Red Meat Abstracts 1

© 2012

A review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of red and processed meat intake and prostate cancer

            (Alexander, Mink et al. 2010) Download

Over the past decade, several large epidemiologic investigations of meat intake and prostate cancer have been published. Therefore, a meta-analysis of prospective studies was conducted to estimate potential associations between red or processed meat intake and prostate cancer. Fifteen studies of red meat and 11 studies of processed meat were included in the analyses. High vs. low intake and dose-response analyses were conducted using random effects models to generate summary relative risk estimates (SRRE). No association between high vs. low red meat consumption (SRRE = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96-1.05) or each 100 g increment of red meat (SRRE = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.95-1.05) and total prostate cancer was observed. Similarly, no association with red meat was observed for advanced prostate cancer (SRRE = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.94-1.09). A weakly elevated summary association between processed meat and total prostate cancer was found (SRRE = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.99-1.12), although heterogeneity was present, the association was attenuated in a sub-group analysis of studies that adjusted for multiple potential confounding factors, and publication bias likely affected the summary effect. In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis are not supportive of an independent positive association between red or processed meat intake and prostate cancer.

Meta-analysis of prospective studies of red meat consumption and colorectal cancer

         (Alexander, Weed et al. 2011) Download

The relationship between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been the subject of scientific debate. To estimate the summary association between red meat intake and CRC and to examine sources of heterogeneity, a meta-analysis of prospective studies was conducted. Thirty-four prospective studies of red meat and CRC were identified, of which 25 represented independent nonoverlapping study populations. Summary relative risk estimates (SRREs) for high versus low intake and dose-response relationships were calculated. In the high versus low intake meta-analysis, the SRRE was 1.12 (95% CI: 1.04-1.21) with significant heterogeneity (P=0.014). Summary associations were modified by tumor site and sex. The SRREs for colon cancer and rectal cancer were 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03-1.19) and 1.19 (95% CI: 0.97-1.46), respectively. The SRREs among men and women were 1.21 (95% CI: 1.04-1.42) and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.87-1.17), respectively. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to support an independent and unequivocal positive association between red meat intake and CRC. This conclusion is based on summary associations that are weak in magnitude, heterogeneity across studies, inconsistent patterns of associations across the subgroup analyses, and the likely influence of confounding by other dietary and lifestyle factors.

Red meat consumption and risk of heart failure in male physicians

         (Ashaye, Gaziano et al. 2011) Download

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Heart failure (HF) remains a major public health issue. Red meat and dietary heme iron have been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and hypertension, two major risk factors for HF. However, it is not known whether red meat intake influences the risk of HF. We therefore examined the association between red meat consumption and incident HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied 21,120 apparently healthy men (mean age 54.6 y) from the Physicians' Health Study (1982-2008). Red meat was assessed by an abbreviated food questionnaire and incident HF was ascertained through annual follow-up questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios. In a multivariable model, there was a positive and graded relation between red meat consumption and HF [hazard ratio (95% CI) of 1.0 (reference), 1.02 (0.85-1.22), 1.08 (0.90-1.30), 1.17 (0.97-1.41), and 1.24 (1.03-1.48) from the lowest to the highest quintile of red meat, respectively (p for trend 0.007)]. This association was observed for HF with (p for trend 0.035) and without (p for trend 0.038) antecedent myocardial infarction. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that higher intake of red meat is associated with an increased risk of HF.

Major dietary protein sources and risk of coronary heart disease in women

         (Bernstein, Sun et al. 2010) Download

BACKGROUND: With the exception of fish, few major dietary protein sources have been studied in relation to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). Our objective was to examine the relation between foods that are major dietary protein sources and incident CHD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively followed 84,136 women aged 30 to 55 years in the Nurses' Health Study with no known cancer, diabetes mellitus, angina, myocardial infarction, stroke, or other cardiovascular disease. Diet was assessed by a standardized and validated questionnaire and updated every 4 years. During 26 years of follow-up, we documented 2210 incident nonfatal infarctions and 952 deaths from CHD. In multivariable analyses including age, smoking, and other risk factors, higher intakes of red meat, red meat excluding processed meat, and high-fat dairy were significantly associated with elevated risk of CHD. Higher intakes of poultry, fish, and nuts were significantly associated with lower risk. In a model controlling statistically for energy intake, 1 serving per day of nuts was associated with a 30% (95% confidence interval, 17% to 42%) lower risk of CHD compared with 1 serving per day of red meat. Similarly, compared with 1 serving per day of red meat, a lower risk was associated with 1 serving per day of low-fat dairy (13%; 95% confidence interval, 6% to 19%), poultry (19%; 95% confidence interval, 3% to 33%), and fish (24%; 95% confidence interval, 6% to 39%). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that high red meat intake increases risk of CHD and that CHD risk may be reduced importantly by shifting sources of protein in the US diet.

The carnivore connection hypothesis: revisited

            (Brand-Miller, Griffin et al. 2012) Download

The "Carnivore Connection" hypothesizes that, during human evolution, a scarcity of dietary carbohydrate in diets with low plant : animal subsistence ratios led to insulin resistance providing a survival and reproductive advantage with selection of genes for insulin resistance. The selection pressure was relaxed at the beginning of the Agricultural Revolution when large quantities of cereals first entered human diets. The "Carnivore Connection" explains the high prevalence of intrinsic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in populations that transition rapidly from traditional diets with a low-glycemic load, to high-carbohydrate, high-glycemic index diets that characterize modern diets. Selection pressure has been relaxed longest in European populations, explaining a lower prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, despite recent exposure to famine and food scarcity. Increasing obesity and habitual consumption of high-glycemic-load diets worsens insulin resistance and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in all populations.

Red and processed meat and colorectal cancer incidence: meta-analysis of prospective studies

            (Chan, Lau et al. 2011) Download

BACKGROUND: The evidence that red and processed meat influences colorectal carcinogenesis was judged convincing in the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research report. Since then, ten prospective studies have published new results. Here we update the evidence from prospective studies and explore whether there is a non-linear association of red and processed meats with colorectal cancer risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Relevant prospective studies were identified in PubMed until March 2011. For each study, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were extracted and pooled with a random-effects model, weighting for the inverse of the variance, in highest versus lowest intake comparison, and dose-response meta-analyses. Red and processed meats intake was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. The summary relative risk (RR) of colorectal cancer for the highest versus the lowest intake was 1.22 (95% CI = 1.11-1.34) and the RR for every 100 g/day increase was 1.14 (95% CI = 1.04-1.24). Non-linear dose-response meta-analyses revealed that colorectal cancer risk increases approximately linearly with increasing intake of red and processed meats up to approximately 140 g/day, where the curve approaches its plateau. The associations were similar for colon and rectal cancer risk. When analyzed separately, colorectal cancer risk was related to intake of fresh red meat (RR(for 100 g/day increase) = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.05-1.31) and processed meat (RR (for 50 g/day increase) = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.10-1.28). Similar results were observed for colon cancer, but for rectal cancer, no significant associations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: High intake of red and processed meat is associated with significant increased risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancers. The overall evidence of prospective studies supports limiting red and processed meat consumption as one of the dietary recommendations for the prevention of colorectal cancer.

Red meat and colon cancer: should we become vegetarians, or can we make meat safer?

            (Corpet 2011) Download

The effect of meat consumption on cancer risk is a controversial issue. However, recent meta-analyses show that high consumers of cured meats and red meat are at increased risk of colorectal cancer. This increase is significant but modest (20-30%). Current WCRF-AICR recommendations are to eat no more than 500 g per week of red meat, and to avoid processed meat. Moreover, our studies show that beef meat and cured pork meat promote colon carcinogenesis in rats. The major promoter in meat is heme iron, via N-nitrosation or fat peroxidation. Dietary additives can suppress the toxic effects of heme iron. For instance, promotion of colon carcinogenesis in rats by cooked, nitrite-treated and oxidized high-heme cured meat was suppressed by dietary calcium and by alpha-tocopherol, and a study in volunteers supported these protective effects in humans. These additives, and others still under study, could provide an acceptable way to prevent colorectal cancer.


Urinary biomarkers of meat consumption

         (Cross, Major et al. 2011) Download

BACKGROUND: Meat intake has been positively associated with incidence and mortality of chronic diseases, including diabetes, heart disease, and several different cancers, in observational studies by using self-report methods of dietary assessment; however, these dietary assessment methods are subject to measurement error. One method to circumvent such errors is the use of biomarkers of dietary intake, but currently there are no accepted biomarkers for meat intake. METHODS: We investigated four analytes (creatinine, taurine, 1-methylhistidine, and 3-methylhistidine) specifically found in meat and excreted in urine. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected from 17 individuals on controlled diets containing varying levels of meat: vegetarian (0 g/d), low red meat (60 g/d), medium red meat (120 g/d), and high red meat (420 g/d), as part of two randomized crossover feeding studies. RESULTS: When compared with the low red meat diet or the vegetarian diet, the urinary levels of all four analytes were significantly higher in urine samples collected after 15 days of a high red meat diet (P < 0.0001). Only urinary 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine were statistically significantly different for every diet type, increasing as the amount of meat in the diet increased (P < 0.01 for 1-methylhistidine and P < 0.05 for 3-methylhistidine). Furthermore, urinary excretion of 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine elevated with increasing meat intake in every individual. CONCLUSION: Urinary 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine may be good biomarkers of meat intake. IMPACT: To determine the public health impact of red meat on cancer risk, biomarkers are crucial to estimate true intake; these potential biomarkers should be further investigated in free-living populations.

Trends in meat consumption in the USA

         (Daniel, Cross et al. 2011) Download

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the trends, distribution, potential determinants and public health implications of meat consumption within the USA. DESIGN: We examined temporal trends in meat consumption using food availability data from the FAO and US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and further evaluated the meat intake by type (red, white, processed) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) linked to the MyPyramid Equivalents Database (MPED). RESULTS: Overall meat consumption has continued to rise in the USA and the rest of the developed world. Despite a shift towards higher poultry consumption, red meat still represents the largest proportion of meat consumed in the USA (58 %). Twenty-two per cent of the meat consumed in the USA is processed. According to the NHANES 2003-2004, total meat intake averaged 128 g/d. The type and quantities of meat reported varied by education, race, age and gender. CONCLUSIONS: Given the plausible epidemiological evidence for red and processed meat intake in cancer and chronic disease risk, understanding the trends and determinants of meat consumption in the USA, where meat is consumed at more than three times the global average, should be particularly pertinent to researchers and other public health professionals aiming to reduce the global burden of chronic disease.

Red meat consumption and risk of stroke in Swedish men

         (Larsson, Virtamo et al. 2011) Download

BACKGROUND: Red and processed meat consumption has been implicated in several diseases. However, data on meat consumption in relation to stroke incidence are sparse. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the associations of red meat and processed meat consumption with stroke incidence in men. DESIGN: We prospectively followed 40,291 men aged 45-79 y who had no history of cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. Meat consumption was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire in 1997. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 10.1 y, 2409 incident casesof stroke (1849 cerebral infarctions, 350 hemorrhagic strokes, and 210 unspecified strokes) were identified from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Registry. Consumption of processed meat, but not of fresh red meat, was positively associated with risk of stroke. The multivariable relative risks (RRs) of total stroke for the highest compared with the lowest quintiles of consumption were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.40; P for trend = 0.004) for processed meat and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.24; P for trend = 0.77) for fresh red meat. Processed meat consumption was also positively associated with risk of cerebral infarction in a comparison of the highest with the lowest quintile (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.38; P for trend = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The findings from this prospective cohort of men indicate that processed meat consumption is positively associated with risk of stroke. The Cohort of Swedish Men is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127711.

Association between meat consumption and carotid intima-media thickness in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome

            (Oh, Kim et al. 2010) Download

OBJECTIVES: The effect of meat consumption on cardiometabolic risk has been continuously studied, but their associations are not conclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the association between the consumption of meat or red meat and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in healthy Korean adults. METHODS: This study evaluated 2374 community-dwelling adults (933 men and 1441 women) who were free of cardiovascular disease or cancer, living in a rural area in Korea. Total meat and red meat intakes were assessed with a validated 103 item-food frequency questionnaire. Carotid IMT was evaluated ultrasonographically, IMTmax was defined as the highest value among IMT of bilateral common carotid arteries. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the mean IMTmax tended to increase in higher meat consumption groups in both men and women with metabolic syndrome (p for trend= 0.027 and 0.049, respectively), but not in participants without metabolic syndrome. Frequent meat consumption (>/=5 servings/week) was significantly associated with higher IMTmax in men with metabolic syndrome (by 0.08 mm, p=0.015). Whereas, the association was not significant in women (by 0.05 mm, p=0.115). Similar but attenuated findings were shown with red meat intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a higher meat consumption may be associated with a higher carotid IMT in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome. The frequent meat consumption (>/=5 servings/week), compared with the others, was associated with a higher carotid IMTmax only in men with metabolic syndrome. Further research is required to explore optimal meat consumption in people with specific medical conditions.

Holy Cow! What's Good For You Is Good For Our Planet: Comment on "Red Meat Consumption and Mortality"

            (Ornish 2012) Download

Red meat consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis

            (Pan, Sun et al. 2011) Download

BACKGROUND: The relation between consumption of different types of red meats and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between unprocessed and processed red meat consumption and incident T2D in US adults. DESIGN: We followed 37,083 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2006), 79,570 women in the Nurses' Health Study I (1980-2008), and 87,504 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2005). Diet was assessed by validated food-frequency questionnaires, and data were updated every 4 y. Incident T2D was confirmed by a validated supplementary questionnaire. RESULTS: During 4,033,322 person-years of follow-up, we documented 13,759 incident T2D cases. After adjustment for age, BMI, and other lifestyle and dietary risk factors, both unprocessed and processed red meat intakes were positively associated with T2D risk in each cohort (all P-trend <0.001). The pooled HRs (95% CIs) for a one serving/d increase in unprocessed, processed, and total red meat consumption were 1.12 (1.08, 1.16), 1.32 (1.25, 1.40), and 1.14 (1.10, 1.18), respectively. The results were confirmed by a meta-analysis (442,101 participants and 28,228 diabetes cases): the RRs (95% CIs) were 1.19 (1.04, 1.37) and 1.51 (1.25, 1.83) for 100 g unprocessed red meat/d and for 50 g processed red meat/d, respectively. We estimated that substitutions of one serving of nuts, low-fat dairy, and whole grains per day for one serving of red meat per day were associated with a 16-35% lower risk of T2D. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that red meat consumption, particularly processed red meat, is associated with an increased risk of T2D.

Red Meat Consumption and Mortality: Results From 2 Prospective Cohort Studies

            (Pan, Sun et al. 2012) Download

BACKGROUND: Red meat consumption has been associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases. However, its relationship with mortality remains uncertain. METHODS: We prospectively observed 37 698 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008) and 83 644 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2008) who were free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by validated food frequency questionnaires and updated every 4 years. RESULTS: We documented 23 926 deaths (including 5910 CVD and 9464 cancer deaths) during 2.96 million person-years of follow-up. After multivariate adjustment for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors, the pooled hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) of total mortality for a 1-serving-per-day increase was 1.13 (1.07-1.20) for unprocessed red meat and 1.20 (1.15-1.24) for processed red meat. The corresponding HRs (95% CIs) were 1.18 (1.13-1.23) and 1.21 (1.13-1.31) for CVD mortality and 1.10 (1.06-1.14) and 1.16 (1.09-1.23) for cancer mortality. We estimated that substitutions of 1 serving per day of other foods (including fish, poultry, nuts, legumes, low-fat dairy, and whole grains) for 1 serving per day of red meat were associated with a 7% to 19% lower mortality risk. We also estimated that 9.3% of deaths in men and 7.6% in women in these cohorts could be prevented at the end of follow-up if all the individuals consumed fewer than 0.5 servings per day (approximately 42 g/d) of red meat. CONCLUSIONS: Red meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of total, CVD, and cancer mortality. Substitution of other healthy protein sources for red meat is associated with a lower mortality risk.

Impact of meat consumption, preparation, and mutagens on aggressive prostate cancer

         (Punnen, Hardin et al. 2011) Download

BACKGROUND: The association between meat consumption and prostate cancer remains unclear, perhaps reflecting heterogeneity in the types of tumors studied and the method of meat preparation--which can impact the production of carcinogens. METHODS: We address both issues in this case-control study focused on aggressive prostate cancer (470 cases and 512 controls), where men reported not only their meat intake but also their meat preparation and doneness level on a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Associations between overall and grilled meat consumption, doneness level, ensuing carcinogens and aggressive prostate cancer were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher consumption of any ground beef or processed meats were positively associated with aggressive prostate cancer, with ground beef showing the strongest association (OR = 2.30, 95% CI:1.39-3.81; P-trend = 0.002). This association primarily reflected intake of grilled or barbequed meat, with more well-done meat conferring a higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Comparing high and low consumptions of well/very well cooked ground beef to no consumption gave OR's of 2.04 (95% CI:1.41-2.96) and 1.51 (95% CI:1.06-2.14), respectively. In contrast, consumption of rare/medium cooked ground beef was not associated with aggressive prostate cancer. Looking at meat mutagens produced by cooking at high temperatures, we detected an increased risk with 2-amino-3,8-Dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]Quinolaxine (MelQx) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo(4,5-f)qunioxaline (DiMelQx), when comparing the highest to lowest quartiles of intake: OR = 1.69 (95% CI:1.08-2.64;P-trend = 0.02) and OR = 1.53 (95% CI:1.00-2.35; P-trend = 0.005), respectively. DISCUSSION: Higher intake of well-done grilled or barbequed red meat and ensuing carcinogens could increase the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.

Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet study: effects on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins

            (Roussell, Hill et al. 2012) Download

BACKGROUND: A Step I diet with lean beef compared with lean white meat both decrease LDL cholesterol. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated a low-saturated fatty acid (SFA) (<7% calories) diet that contains lean beef. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effect on LDL cholesterol of cholesterol-lowering diets with varying amounts of lean beef [ie, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH): 28 g beef/d; Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet (BOLD): 113 g beef/d; and Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet plus additional protein (BOLD+): 153 g beef/d] compared with that of a healthy American diet (HAD). DESIGN: Thirty-six hypercholesterolemic participants (with LDL-cholesterol concentrations >2.8 mmol/L) were randomly assigned to consume each of the 4 diets (HAD: 33% total fat, 12% SFA, 17% protein, and 20 g beef/d), DASH (27% total fat, 6% SFA, 18% protein, and 28 g beef/d), BOLD (28% total fat, 6% SFA, 19% protein, and 113 g beef/d), and BOLD+ (28% total fat, 6% SFA, 27% protein, and 153 g beef/d) for 5 wk. RESULTS: There was a decrease in total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05) after consumption of the DASH (-0.49 +/- 0.11 and -0.37 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, respectively), BOLD (-0.48 +/- 0.10 and -0.35 +/- 0.9 mmol/L, respectively), and BOLD+ (-0.50 +/- 0.10 and -0.345 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, respectively) diets compared with after consumption of the HAD (-0.22 +/- 0.10 and -0.14 +/- 0.10 mmol/L, respectively). Apolipoprotein A-I, C-III, and C-III bound to apolipoprotein A1 particles decreased after BOLD and BOLD+ diets compared with after the HAD, and there was a greater decrease in apolipoprotein B after consumption of the BOLD+ diet than after consumption of the HAD (P < 0.05 for both). LDL cholesterol and TC decreased after consumption of the DASH, BOLD, and BOLD+ diets when the baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was <1 mg/L; LDL cholesterol and TC decreased when baseline CRP concentration was >1 mg/L with the BOLD and BOLD+ diets. CONCLUSIONS: Low-SFA, heart-healthy dietary patterns that contain lean beef elicit favorable effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) lipid and lipoprotein risk factors that are comparable to those elicited by a DASH dietary pattern. These results, in conjunction with the beneficial effects on apolipoprotein CVD risk factors after consumption of the BOLD and BOLD+ diets, which were greater with the BOLD+ diet, provide support for including lean beef in a heart-healthy dietary pattern. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00937898.

Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats

            (Santarelli, Vendeuvre et al. 2010) Download

Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary fat oxidation and cytotoxicity, three biomarkers of heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. A principal component analysis allowed for selection of four cured meats for inclusion into a promotion study. These selected diets were given for 100 days to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Colons were scored for preneoplastic lesions: aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF). Cured meat diets significantly increased the number of ACF/colon compared with a no-meat control diet (P = 0.002). Only the cooked nitrite-treated and oxidized high-heme meat significantly increased the fecal level of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (P < 0.05). This nitrite-treated and oxidized cured meat specifically increased the MDF number compared with similar nonnitrite-treated meat (P = 0.03) and with similar nonoxidized meat (P = 0.004). Thus, a model cured meat, similar to ham stored aerobically, increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, which suggests colon carcinogenesis promotion. Nitrite treatment and oxidation increased this promoting effect, which was linked with increased fecal ATNC level. This study could lead to process modifications to make nonpromoting processed meat.


Meat consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: the Multiethnic Cohort

            (Steinbrecher, Erber et al. 2011) Download

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of meat consumption with diabetes risk in the Hawaii component of the Multiethnic Cohort and to assess effect modification by ethnicity. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. Baseline information on diet and lifestyle was assessed by questionnaire. The cohort was followed up for incident cases of diabetes, which were identified through self-reports, medication questionnaires, or health plan linkages. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for diabetes associated with quintile of meat consumption. SETTING: Hawaii, USA. SUBJECTS: A total of 29,759 Caucasian, 35,244 Japanese-American and 10,509 Native Hawaiian men and women, aged 45-75 years at baseline. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up time of 14 years, 8587 incident diabetes cases were identified. Intake of red meat was positively associated with diabetes risk in men (fifth v. first quintile: HR=1.43; 95% CI 1.29, 1.59) and women (fifth v. first quintile: HR=1.30; 95% CI 1.17, 1.45) in adjusted models. The respective HR for processed red meat intake were 1.57 (95% CI 1.42, 1.75) and 1.45 (95% CI 1.30, 1.62). The association for processed poultry was weaker than for processed red meat, and fresh poultry intake was not associated with diabetes risk. For men only, we observed significant interactions of ethnicity with the red and processed red meat associations, with Caucasians experiencing slightly higher risks than Japanese-Americans. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the growing evidence that red and processed meat intake increase risk for diabetes irrespective of ethnicity and level of BMI.


References

Alexander, D. D., P. J. Mink, et al. (2010). "A review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of red and processed meat intake and prostate cancer." Nutr J 9: 50.

Alexander, D. D., D. L. Weed, et al. (2011). "Meta-analysis of prospective studies of red meat consumption and colorectal cancer." Eur J Cancer Prev 20(4): 293-307.

Ashaye, A., J. Gaziano, et al. (2011). "Red meat consumption and risk of heart failure in male physicians." Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 21(12): 941-6.

Bernstein, A. M., Q. Sun, et al. (2010). "Major dietary protein sources and risk of coronary heart disease in women." Circulation 122(9): 876-83.

Brand-Miller, J. C., H. J. Griffin, et al. (2012). "The carnivore connection hypothesis: revisited." J Obes 2012: 258624.

Chan, D. S., R. Lau, et al. (2011). "Red and processed meat and colorectal cancer incidence: meta-analysis of prospective studies." PLoS One 6(6): e20456.

Corpet, D. E. (2011). "Red meat and colon cancer: should we become vegetarians, or can we make meat safer?" Meat Sci 89(3): 310-6.

Cross, A. J., J. M. Major, et al. (2011). "Urinary biomarkers of meat consumption." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 20(6): 1107-11.

Daniel, C. R., A. J. Cross, et al. (2011). "Trends in meat consumption in the USA." Public Health Nutr 14(4): 575-83.

Larsson, S. C., J. Virtamo, et al. (2011). "Red meat consumption and risk of stroke in Swedish men." Am J Clin Nutr 94(2): 417-21.

Oh, S. M., H. C. Kim, et al. (2010). "Association between meat consumption and carotid intima-media thickness in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome." J Prev Med Public Health 43(6): 486-95.

Ornish, D. (2012). "Holy Cow! What's Good For You Is Good For Our Planet: Comment on "Red Meat Consumption and Mortality"." Arch Intern Med.

Pan, A., Q. Sun, et al. (2012). "Red Meat Consumption and Mortality: Results From 2 Prospective Cohort Studies." Arch Intern Med.

Pan, A., Q. Sun, et al. (2011). "Red meat consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis." Am J Clin Nutr 94(4): 1088-96.

Punnen, S., J. Hardin, et al. (2011). "Impact of meat consumption, preparation, and mutagens on aggressive prostate cancer." PLoS One 6(11): e27711.

Roussell, M. A., A. M. Hill, et al. (2012). "Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet study: effects on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins." Am J Clin Nutr 95(1): 9-16.

Santarelli, R. L., J. L. Vendeuvre, et al. (2010). "Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats." Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(7): 852-64.

Steinbrecher, A., E. Erber, et al. (2011). "Meat consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: the Multiethnic Cohort." Public Health Nutr 14(4): 568-74.