Skin Aging Abstracts 3

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Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation.
            (Danby, 2010) Download
The effect of sugars on aging skin is governed by the simple act of covalently cross-linking two collagen fibers, which renders both of them incapable of easy repair. Glucose and fructose link the amino acids present in the collagen and elastin that support the dermis, producing advanced glycation end products or "AGEs." This process is accelerated in all body tissues when sugar is elevated and is further stimulated by ultraviolet light in the skin. The effect on vascular, renal, retinal, coronary, and cutaneous tissues is being defined, as are methods of reducing the glycation load through careful diet and use of supplements.       

Nutrition and enhancing youthful-appearing skin.
            (Draelos, 2010) Download
The use of nutrition, including vitamins and antioxidants, to enhance youthful-appearing skin is presented. The most current references in the area are included, but much of the material discussed has not been well studied. The use of nutricosmetics is supported by testimonial, assumption, inference, and vague language. This contribution provides an overview of the current nutricosmetic marketplace and also substantiates the lack of available scientific data.

The use of botanically derived agents for hyperpigmentation: a systematic review.
            (Fisk et al., 2014) Download
BACKGROUND: Hyperpigmentation disorders are common among those seeking care from dermatologists and primary care physicians. The cosmeceutical and natural product industries are rapidly growing and many botanical agents are purported to improve hyperpigmentation disorders. OBJECTIVE: We sought to review clinical evidence for the use of botanical agents in the treatment of hyperpigmentation. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and Embase databases and a total of 26 articles met inclusion criteria. Study methodology was analyzed and the reproducibility of the studies was graded. RESULTS: Several botanical agents appear promising as treatment options but few studies were methodologically rigorous. Several plant extract and phytochemicals effectively lighten signs of epidermal melasma and hyperpigmentation induced by ultraviolet radiation exposure. Results were mixed for treatment of solar lentigines or dermal hyperpigmentation. LIMITATIONS: There were few rigorously designed studies; future research will be critical to further ascertain the discussed results. CONCLUSIONS: The subtype of hyperpigmentation is important for treatment prognosis, with dermal hyperpigmentation less responsive to treatment. Botanical extracts may play an integrative role in the treatment of hyperpigmentation and further studies that integrate them with standard therapies are needed. Side effects, including worsened hyperpigmentation, need to be discussed when considering these therapies.

Efficacy of anti-aging products for periorbital wrinkles as measured by 3-D imaging.
            (Kaczvinsky et al., 2009) Download
BACKGROUND: The periorbital area is a key wrinkle-prone region, where the first signs of aging usually appear. AIMS: To demonstrate the ability of new anti-aging moisturizing products to improve overall smoothness and wrinkle depth appearance in the periorbital region via the Fast Optical in vivo Topometry of Human Skin (FOITS). METHODS: Two double-blind, randomized, controlled, split-face studies (n = 42, Study 1; n = 35, Study 2) were conducted in women 30-70 years old with moderate to distinct periorbital wrinkles. Subjects applied 0.5 g of individual products to half their face twice daily for 4 weeks. Four test products containing niacinamide, the peptides Pal-KT and Pal-KTTKS, and carnosine were used and included a daytime SPF 30 lotion also containing antioxidants, a night cream, an eye cream also containing caffeine, and a wrinkle treatment containing retinyl propionate. The wrinkle treatment was only tested in Study 2. The FOITS technique was used to measure changes in periorbital R(a) (mean roughness) and R(z) (average maximum roughness) at 2 and 4 weeks. RESULTS: In Study 1, the daytime SPF 30 lotion, night cream, and eye cream significantly improved crow's feet smoothness after 4 weeks relative to no treatment. After 4 weeks, the daytime SPF 30 lotion and night cream, but not the eye cream, were significantly better than no treatment at improving R(z). In Study 2, the night cream, eye cream, and wrinkle treatment, but not the daytime SPF 30 lotion, significantly improved both R(a) and R(z) after 4 weeks. To increase power and precision of estimates, a meta-analysis was performed; the pooled data showed all three products were significantly better than no treatment at improving R(a) and R(z) after 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Four weeks of treatment with these products was shown to improve the smoothness of periorbital skin and to reduce the apparent depth of larger wrinkles.


