies.

D,L-Sulforaphane causes transcriptional repression of androgen receptor in human prostate cancer cells

            (Kim and Singh 2009) Download

D,L-Sulforaphane (SFN), a synthetic analogue of cruciferous vegetable-derived L-isomer, inhibits the growth of human prostate cancer cells in culture and in vivo and retards cancer development in a transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer. We now show that SFN treatment causes transcriptional repression of androgen receptor (AR) in LNCaP and C4-2 human prostate cancer cells at pharmacologic concentrations. Exposure of LNCaP and C4-2 cells to SFN resulted in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent decrease in protein levels of total AR as well as Ser(210/213)-phosphorylated AR. The SFN-mediated decline in AR protein level was accompanied by a decrease in intracellular as well as secreted levels of prostate-specific antigen, an AR-regulated gene product. The decrease in AR protein level resulting from SFN exposure was not reversed in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed a dose-dependent decrease in AR mRNA levels, indicating transcriptional repression of this ligand-activated transcription factor. The SFN treatment inhibited AR promoter activity as revealed by luciferase reporter assay. Synthetic androgen (R1881)-stimulated nuclear translocation of AR was markedly suppressed in the presence of SFN in both cell lines. The SFN treatment also inhibited R1881-stimulated proliferation of LNCaP cells. Naturally occurring thio analogues (iberverin, erucin, and berteroin), but not the sulfonyl analogues (cheirolin, erysolin, and alyssin sulfone), of SFN were also effective in reducing protein levels of AR in LNCaP cells. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that SFN treatment causes transcriptional repression of AR and inhibition of its nuclear localization in human prostate cancer cells.


Down-regulation of phosphoglucomutase 3 mediates sulforaphane-induced cell death in LNCaP prostate cancer cells

            (Lee, Jeong et al. 2010) Download

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables that exerts anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and radio-sensitizing activities. Nonetheless, the mechanism responsible for SFN-induced cell death is not fully understood. In the present study, anti-cancer mechanism of SFN was elucidated in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. RESULTS: SFN exerted cytotoxicity and increased TUNEL positive cells in a concentration-dependent manner in LNCaP cells. Proteomics study revealed that levels of nine proteins including tubulin beta-2, phosphoglucomutase-3 (PGM3), melanoma-derived leucine zipper containing extra-nuclear factor, activin A type I receptor precursor, smoothelin-A, KIA0073, hypothetical protein LOC57691 and two unnamed proteins were changed over 8 folds in SFN treated LNCaP cells compared to untreated control. We have further confirmed that SFN reduced PGM3 expression with western blotting and showed that PGM3 siRNA enhanced cytotoxicity demonstrated by cell morphology and TUNEL assays in LNCaP cells. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings suggest that PGM3 plays a role in mediating SFN-induced cell death in LNCaP cells, and is a potential molecular therapeutic target for prostate cancer.

Sulforaphane, a dietary component of broccoli/broccoli sprouts, inhibits breast cancer stem cells

            (Li, Zhang et al. 2010) Download

PURPOSE: The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in breast cancer has profound implications for cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated sulforaphane, a natural compound derived from broccoli/broccoli sprouts, for its efficacy to inhibit breast CSCs and its potential mechanism. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Aldefluor assay and mammosphere formation assay were used to evaluate the effect of sulforaphane on breast CSCs in vitro. A nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient xenograft model was used to determine whether sulforaphane could target breast CSCs in vivo, as assessed by Aldefluor assay, and tumor growth upon cell reimplantation in secondary mice. The potential mechanism was investigated using Western blotting analysis and beta-catenin reporter assay. RESULTS: Sulforaphane (1-5 micromol/L) decreased aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cell population by 65% to 80% in human breast cancer cells (P < 0.01) and reduced the size and number of primary mammospheres by 8- to 125-fold and 45% to 75% (P < 0.01), respectively. Daily injection with 50 mg/kg sulforaphane for 2 weeks reduced aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cells by >50% in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient xenograft tumors (P = 0.003). Sulforaphane eliminated breast CSCs in vivo, thereby abrogating tumor growth after the reimplantation of primary tumor cells into the secondary mice (P < 0.01). Western blotting analysis and beta-catenin reporter assay showed that sulforaphane downregulated the Wnt/beta-catenin self-renewal pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Sulforaphane inhibits breast CSCs and downregulates the Wnt/beta-catenin self-renewal pathway. These findings support the use of sulforaphane for the chemoprevention of breast cancer stem cells and warrant further clinical evaluation.

