Skin Aging Abstracts 5

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Skin and mucosal manifestations in vitamin deficiency.
            (Barthelemy et al., 1986)  Download
The skin and mucosal changes in vitamin deficiency are described. Pellagra, which is the oldest known cutaneous manifestation among vitamin deficiencies, is reviewed. Cutaneous alterations caused by deficiency of the water-soluble vitamins B6, C, B1 and biotin, B12, folic acid, and riboflavin result in more mucosal alterations and are discussed. Alterations caused by fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies (vitamins A and K) are also considered.

Why some women look young for their age.
            (Gunn et al., 2009)  Download
The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age.

Shielding effect of mineral schungite during electromagnetic irradiation of rats.
            (Kurotchenko et al., 2003)  Download
We studied the effect of nonthermal 37-GHz radiation on hemopoiesis in schungite-shielded Wistar rats. Radiation with right-handed or left-handed rotation of the polarization plane of electromagnetic wave was used. Shielding with schungite decreased the severity of damage produced by high-frequency electromagnetic radiation.

Nutrition and nutritional supplementation: Impact on skin health and beauty.
            (Piccardi and Manissier, 2009)  Download
Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin's capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions.Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty.

The use of fingernails as a means of assessing bone health: a pilot study.
            (Pillay et al., 2005)  Download
BACKGROUND:  Anecdotally, patients volunteer reports of increasing hardness of their fingernails within months of starting diverse treatments for osteoporosis. The properties of both nail and bone may be linked in a comparable, measurable way. METHODS:  We examined the fingernails of two groups of patients, with (n = 9) and without (n = 13) osteoporosis at either the hip or lumbosacral spine. We performed nanoindentation to assess the degree of nail brittleness and Raman spectroscopy to assess the disulfide bond content of nail. RESULTS:  The mean moduli of fingernails of patients with low bone mineral density (BMD) are lower than those of patients with normal BMD. The mean difference in mean modulus between the groups was found to be 0.996 (p = 0.15 between groups). The spectroscopy data also showed differences between the two sets of nails. The disulfide bond content of the nails sourced from osteoporotic patients was lower than that from healthy patients (p = 0.06 between groups). CONCLUSIONS:  Bone collagen and nail keratin are two distinct structural proteins, and both require protein sulfation and disulfide bond formation, via cysteine, for structural integrity. A disorder of either process may lead to disordered collagen and keratin synthesis. This is reflected in the structural abnormalities seen in clinical syndromes in which there is either protein deficiency, disorders of sulfur metabolism, or cystathione beta-synthase deficiency. The relationship between nail and bone may exist in a measurable way. This pilot study should lead to further work to explore this relationship. Could nail prove to be a valuable adjunct to diagnosis or provide a means of more rapid follow-up after commencement of therapy

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Shungite against Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice.
            (Sajo et al., 2017)  Download
As fullerene-based compound applications have been rapidly increasing in the health industry, the need of biomedical research is urgently in demand. While shungite is regarded as a natural source of fullerene, it remains poorly documented. Here, we explored the in vivo effects of shungite against ultraviolet B- (UVB-) induced skin damage by investigating the physiological skin parameters, immune-redox profiling, and oxidative stress molecular signaling. Toward this, mice were UVB-irradiated with 0.75 mW/cm2 for two consecutive days. Consecutively, shungite was topically applied on the dorsal side of the mice for 7 days. First, we found significant improvements in the skin parameters of the shungite-treated groups revealed by the reduction in roughness, pigmentation, and wrinkle measurement. Second, the immunokine profiling in mouse serum and skin lysates showed a reduction in the proinflammatory response in the shungite-treated groups. Accordingly, the redox profile of shungite-treated groups showed counterbalance of ROS/RNS and superoxide levels in serum and skin lysates. Last, we have confirmed the involvement of Nrf2- and MAPK-mediated oxidative stress pathways in the antioxidant mechanism of shungite. Collectively, the results clearly show that shungite has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action against UVB-induced skin damage in hairless mice.

 


References

Barthelemy, H, B Chouvet, and F Cambazard (1986), ‘Skin and mucosal manifestations in vitamin deficiency.’, J Am Acad Dermatol, 15 (6), 1263-74. PubMed: 2948974
Gunn, DA, et al. (2009), ‘Why some women look young for their age.’, PLoS One, 4 (12), e8021. PubMed: 19956599
Kurotchenko, SP, et al. (2003), ‘Shielding effect of mineral schungite during electromagnetic irradiation of rats.’, Bull Exp Biol Med, 136 (5), 458-59. PubMed: 14968159
Piccardi, N and P Manissier (2009), ‘Nutrition and nutritional supplementation: Impact on skin health and beauty.’, Dermatoendocrinol, 1 (5), 271-74. PubMed: 20808515
Pillay, I, et al. (2005), ‘The use of fingernails as a means of assessing bone health: a pilot study.’, J Womens Health (Larchmt), 14 (4), 339-44. PubMed: 15916508
Sajo, MEJ, et al. (2017), ‘Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Shungite against Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice.’, Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2017 7340143. PubMed: 28894510