Protective effect of red orange extract supplementation against UV-induced skin damages: photoaging and solar lentigines.
            (Puglia et al., 2014) Download
BACKGROUND: Exposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiations causes important oxidative damages that result in clinical and hystopathological changes, contributing to premature skin aging. Hyperpigmented lesions, also known as age spots, are one of the most visible alterations in skin photoaging. Skin is naturally equipped with antioxidant systems against UV-induced ROS generation; however, these antioxidant defenses are not completely efficient during exposure to sunlight. Oral antioxidants are able to counteract the harmful effects of UV radiation and to strengthen the physiological skin antioxidant defenses. AIMS: The present study was performed to evaluate the in vivo skin photo-protecting and anti-aging effects of a red orange (Citrus sinensis varieties Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello) extract supplementation. Previous studies showed that red orange extracts possess strong in vitro free radical scavenging/antioxidant activity and photo-protective effects on human skin. MATERIALS/METHODS: The photo-protective effects of red orange extract intake against UV-induced skin erythema and melanin production in solar lentigo was evaluated on healthy volunteers by an objective instrumental method (reflectance spectrophotometry). RESULTS: Data obtained from in vivo studies showed that supplementation of red orange extract (100 mg/daily) for 15 days brought a significant reduction in the UV-induced skin erythema degree. Moreover, skin age spots pigmentation (melanin content) decreased from 27% to 7% when subjects were exposed to solar lamp during red orange extract supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Red orange extract intake can strengthen physiological antioxidant skin defenses, protecting skin from the damaging processes involved in photo-aging and leading to an improvement in skin appearance and pigmentation.

Curcumin and aging.
            (Shen et al., 2013) Download
Turmeric has been used commonly as a spice, food additive, and an herbal medicine worldwide. Known as a bioactive polyphenolic extract of Turmeric, curcumin has a broad range of health benefit properties for humans. Recently, active research on curcumin with respect to aging and related traits in model organisms has demonstrated that curcumin and its metabolite, tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), increase mean lifespan of at least three model organisms: nematode roundworm, fruit fly Drosophila, and mouse. Nematodes grown on media containing curcumin showed a significantly increased lifespan by reducing the production of reactive oxygen species. Genes osr-1, sek-1, mek-1, skn-1, unc-43, sir-2.1, and age-1 are required for curcumin-mediated lifespan extension. The lifespan extension of Drosophila by curcumin supplementation was associated with increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and decreased lipofuscin and malondialdehyde levels. Curcumin up-regulated expression of SOD genes and down-regulated expression of several age-related genes, such as dInR, ATTD, Def, CecB, and DptB. In addition, THC extended lifespan in Drosophila and inhibited the oxidative stress response by regulating FOXO and Sir2. Mice fed diets containing THC starting at the age of 13 months had significantly increased mean lifespan. In summary, the positive effects of curcumin on lifespan extension likely arise from beneficial regulation of common oxidative stress responses and age-related genes. Understanding the molecular mechanism(s) of curcumin action has provided base knowledge and rationale for future human clinical trials, and for nutritional intervention in aging and age-associated disorders in humans.


References

Danby, FW (2010), ‘Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation.’, Clin Dermatol, 28 (4), 409-11. PubMedID: 20620757
Draelos, ZD (2010), ‘Nutrition and enhancing youthful-appearing skin.’, Clin Dermatol, 28 (4), 400-8. PubMedID: 20620756
Fisk, WA, et al. (2014), ‘The use of botanically derived agents for hyperpigmentation: a systematic review.’, J Am Acad Dermatol, 70 (2), 352-65. PubMedID: 24280646
Kaczvinsky, JR, et al. (2009), ‘Efficacy of anti-aging products for periorbital wrinkles as measured by 3-D imaging.’, J Cosmet Dermatol, 8 (3), 228-33. PubMedID: 19735523
Puglia, C, et al. (2014), ‘Protective effect of red orange extract supplementation against UV-induced skin damages: photoaging and solar lentigines.’, J Cosmet Dermatol, 13 (2), 151-57. PubMedID: 24910279
Shen, LR, et al. (2013), ‘Curcumin and aging.’, Biofactors, 39 (1), 133-40. PubMedID: 23325575