Epigenetic targets of bioactive dietary components for cancer prevention and therapy

            (Meeran, Ahmed et al. 2010) Download

The emergent interest in cancer epigenetics stems from the fact that epigenetic modifications are implicated in virtually every step of tumorigenesis. More interestingly, epigenetic changes are reversible heritable changes that are not due to the alteration in DNA sequence but have potential to alter gene expression. Dietary agents consist of many bioactive ingredients which actively regulate various molecular targets involved in tumorigenesis. We present evidence that numerous bioactive dietary components can interfere with various epigenetic targets in cancer prevention and therapy. These agents include curcumin (turmeric), genistein (soybean), tea polyphenols (green tea), resveratrol (grapes), and sulforaphane (cruciferous vegetables). These bioactive components alter the DNA methylation and histone modifications required for gene activation or silencing in cancer prevention and therapy. Bioactive components mediate epigenetic modifications associated with the induction of tumor suppressor genes such as p21(WAF1/CIP1) and inhibition of tumor promoting genes such as the human telomerase reverse transcriptase during tumorigenesis processes. Here, we present considerable evidence that bioactive components and their epigenetic targets are associated with cancer prevention and therapy which should facilitate novel drug discovery and development. In addition, remarkable advances in our understanding of basic epigenetic mechanisms as well as the rapid progress that is being made in developing powerful new technologies, such as those for sensitive and quantitative detection of epigenetic and epigenomic changes in cancer biology, hold great promise for novel epigenetic approaches to cancer prevention and therapy.

Sulforaphane causes epigenetic repression of hTERT expression in human breast cancer cell lines

            (Meeran, Patel et al. 2010) Download

BACKGROUND: Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, is a common dietary component that has histone deacetylase inhibition activity and exciting potential in cancer prevention. The mechanisms by which SFN imparts its chemopreventive properties are of considerable interest and little is known of its preventive potential for breast cancer. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that SFN significantly inhibits the viability and proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro while it has negligible effects on normal breast cells. Inhibition of telomerase has received considerable attention because of its high expression in cancer cells and extremely low level of expression in normal cells. SFN treatment dose- and time-dependently inhibited human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the catalytic regulatory subunit of telomerase, in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), especially DNMT1 and DNMT3a, were also decreased in SFN-treated breast cancer cells suggesting that SFN may repress hTERT by impacting epigenetic pathways. Down-regulation of DNMTs in response to SFN induced site-specific CpG demethylation occurring primarily in the first exon of the hTERT gene thereby facilitating CTCF binding associated with hTERT repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis of the hTERT promoter revealed that SFN increased the level of active chromatin markers acetyl-H3, acetyl-H3K9 and acetyl-H4, whereas the trimethyl-H3K9 and trimethyl-H3K27 inactive chromatin markers were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. SFN-induced hyperacetylation facilitated the binding of many hTERT repressor proteins such as MAD1 and CTCF to the hTERT regulatory region. Depletion of CTCF using siRNA reduced the SFN-induced down-regulation of hTERT mRNA transcription in these breast cancer cells. In addition, down-regulation of hTERT expression facilitated the induction of cellular apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, our results provide novel insights into SFN-mediated epigenetic down-regulation of telomerase in breast cancer prevention and may open new avenues for approaches to SFN-mediated cancer prevention.

Chemoprotection by sulforaphane: keep one eye beyond Keap1

            (Myzak and Dashwood 2006) Download

Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, with particularly high levels detected in broccoli and broccoli sprouts. Over a decade ago, this phytochemical was identified as a likely chemopreventive agent based on its ability to induce Phase 2 detoxification enzymes, as well as to inhibit Phase 1 enzymes involved in carcinogen activation. Considerable attention has focused on SFN as a 'blocking' agent, with the ability to modulate the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway, but recent evidence suggests that SFN acts by numerous other mechanisms. SFN induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells, inhibits tubulin polymerization, activates checkpoint 2 kinase, and inhibits histone deacetylase activity. The latter findings suggest that SFN may be effective during the post-initiation stages of carcinogenesis, as a 'suppressing' agent. Moreover, pharmacological administration of SFN may be a promising therapeutic approach to the treatment of cancers, including those characterized by increased inflammation and involving viral or bacterial-related pathologies. The present review discusses the more widely established chemoprotective mechanisms of SFN, but makes the case for additional work on mechanisms that might be of importance during later stages of carcinogenesis, beyond Keap1.

Anticancer activity of a broccoli derivative, sulforaphane, in barrett adenocarcinoma: potential use in chemoprevention and as adjuvant in chemotherapy

            (Qazi, Pal et al. 2010) Download

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of Barrett esophageal adenocarcinoma (BEAC) has been increasing at an alarming rate in western countries. In this study, we have evaluated the therapeutic potential of sulforaphane (SFN), an antioxidant derived from broccoli, in BEAC. METHODS: BEAC cells were treated with SFN, alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic, paclitaxel, or telomerase-inhibiting agents (MST-312, GRN163L), and live cell number determined at various time points. The effect on drug resistance/chemosensitivity was evaluated by rhodamine efflux assay. Apoptosis was detected by annexin V labeling and Western blot analysis of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Effects on genes implicated in cell cycle and apoptosis were determined by Western blot analyses. To evaluate the efficacy in vivo, BEAC cells were injected subcutaneously in severe combined immunodeficient mice, and after the appearance of palpable tumors, mice were treated with SFN. RESULTS: SFN induced both time- and dose-dependent decline in cell survival, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. The treatment with SFN also suppressed the expression of multidrug resistance protein, reduced drug efflux, and increased anticancer activity of other antiproliferative agents including paclitaxel. A significant reduction in tumor volume was also observed by SFN in a subcutaneous tumor model of BEAC. Anticancer activity could be attributed to the induction of caspase 8 and p21 and down-regulation of hsp90, a molecular chaperon required for activity of several proliferation-associated proteins. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that a natural product with antioxidant properties from broccoli has great potential to be used in chemoprevention and treatment of BEAC.

