Sugar Abstracts 2

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Sugar and its Uses
            (1850) Download
In our country there is more sugar used than in Britain and many of the nations of Europe, and although it is generally admitted to form good food, yet it is not prudent to use too much of it, for it is not, singly, a good supporter of life.

The Use Of Sugar
            (1901) Download
The present tendency of physiologists and authorities his English-speaking compatriots in the profession on dietetics to encourage the use of sugar as an aliment has not failed to excite aliment, some controversy and adverse opinion. An article by article by Von Bunge states children who eat sugar appear anemic and have bad teeth, reasons that as sugar contains neither iron nor lime, its free consumption, by supplanting other aliments containing these essentials, is damaging and should be discouraged. He would advise therefore an increased tax on sugar. Professor Lepine,of Lyons, takes exactly the opposite view and would prefer to see the consumption of this aliment tripled or quadrupled amongst his countrymen

Sugar And Progress
            (1902) Download
The statistics of the sugar consumption of the United States reported by the statistical bureau of the Treasury Department are striking enough to call for comment. From 33 pounds in 1870 the per capita consumption has risen to 68 pounds in 1901, an increase of more than double. This does not seem to take into account the other forms than cane and beet sugar; the immense amount of glucose preparations, together with the fruit sugars, are apparently not reckoned. The average of sixty-eight pounds per citizen means that a very large number, probably a great majority, use a considerably larger proportion daily, the larger the number who take less, the larger the amount consumed individually by the remainder. It has been calculated that one-quarter of a pound of sugar per diem is about as much as can be safely included in a healthy diet, but this figure may be found too low. The unexampled progress of the nineteenth century may find part of its causation in the cheapness of sugar and the great extension of its dietetic use.

Sugar, Salt, And Cancer
(1903) Download
Captain E. R. Rost, I.M.S., attributes the rise in cancer mortality to an increased consumption of sugar, in the form of sweetmeats and other delicacies of modern confectionery and, a corresponding diminution in the use of salt-preserved articles of diet. His theory is that malignant disease is parasitic in origin, and is due to the invasion of the body by a saceharomycete, the growth of which is favoured by glueose, but inhibited by chlorine-containing substances, and only admissible when the amount of chlorine in the body falls below normal.

Harmful Effect Of Certain Sugar-Cane Products
            (Blosser, 1914) Download
Many dietary experiments have been made for the purpose of determining whether or not the use of cane-sugar is deleterious. The results of these experi- ments have failed to prove that any harmful effect follows what is termed a moderate use of sugar. Such experiments, however, should not be applied to the effect of sweet foods in general, because they do not take into consideration certain other derivatives of sugar-cane which are present in brown sugar, yellow sugar and sugar-cane sirup and are consumed in the form of candies, cakes, soft drinks and sirups.

Dietary sugar and body weight: have we reached a crisis in the epidemic of obesity and diabetes?: health be damned! Pour on the sugar.
            (Bray and Popkin, 2014) Download
Sugar-sweetened drinks have been associated with several health problems. In the point narrative as presented below, we provide our opinion and review of the data to date that we need to reconsider consumption of dietary sugar based on the growing concern of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the counterpoint narrative following our contribution, Drs. Kahn and Sievenpiper provide a defense and suggest that dietary sugar is not the culprit. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and U.S. Department of Agriculture dietary surveys along with commercial Homescan data on household purchases were used to understand changes in sugar and fructose consumption. Meta-analyses and randomized clinical trials were used to evaluate outcomes of beverage and fructose intake. About 75% of all foods and beverages contain added sugar in a large array of forms. Consumption of soft drinks has increased fivefold since 1950. Meta-analyses suggest that consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is related to the risk of diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Drinking two 16-ounce SSBs per day for 6 months induced features of the metabolic syndrome and fatty liver. Randomized controlled trials in children and adults lasting 6 months to 2 years have shown that lowering the intake of soft drinks reduced weight gain. Recent studies suggest a gene-SSB potential relationship. Consumption of calorie-sweetened beverages has continued to increase and plays a role in the epidemic of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease. Reducing intake of soft drinks is associated with less weight gain.

The Dietetic Value of Sugar.
            (Gardner, 1901) Download
Many of us can remember that wheni we were young sugar was considered more a luxury than a necessary or even useful article of diet. It was looked upon witlh disfavour; was thought to ruin the teeth, to conduce to worms, to be constipating, to be watery, and to be " flatulent." It was not only the lay public who thought thus badly of it. Even as late as 1884 we find a well-known specialist for diseases of the nose and throat asserting that the fundameintal error responsible for the catarrhal diathesis and a host of evils consequent thereon was the excessive use of sugar. "Sugar,"said he, "is the unrecognised bane." Now the pendulum has swung far in the opposite direction. Sugar has come to be looked upon almost as a necessity, and certainly as one of the most valuable articles of diet.

