Ravnskov Abstracts 1

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Cholesterol lowering trials in coronary heart disease: frequency of citation and outcome.
            (Ravnskov, 1992a) Download
OBJECTIVE: To see if the claim that lowering cholesterol values prevents coronary heart disease is true or if it is based on citation of supportive trials only. DESIGN: Comparison of frequency of citation with outcome of all controlled cholesterol lowering trials using coronary heart disease or death, or both, as end point. SUBJECTS: 22 controlled cholesterol lowering trials. RESULTS: Trials considered by their directors as supportive of the contention were cited almost six times more often than others, according to Science Citation Index. Apart from trials discontinued because of alleged side effects of treatment, unsupportive trials were not cited after 1970, although their number almost equalled the number considered supportive. In three supportive reviews the outcome of the selected trials was more favourable than the outcome of the excluded and ignored trials. In the 22 controlled cholesterol lowering trials studied total and coronary heart disease mortality was not changed significantly either overall or in any subgroup. A statistically significant 0.32% reduction in non-fatal coronary heart disease seemed to be due to bias as event frequencies were unrelated to trial length and to mean net reduction in cholesterol value; individual changes in cholesterol values were unsystematically or not related to outcome; and after correction for a small but significant increase in non-medical deaths in the intervention groups total mortality remained unchanged (odds ratio 1.02). CONCLUSIONS: Lowering serum cholesterol concentrations does not reduce mortality and is unlikely to prevent coronary heart disease. Claims of the opposite are based on preferential citation of supportive trials.

Frequency of citation and outcome of cholesterol lowering trials.
            (Ravnskov, 1992b) Download

Cardiovascular disease in developing countries.
            (Ravnskov, 1993a) Download


 

Reducing serum cholesterol. Lower cholesterol of doubtful benefit to anyone.
            (Ravnskov, 1993b) Download

Ischaemic heart disease and cholesterol. Optimism about drug treatment is unjustified.
            (Ravnskov, 1994) Download

Statins as the new aspirin. Conclusions from the heart protection study were premature.
            (Ravnskov, 2002) Download

Dietary fat intake and risk of stroke: allegations about dietary fat are unfounded.
            (Ravnskov, 2003) Download

Europe in transition: dietary fat is not the villain.
            (Ravnskov, 2005) Download

Saturated fat does not affect blood cholesterol.
            (Ravnskov, 2006) Download

Re: The association between statins and cancer incidence in a veterans population.
            (Ravnskov, 2008) Download

The doubtful association between blood lipid changes and progression of atherosclerosis.
            (Ravnskov, 2011) Download

How macrophages are converted to foam cells.
            (Ravnskov and McCully, 2012a) Download

Infections may be causal in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
            (Ravnskov and McCully, 2012b) Download


 

More discrepancies around saturated fat and cardiovascular diseases.
            (Ravnskov, 2012) Download

No scientific support for linking dietary saturated fat to CHD.
            (Ravnskov et al., 2012) Download

Biofilms, lipoprotein aggregates, homocysteine, and arterial plaque rupture.
            (Ravnskov and McCully, 2014) Download

Lack of evidence that saturated fat causes cardiovascular disease.
            (Ravnskov, 2014) Download

The questionable benefits of exchanging saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat.
            (Ravnskov et al., 2014) Download

Authors' reply to Winkler and Ravnskov.
            (Micha and Mozaffarian, 2014) Download

 

 

 

 

 


References

Micha, R and D Mozaffarian (2014), ‘Authors’ reply to Winkler and Ravnskov.’, BMJ, 348 g3206. PubMedID: 25134125
Ravnskov, U (1992a), ‘Cholesterol lowering trials in coronary heart disease: frequency of citation and outcome.’, BMJ, 305 (6844), 15-19. PubMedID: 1638188
——— (1992b), ‘Frequency of citation and outcome of cholesterol lowering trials.’, BMJ, 305 (6855), 717. PubMedID: 1393143
——— (1993a), ‘Cardiovascular disease in developing countries.’, BMJ, 306 (6870), 145-46. PubMedID: 8435633
——— (1993b), ‘Reducing serum cholesterol. Lower cholesterol of doubtful benefit to anyone.’, BMJ, 307 (6896), 125. PubMedID: 8343717
——— (1994), ‘Ischaemic heart disease and cholesterol. Optimism about drug treatment is unjustified.’, BMJ, 308 (6935), 1038, 1041. PubMedID: 8167521
——— (2002), ‘Statins as the new aspirin. Conclusions from the heart protection study were premature.’, BMJ, 324 (7340), 789. PubMedID: 11923169
——— (2003), ‘Dietary fat intake and risk of stroke: allegations about dietary fat are unfounded.’, BMJ, 327 (7427), 1348; author reply 1348-49. PubMedID: 14656862
——— (2005), ‘Europe in transition: dietary fat is not the villain.’, BMJ, 331 (7521), 906-7; discussion 907. PubMedID: 16223837
——— (2006), ‘Saturated fat does not affect blood cholesterol.’, Am J Clin Nutr, 84 (6), 1550-1; author reply 1551. PubMedID: 17158443
——— (2008), ‘Re: The association between statins and cancer incidence in a veterans population.’, J Natl Cancer Inst, 100 (13), 972-3; author reply 973. PubMedID: 18577750
——— (2011), ‘The doubtful association between blood lipid changes and progression of atherosclerosis.’, Int J Cardiol, 153 (1), 95. PubMedID: 21937133
Ravnskov, U and KS McCully (2012a), ‘How macrophages are converted to foam cells.’, J Atheroscler Thromb, 19 (10), 949-50. PubMedID: 22785084
Ravnskov, U, et al. (2012), ‘No scientific support for linking dietary saturated fat to CHD.’, Br J Nutr, 107 (3), 455-7; author reply 458. PubMedID: 22166268
Ravnskov, U (2012), ‘More discrepancies around saturated fat and cardiovascular diseases.’, Nutrition, 28 (6), 713. PubMedID: 22578981
Ravnskov, U and KS McCully (2012b), ‘Infections may be causal in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.’, Am J Med Sci, 344 (5), 391-94. PubMedID: 22495581
Ravnskov, U (2014), ‘Lack of evidence that saturated fat causes cardiovascular disease.’, BMJ, 348 g3205. PubMedID: 25134124
Ravnskov, U and KS McCully (2014), ‘Biofilms, lipoprotein aggregates, homocysteine, and arterial plaque rupture.’, MBio, 5(5) (5), e01717-14. PubMedID: 25227468
Ravnskov, U, et al. (2014), ‘The questionable benefits of exchanging saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat.’, Mayo Clin Proc, 89 (4), 451-53. PubMedID: 24581756