Cellular responses to cancer chemopreventive agent D,L-sulforaphane in human prostate cancer cells are initiated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

            (Xiao, Powolny et al. 2009) Download

PURPOSE: Present study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of cellular responses to D,L-sulforaphane (SFN), a highly promising cancer chemopreventive agent. METHODS: Mitochondrial DNA deficient Rho-0 variants of LNCaP and PC-3 cells were generated by culture in the presence of ethidium bromide. Apoptosis was assessed by analysis of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation and activation of caspase-3. Immunoblotting was performed to determine the expression of apoptosis- and cell cycle-regulating proteins. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and cell cycle distribution were measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The Rho-0 variants of LNCaP and PC-3 cells were significantly more resistant to SFN-induced ROS generation, apoptotic DNA fragmentation, disruption of MMP, cytosolic release of cytochrome c, and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest compared with corresponding wild-type cells. SFN-induced autophagy, which serves to protect against apoptotic cell death in PC-3 and LNCaP cells, was also partially but markedly suppressed in Rho-0 variants compared with wild-type cells. SFN statistically significantly inhibited activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes in LNCaP and PC-3 cells. CONCLUSION: These results indicate, for the first time, that mitochondria-derived ROS serve to initiate diverse cellular responses to SFN exposure in human prostate cancer cells.


References

Appendino, G. and A. Bardelli (2010). "Broccoli, PTEN deletion and prostate cancer: where is the link?" Mol Cancer 9: 308.

Bryant, C. S., S. Kumar, et al. (2010). "Sulforaphane induces cell cycle arrest by protecting RB-E2F-1 complex in epithelial ovarian cancer cells." Mol Cancer 9: 47.

Clarke, J. D., R. H. Dashwood, et al. (2008). "Multi-targeted prevention of cancer by sulforaphane." Cancer Lett 269(2): 291-304.

Clarke, J. D., A. Hsu, et al. (2011). "Differential effects of sulforaphane on histone deacetylases, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in normal prostate cells versus hyperplastic and cancerous prostate cells." Mol Nutr Food Res 55(7): 999-1009.

Dash, P. K., J. Zhao, et al. (2009). "Sulforaphane improves cognitive function administered following traumatic brain injury." Neurosci Lett 460(2): 103-7.

Gamet-Payrastre, L., P. Li, et al. (2000). "Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HT29 human colon cancer cells." Cancer Res 60(5): 1426-33.

Gibbs, A., J. Schwartzman, et al. (2009). "Sulforaphane destabilizes the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells by inactivating histone deacetylase 6." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(39): 16663-8.

Hahm, E. R. and S. V. Singh (2010). "Sulforaphane inhibits constitutive and interleukin-6-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in prostate cancer cells." Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(4): 484-94.

Healy, Z. R., H. Liu, et al. (2010). "Inactivation of Tautomerase Activity of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor by Sulforaphane: a Potential Biomarker for Anti-inflammatory Intervention." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 20(7): 1516-23.

Ho, E., J. D. Clarke, et al. (2009). "Dietary sulforaphane, a histone deacetylase inhibitor for cancer prevention." J Nutr 139(12): 2393-6.

Kim, S. H. and S. V. Singh (2009). "D,L-Sulforaphane causes transcriptional repression of androgen receptor in human prostate cancer cells." Mol Cancer Ther 8(7): 1946-54.

Lee, C. H., S. J. Jeong, et al. (2010). "Down-regulation of phosphoglucomutase 3 mediates sulforaphane-induced cell death in LNCaP prostate cancer cells." Proteome Sci 8: 67.

Li, Y., T. Zhang, et al. (2010). "Sulforaphane, a dietary component of broccoli/broccoli sprouts, inhibits breast cancer stem cells." Clin Cancer Res 16(9): 2580-90.

Meeran, S. M., A. Ahmed, et al. (2010). "Epigenetic targets of bioactive dietary components for cancer prevention and therapy." Clin Epigenetics 1(3-4): 101-116.

Meeran, S. M., S. N. Patel, et al. (2010). "Sulforaphane causes epigenetic repression of hTERT expression in human breast cancer cell lines." PLoS One 5(7): e11457.

Myzak, M. C. and R. H. Dashwood (2006). "Chemoprotection by sulforaphane: keep one eye beyond Keap1." Cancer Lett 233(2): 208-18.

Qazi, A., J. Pal, et al. (2010). "Anticancer activity of a broccoli derivative, sulforaphane, in barrett adenocarcinoma: potential use in chemoprevention and as adjuvant in chemotherapy." Transl Oncol 3(6): 389-99.

Xiao, D., A. A. Powolny, et al. (2009). "Cellular responses to cancer chemopreventive agent D,L-sulforaphane in human prostate cancer cells are initiated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species." Pharm Res 26(7): 1729-38.