Sugar as a Food.
            (Harley, 1895) Download
Sugar should not be looked upon as a mere condiment, but as a most valuable food stuff.

The Importance of Sugar in the Diet of the School Child.
            (Osman, 1931) Download
For many years it has been customary to regard sugar, especially extra allowances in the form of "sweets " and "tuck," as harmful to children, particularly with regard to the development and health of the teeth. Attention is drawn to the possibility that the child's natural desire for such substances has a physiological basis which can only be thwarted at considerable risk to the general health-that in fact a great deal of minor illness amongst children of school age, the nature of which is indicated, is due to a relative insufficiency of sugar in the diet.


 

A Consideration of the Catarrhal States in Relation to Diet
            (Paton, 1931)  Download
In the course of an investigation into catarrhal illness, as it affected a large boarding school for girls (from 1904 to 1928), some facts emerged which suggest that the severity and duration of catarrhs of the upper respiratory tract may be to some extent dependent upon faulty feeding. In the twenty-five years under consideration there occurred a period during which the food supply of the community was profoundly altered. Quite apart from the presence of actual diabetes, excessive con sumption of sugar is commonly associated with the occurrence of boils. I conclude then that, though complications due to a nitrite- producing organism were generally prevalent in 1918, the catarrhal complications commonly associated with that disease were, in that year, reduced, in the same way that non-influenzal catarrhs were reduced during the war, owing to the sugar restriction. If it can be shown that even a small proportion of the time lost through catarrhal illness is due to the excessive consumption of sugar, the rationing of sugar would reduce national morbidity considerably: for the bulk of the temporary disability from which the people of these islands suffer is due to respiratory catarrhs. Nor is it probable that the evil effects of excessive consumption of sugar are limited to the aggravation of catarrhs. Many other states of ill-health are known to be related to excessive sugar consumption.

Consumption of Carbohydrates in Relation to Disease
            (Paton, 1932)  Download
Modern consumption of carbohydrates is excessive, and this excess is largely the result of the addition to our diet of steadily increasing amounts of cane sugar. There is considerable clinical evidence that this excess is producing harmful effects in several directions. It affords some explanation of the high rate of incidence of several catarrhal affections, or the frequency of acidosis in the modern child, of the prevalence of rickets and dental caries, and of the increasing death-rate from diabetes and cancer.

Relation Of Excessive Carbohydrate Ingestion To Catarrhs And Other Diseases.
            (Paton, 1933)  Download
The excessive increase in carbohydrate intake is due to the prodigious increase in the consumption of sugar in the last half century. Habitual excessive absorption of glucose must be met by habitual hyperinsulinism.


 

The Use and Misuse of Carbohydrates
            (Paton and Eason, 1933)  Download
Within the last hundred years, a considerable change in our nutritional habits has occured with regard to the consumption of carbohydrate food. The quantity of carbohydrate which we consume has increade; while in consiquence of modern methods of manufacture, the quality of much of it has deteriorated.

Hypoglycemia associated with hypertrophy of islands of Langerhans
            (Phillips, 1931) Download
In recent years, since blood sugar determinations have become almost routine, hypoglycemia has become of increasing clinical importance. It would seem that hypertrophy of the islands of Langerhans may be a cause for hyperinsulinism and hypoglycemia.

Sugar-sweetened beverages and genetic risk of obesity.
            (Qi et al., 2012) Download
BACKGROUND:  Temporal increases in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages have paralleled the rise in obesity prevalence, but whether the intake of such beverages interacts with the genetic predisposition to adiposity is unknown. METHODS:  We analyzed the interaction between genetic predisposition and the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages in relation to body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) and obesity risk in 6934 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and in 4423 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and also in a replication cohort of 21,740 women from the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS). The genetic-predisposition score was calculated on the basis of 32 BMI-associated loci. The intake of sugar-sweetened beverages was examined prospectively in relation to BMI. RESULTS:  In the NHS and HPFS cohorts, the genetic association with BMI was stronger among participants with higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages than among those with lower intake. In the combined cohorts, the increases in BMI per increment of 10 risk alleles were 1.00 for an intake of less than one serving per month, 1.12 for one to four servings per month, 1.38 for two to six servings per week, and 1.78 for one or more servings per day (P<0.001 for interaction). For the same categories of intake, the relative risks of incident obesity per increment of 10 risk alleles were 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.59), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.28 to 2.16), 1.58 (95% CI, 1.01 to 2.47), and 5.06 (95% CI, 1.66 to 15.5) (P=0.02 for interaction). In the WGHS cohort, the increases in BMI per increment of 10 risk alleles were 1.39, 1.64, 1.90, and 2.53 across the four categories of intake (P=0.001 for interaction); the relative risks for incident obesity were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.64), 1.50 (95% CI, 1.16 to 1.93), 1.54 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.94), and 3.16 (95% CI, 2.03 to 4.92), respectively (P=0.007 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS:  The genetic association with adiposity appeared to be more pronounced with greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

Some Early Ocular Symptoms Of Over-Indulgence In Sugar And Sweet Farinaceous Food.
            (Ramsay, 1933) Download
In a series of interesting papers published recently in the Edinburgh Medical Journal, Dr. J. Hunter Paton has drawn attention to the great increase in "the national consumption of sugar within recent years in its relation to the occurrence of disease."

Sack and sugar, and the aetiology of gout in England between 1650 and 1900.
            (Rivard et al., 2013) Download
A marked increase in gout was observed in England during the 17th to 20th centuries. Many have ascribed this rapid increase in gout to the introduction of wines that were laced with lead. In this article, we suggest another likely contributor, which is the marked increase in sugar intake that occurred in England during this period. Sugar contains fructose, which raises uric acid and increases the risk for gout. Sugar intake increased markedly during this period due to its introduction in liquors, tea, coffee and desserts. We suggest that the introduction of sugar explains why gout was originally a disease of the wealthy and educated, but gradually became common throughout society.

Sugar-induced aging: the deleterious effects of excess dietary sugar intake.
            (Ross, 2015) Download
Clinical studies confirm that individuals, both diabetic and nondiabetic, with higher levels of mean blood glucose tend to have a higher prevalence of age-related complications. Therefore, using a common sense strategy to reduce or eliminate excess added sugar intake is a viable means to prevent and reduce the incidence of chronic age-related conditions.

 


References

Blosser (1914), ‘Harmful Effect Of Certain Sugar-Cane Products’, JAMA, LXIII (6), 481-82. PubMed:
Bray, GA and BM Popkin (2014), ‘Dietary sugar and body weight: have we reached a crisis in the epidemic of obesity and diabetes?: health be damned! Pour on the sugar.’, Diabetes Care, 37 (4), 950-56. PubMed: 24652725
Gardner, HW (1901), ‘The Dietetic Value of Sugar.’, Br Med J, 1 (2104), 1010-13. PubMed: 20759582
Harley, V (1895), ‘Sugar as a Food.’, Br Med J, 2 (1821), 1282-89. PubMed: 20755836
Osman, AA (1931), ‘The Importance of Sugar in the Diet of the School Child.’, Proc R Soc Med, 24 (8), 1103-10. PubMed: 19988209
Paton, JH (1933), ‘Relation Of Excessive Carbohydrate Ingestion To Catarrhs And Other Diseases.’, Br Med J, 1 (3773), 738-40. PubMed: 20777508
——— (1931), ‘A Consideration of the Catarrhal States in Relation to Diet’, Edinburgh Medical J, 38 (8), 468-80. PubMed:
Paton, JH and J Eason (1933), ‘The Use and Misuse of Carbohydrates’, Edinburgh Medical J, 177-208. PubMed:
Paton, JH (1932), ‘Consumption of Carbohydrates in Relation to Disease’, Edinburgh Medical J, 556-70. PubMed:
Phillips, AW (1931), ‘Hypoglycemia associated with hypertrophy of islands of Langerhans’, JAMA, 96 (15), 1195-98. PubMed:
Qi, Q, et al. (2012), ‘Sugar-sweetened beverages and genetic risk of obesity.’, N Engl J Med, 367 (15), 1387-96. PubMed: 22998338
Ramsay, AM (1933), ‘Some Early Ocular Symptoms Of Over-Indulgence In Sugar And Sweet Farinaceous Food.’, Br Med J, 1 (3763), 266-68. PubMed: 20777367
Rivard, C, et al. (2013), ‘Sack and sugar, and the aetiology of gout in England between 1650 and 1900.’, Rheumatology (Oxford), 52 (3), 421-26. PubMed: 23175570
Ross, SM (2015), ‘Sugar-induced aging: the deleterious effects of excess dietary sugar intake.’, Holist Nurs Pract, 29 (2), 114-16. PubMed: 25658934
(1850), ‘Sugar and its Uses’, Scientific American, 5 267. PubMed:
(1902), ‘Sugar And Progress’, JAMA, XXXVIII (18), 1165. PubMed:
(1903), ‘Sugar, Salt, And Cancer.’, Br Med J, 1 (2215), 1386. PubMed: 20760964
(1901), ‘The Use Of Sugar’, JAMA, 37 (3), 202. PubMed: