Proton Pump Inhibitors Abstracts 1

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Long-term safety concerns with proton pump inhibitors.
            (Ali et al., 2009) Download
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely prescribed medications worldwide. Their use has resulted in dramatic improvements in treatment of peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Despite an acceptable safety profile, mounting data demonstrate concerns about the long-term use of PPIs. To provide a comprehensive review regarding the concerns of long-term PPI use, a literature search was performed to identify pertinent original and review articles. Despite study shortcomings, the collective body of information overwhelmingly suggests an increased risk of infectious complications and nutritional deficiencies. Data regarding any increased risk in gastric or colon malignancy are less convincing. PPIs have revolutionized the management and complications of acid-related disorders with a high margin of safety; however, with the data available, efforts to reduce the dosing of or discontinue the use of PPIs must be reassessed frequently.

Proton pump inhibitors and the risk of acute kidney injury in older patients: a population-based cohort study.
            (Antoniou et al., 2015) Download
BACKGROUND:  Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) cause interstitial nephritis and are an underappreciated cause of acute kidney injury. We examined the risk of acute kidney injury and acute interstitial nephritis in a large population of older patients receiving PPIs. METHODS:  We conducted a population-based study involving Ontario residents aged 66 years and older who initiated PPI therapy between Apr. 1, 2002, and Nov. 30, 2011. We used propensity score matching to establish a highly comparable reference group of control patients. The primary outcome was hospital admission with acute kidney injury within 120 days, and a secondary analysis examined acute interstitial nephritis. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to adjust for differences between groups. RESULTS:  We studied 290 592 individuals who commenced PPI therapy and an equal number of matched controls. The rates of acute kidney injury (13.49 v. 5.46 per 1000 person-years, respectively; hazard ratio [HR] 2.52, 95% CI 2.27 to 2.79) and acute interstitial nephritis (0.32 vs. 0.11 per 1000 person-years; HR 3.00, 95% CI 1.47 to 6.14) were higher among patients given PPIs than among controls. INTERPRETATION:  In our study population of older adults, those who started PPI therapy had an increased risk of acute kidney injury and acute interstitial nephritis. These are potentially reversible conditions that may not be readily attributed to drug treatment. Clinicians should appreciate the risk of acute interstitial nephritis during treatment with PPIs, monitor patients appropriately and discourage the indiscriminate use of these drugs.

Nitric oxide deficiency in chronic kidney disease.
            (Baylis, 2008) Download
The overall production of nitric oxide (NO) is decreased in chronic kidney disease (CKD) which contributes to cardiovascular events and further progression of kidney damage. There are many likely causes of NO deficiency in CKD and the areas surveyed in this review are: 1. Limitations on substrate (l-Arginine) availability, probably due to impaired renal l-Arginine biosynthesis, decreased transport of l-Arginine into endothelial cells and possible competition between NOS and competing metabolic pathways, such as arginase. 2. Increased circulating levels of endogenous NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors, in particular asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Increased methylation of proteins and their subsequent breakdown to release free ADMA may contribute but the major culprit is probably reduced ADMA catabolism by the enzymes dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases. 3. Reduced renal cortex abundance of the neuronal NOS (nNOS)alpha protein correlates with injury while increasing nNOSbeta abundance may provide a compensatory, protective response. Interventions that can restore NO production by targeting these various pathways are likely to reduce the cardiovascular complications of CKD as well as slowing the rate of progression.

Potential adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors.
            (Coté and Howden, 2008) Download
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have revolutionized the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease over the past two decades. Among the most commonly prescribed agents worldwide, PPIs' overall safety profile is unquestionable. However, emerging evidence indicates that PPI therapy, particularly with long-term and/or high-dose administration, is associated with several potential adverse effects, including enteric infections (eg, Clostridium difficile), community-acquired pneumonia, and hip fracture, all of which have received much attention recently. We review the current data on these and other potential consequences of PPI therapy. More judicious use of PPIs (eg, administering them in no more than the minimum effective dose to older adult patients) may help to further limit the impact of some of these possible adverse effects.


 

Which is the best choice for gastroesophageal disorders: Melatonin or proton pump inhibitors
            (de Oliveira Torres and de Souza Pereira, 2010) Download
Melatonin is used in many countries to improve sleep disorders. Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland and enterochromaffin cells which control sleep and gastrointestinal motility. Low levels of melatonin lead to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Most of patients with GERD have a sleep disorder. So, low melatonin levels is the main cause of insomnia. Beyond this, it has an inhibitory action on gastric acid secretion and seems to control the lower esophageal sphincter. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of gastric acid production. They are the most potent inhibitors of acid secretion available today. Omeprazole (one of the PPIs) and melatonin have similarities in their chemical structures. Therefore, we could consider omeprazole as a rough copy of melatonin. In this paper, we compare the advantages and disadvantages of the clinical use of melatonin and PPIs.

Proton pump inhibitors: predisposers to Alzheimer disease
            (Fallahzadeh et al., 2010) Download
The abnormal processing of amyloid-beta peptide (A beta) and resultant formation of fibrillar A beta (fA beta) are major events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Microglia as the phagocytic cells of the brain can engulf and digest fA beta within their acidic lysosomes. The lysosomes of AD patients are less acidic and therefore less capable of clearance of fA beta. Vacuolar proton pumps (V-ATPases) which are found abundantly in microglia and macrophages, acidify lysosomes by pumping protons into these structures. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can inhibit V-ATPases of the lysosomes. These drugs are shown to penetrate the blood-brain barrier in animals. PPIs are consumed for long periods in conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, with the resultant exposure of the human brain to the substantial amounts of PPIs. We hypothesize that by blocking the V-ATPases on microglial lysosomes, PPIs may basify lysosomes and hamper degradation of fA beta. Chronic consumption of PPIs may thus be a risk factor for AD.

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of kidney disease.
            (Fassett et al., 2010) Download
After more than 25 years of published investigation, including randomized controlled trials, the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of kidney disease remains unclear. In vitro and in vivo experimental studies support the efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on inflammatory pathways involved with the progression of kidney disease. Clinical investigations have focused predominantly on immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy. More recently, lupus nephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and other glomerular diseases have been investigated. Clinical trials have shown conflicting results for the efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in IgA nephropathy, which may relate to varying doses, proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, duration of therapy, and sample size of the study populations. Meta-analyses of clinical trials using omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in IgA nephropathy have been limited by the quality of available studies. However, guidelines suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids should be considered in progressive IgA nephropathy. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease blood pressure, a known accelerant of kidney disease progression. Well-designed, adequately powered, randomized, controlled clinical trials are required to further investigate the potential benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the progression of kidney disease and patient survival.

Proton pump inhibitors, osteoporosis, and osteoporosis-related fractures.
            (Fournier et al., 2009) Download
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most commonly prescribed medications today with an excellent short-term safety profile. Recently, a number of studies from a variety of data sources have reported an association between PPI use and hip fractures. However, there is not yet any direct evidence of a causal link between PPI use and the development of hip fracture. In the following paper, we will review the recent studies which have described this association between PPI use and hip fracture, and discuss the evidence supporting the likelihood of this association being causal, using data from previous work on the effects of surgical and pharmacological inhibition of gastric acid secretion on calcium absorption and bone mineral density. We will conclude by summarizing the current state of evidence on the relationship between gastric acid inhibition and the risk of fracture, and suggest management strategies for patients who require the long-term use of gastric acid inhibiting medications who also may be at risk for metabolic bone disease and fracture.

The Risks and Benefits of Long-term Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors: Expert Review and Best Practice Advice From the American Gastroenterological Association.
            (Freedberg et al., 2017) Download
BACKGROUND & AIMS:  The purpose of this review is to evaluate the risks associated with long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), focusing on long-term use of PPIs for three common indications: gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus (BE), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) bleeding prophylaxis. METHODS:  The recommendations outlined in this review are based on expert opinion and on relevant publications from PubMed, EMbase, and the Cochrane library (through July 2016). To identify relevant ongoing trials, we queried clinicaltrials.gov. To assess the quality of evidence, we used a modified approach based on the GRADE Working Group. The Clinical Practice Updates Committee of the American Gastroenterological Association has reviewed these recommendations. Best Practice Advice 1: Patients with GERD and acid-related complications (ie, erosive esophagitis or peptic stricture) should take a PPI for short-term healing, maintenance of healing, and long-term symptom control. Best Practice Advice 2: Patients with uncomplicated GERD who respond to short-term PPIs should subsequently attempt to stop or reduce them. Patients who cannot reduce PPIs should consider ambulatory esophageal pH/impedance monitoring before committing to lifelong PPIs to help distinguish GERD from a functional syndrome. The best candidates for this strategy may be patients with predominantly atypical symptoms or those who lack an obvious predisposition to GERD (eg, central obesity, large hiatal hernia). Best Practice Advice 3: Patients with Barrett's esophagus and symptomatic GERD should take a long-term PPI. Best Practice Advice 4: Asymptomatic patients with Barrett's esophagus should consider a long-term PPI. Best Practice Advice 5: Patients at high risk for ulcer-related bleeding from NSAIDs should take a PPI if they continue to take NSAIDs. Best Practice Advice 6: The dose of long-term PPIs should be periodically reevaluated so that the lowest effective PPI dose can be prescribed to manage the condition. Best Practice Advice 7: Long-term PPI users should not routinely use probiotics to prevent infection. Best Practice Advice 8: Long-term PPI users should not routinely raise their intake of calcium, vitamin B12, or magnesium beyond the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). Best Practice Advice 9: Long-term PPI users should not routinely screen or monitor bone mineral density, serum creatinine, magnesium, or vitamin B12. Best Practice Advice 10: Specific PPI formulations should not be selected based on potential risks.

Association of Proton Pump Inhibitors With Risk of Dementia: A Pharmacoepidemiological Claims Data Analysis.
            (Gomm et al., 2016) Download
IMPORTANCE:  Medications that influence the risk of dementia in the elderly can be relevant for dementia prevention. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases but have also been shown to be potentially involved in cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE:  To examine the association between the use of PPIs and the risk of incident dementia in the elderly. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:  We conducted a prospective cohort study using observational data from 2004 to 2011, derived from the largest German statutory health insurer, Allgemeine Ortskrankenkassen (AOK). Data on inpatient and outpatient diagnoses (coded by the German modification of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision) and drug prescriptions (categorized according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System) were available on a quarterly basis. Data analysis was performed from August to November 2015. EXPOSURES:  Prescription of omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole, esomeprazole, or rabeprazole. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:  The main outcome was a diagnosis of incident dementia coded by the German modification of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision. The association between PPI use and dementia was analyzed using time-dependent Cox regression. The model was adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, sex, comorbidities, and polypharmacy. RESULTS:  A total of 73,679 participants 75 years of age or older and free of dementia at baseline were analyzed. The patients receiving regular PPI medication (n = 2950; mean [SD] age, 83.8 [5.4] years; 77.9% female) had a significantly increased risk of incident dementia compared with the patients not receiving PPI medication (n = 70,729; mean [SD] age, 83.0 [5.6] years; 73.6% female) (hazard ratio, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.36-1.52]; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:  The avoidance of PPI medication may prevent the development of dementia. This finding is supported by recent pharmacoepidemiological analyses on primary data and is in line with mouse models in which the use of PPIs increased the levels of β-amyloid in the brains of mice. Randomized, prospective clinical trials are needed to examine this connection in more detail.

Proton pump inhibitors and risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency: evidence and clinical implications.
            (Heidelbaugh, 2013) Download
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) remain the superior choice worldwide in antisecretory therapy in the evidence-based treatment of upper gastrointestinal disorders including gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, dyspepsia and peptic ulcer disease. PPI overutilization in ambulatory care settings is often a result of failure to re-evaluate the need for continuation of therapy, or insufficient use of on-demand and step-down therapy. Nonjudicious use of PPIs creates both preventable financial as well as medical concerns. PPIs have been associated with an increased risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies impacting vitamin B12, vitamin C, calcium, iron and magnesium metabolism. While these risks are considered to be relatively low in the general population, they may be notable in elderly and malnourished patients, as well as those on chronic hemodialysis and concomitant PPI therapy. No current evidence recommends routine screening or supplementation for these potential vitamin and mineral deficiencies in patients on either short- or long-term PPI therapy. Reducing inappropriate prescribing of PPIs can minimize the potential risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies.


 

A case series of proton pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesemia.
            (Hoorn et al., 2010) Download
Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced hypomagnesemia has been recognized since 2006. Our aim was to further characterize the clinical consequences and possible mechanisms of this electrolyte disorder using 4 cases. Two men (aged 63 and 81 years) and 2 women (aged 73 and 62 years) had been using a PPI (esomeprazole, pantoprazole, omeprazole, and rabeprazole, 20-40 mg) for 1-13 years. They developed severe hypomagnesemia (magnesium, 0.30 +/- 0.28 mEq/L; reference, 1.40-2.10 mEq/L) with hypocalcemia (calcium, 6.4 +/- 1.8 mg/dL), relative hypoparathyroidism (parathyroid hormone, 43 +/- 6 pg/mL), and extremely low urinary calcium and magnesium excretion. One patient was admitted with postanoxic encephalopathy after a collapse likely caused by arrhythmia. The others had electrocardiogram abnormalities (prolonged QT interval, ST depression, and U waves). Concomitant hypokalemia (potassium, 2.8 +/- 0.1 mEq/L) was considered the trigger for these arrhythmias. Hypomagnesemia-induced kaliuresis (potassium excretion, 65 +/- 24 mEq/L) was identified as the cause of hypokalemia. This series of PPI-induced hypomagnesemia shows that this is a generic effect. It also indicates that hypomagnesemia may occur within 1 year of PPI therapy initiation and can have serious clinical consequences, likely triggered by the associated hypokalemia. A high index of suspicion is required in PPI users for unexplained hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, or associated symptoms.

Hypomagnesaemia due to use of proton pump inhibitors--a review.
            (Kuipers et al., 2009) Download
Magnesium homeostasis is essential for many intracellular processes and depends on the balance of intestinal absorption and renal excretion. Hypomagnesaemia may arise from various disorders. We review the literature on hypomagnesaemia due to the use of proton pump inhibitors, as illustrated by a case of a 76-year-old woman with muscle cramps and lethargy caused by hypomagnesaemia and hypocalcaemia with a low parathyroid hormone level while using esomeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). After oral magnesium repletion both abnormalities resolved. Fractional magnesium excretion was low, excluding excessive renal loss. A causal relation with PPI use was supported by the recurrence of hypomagnesaemia after rechallenge. In the past decade our understanding of transcellular magnesium transport was enhanced by the discovery of several gene mutations i.e. transient receptor potential melastin (TR PM) 6 and 7. In this light we discuss the possible aetiology of proton pump inhibitor related hypomagnesaemia.


 

Proton pump inhibitor and histamine 2 receptor antagonist use and vitamin B12 deficiency.
            (Lam et al., 2013) Download
IMPORTANCE:  Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) suppress the production of gastric acid and thus may lead to malabsorption of vitamin B12. However, few data exist regarding the associations between long-term exposure to these medications and vitamin B12 deficiency in large population-based studies. OBJECTIVE:  To study the association between use of PPIs and H2RAs and vitamin B12 deficiency in a community-based setting in the United States. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS:  We evaluated the association between vitamin B12 deficiency and prior use of acid-suppressing medication using a case-control study within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California population. We compared 25,956 patients having incident diagnoses of vitamin B12 deficiency between January 1997 and June 2011 with 184,199 patients without B12 deficiency. Exposures and outcomes were ascertained via electronic pharmacy, laboratory, and diagnostic databases. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:  Risk of vitamin B12 deficiency was estimated using odds ratios (ORs) from conditional logistic regression. RESULTS:  Among patients with incident diagnoses of vitamin B12 deficiency, 3120 (12.0%) were dispensed a 2 or more years' supply of PPIs, 1087 (4.2%) were dispensed a 2 or more years' supply of H2RAs (without any PPI use), and 21,749 (83.8%) had not received prescriptions for either PPIs or H2RAs. Among patients without vitamin B12 deficiency, 13,210 (7.2%) were dispensed a 2 or more years' supply of PPIs, 5897 (3.2%) were dispensed a 2 or more years' supply of H2RAs (without any PPI use), and 165,092 (89.6%) had not received prescriptions for either PPIs or H2RAs. Both a 2 or more years' supply of PPIs (OR, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.58-1.73]) and a 2 or more years' supply of H2RAs (OR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.17-1.34]) were associated with an increased risk for vitamin B12 deficiency. Doses more than 1.5 PPI pills/d were more strongly associated with vitamin B12 deficiency (OR, 1.95 [95% CI, 1.77-2.15]) than were doses less than 0.75 pills/d (OR, 1.63 [95% CI, 1.48-1.78]; P = .007 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:  Previous and current gastric acid inhibitor use was significantly associated with the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency. These findings should be considered when balancing the risks and benefits of using these medications.

Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease.
            (Lazarus et al., 2016) Download
IMPORTANCE:  Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most commonly used drugs worldwide and have been linked to acute interstitial nephritis. Less is known about the association between PPI use and chronic kidney disease (CKD). OBJECTIVE:  To quantify the association between PPI use and incident CKD in a population-based cohort. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:  In total, 10,482 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of at least 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were followed from a baseline visit between February 1, 1996, and January 30, 1999, to December 31, 2011. The data was analyzed from May 2015 to October 2015. The findings were replicated in an administrative cohort of 248,751 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of at least 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) from the Geisinger Health System. EXPOSURES:  Self-reported PPI use in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study or an outpatient PPI prescription in the Geisinger Health System replication cohort. Histamine2 (H2) receptor antagonist use was considered a negative control and active comparator. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:  Incident CKD was defined using diagnostic codes at hospital discharge or death in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, and by a sustained outpatient estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the Geisinger Health System replication cohort. RESULTS:  Among 10,482 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, the mean (SD) age was 63.0 (5.6) years, and 43.9% were male. Compared with nonusers, PPI users were more often of white race, obese, and taking antihypertensive medication. Proton pump inhibitor use was associated with incident CKD in unadjusted analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.45; 95% CI, 1.11-1.90); in analysis adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical variables (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.14-1.96); and in analysis with PPI ever use modeled as a time-varying variable (adjusted HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.17-1.55). The association persisted when baseline PPI users were compared directly with H2 receptor antagonist users (adjusted HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.01-1.91) and with propensity score-matched nonusers (HR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.13-2.74). In the Geisinger Health System replication cohort, PPI use was associated with CKD in all analyses, including a time-varying new-user design (adjusted HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.20-1.28). Twice-daily PPI dosing (adjusted HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.28-1.67) was associated with a higher risk than once-daily dosing (adjusted HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.21). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:  Proton pump inhibitor use is associated with a higher risk of incident CKD. Future research should evaluate whether limiting PPI use reduces the incidence of CKD.

Risk of kidney failure associated with the use of acetaminophen, aspirin, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.
            (Perneger et al., 1994) Download
BACKGROUND:  People who take analgesic drugs frequently may be at increased risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but the extent of this risk remains unclear. METHODS:  We studied 716 patients treated for ESRD and 361 control subjects of similar age from Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. The study participants were interviewed by telephone about their past use of medications containing acetaminophen, aspirin, and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). For each analgesic drug, the average use (in pills per year) and the cumulative intake (in pills) were examined for any association with ESRD. RESULTS:  Heavier acetaminophen use was associated with an increased risk of ESRD in a dose-dependent fashion. When persons who took an average of 0 to 104 pills per year were used for reference, the odds ratio of ESRD was 1.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.8 to 2.4) for those who took 105 to 365 pills per year and 2.1 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 3.7) for those who took 366 or more pills per year, after adjustment for race, sex, age, and intake of other analgesic drugs. When persons who had taken fewer than 1000 pills containing acetaminophen in their lifetime were used for reference, the odds ratio was 2.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 3.2) for those who had taken 1000 to 4999 pills and 2.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 4.8) for those who had taken 5000 or more pills. Approximately 8 to 10 percent of the overall incidence of ESRD was attributable to acetaminophen use. A cumulative dose of 5000 or more pills containing NSAIDs was also associated with an increased odds of ESRD (odds ratio, 8.8), but the use of aspirin was not. CONCLUSIONS:  People who often take acetaminophen or NSAIDs have an increased risk of ESRD, but not those who often take aspirin.

Proton Pump Inhibitor Usage and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction in the General Population.
            (Shah et al., 2015) Download
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:  Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes amongst clopidogrel users after an acute coronary syndrome. Recent pre-clinical results suggest that this risk might extend to subjects without any prior history of cardiovascular disease. We explore this potential risk in the general population via data-mining approaches. METHODS:  Using a novel approach for mining clinical data for pharmacovigilance, we queried over 16 million clinical documents on 2.9 million individuals to examine whether PPI usage was associated with cardiovascular risk in the general population. RESULTS:  In multiple data sources, we found gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients exposed to PPIs to have a 1.16 fold increased association (95% CI 1.09-1.24) with myocardial infarction (MI). Survival analysis in a prospective cohort found a two-fold (HR = 2.00; 95% CI 1.07-3.78; P = 0.031) increase in association with cardiovascular mortality. We found that this association exists regardless of clopidogrel use. We also found that H2 blockers, an alternate treatment for GERD, were not associated with increased cardiovascular risk; had they been in place, such pharmacovigilance algorithms could have flagged this risk as early as the year 2000. CONCLUSIONS:  Consistent with our pre-clinical findings that PPIs may adversely impact vascular function, our data-mining study supports the association of PPI exposure with risk for MI in the general population. These data provide an example of how a combination of experimental studies and data-mining approaches can be applied to prioritize drug safety signals for further investigation.


 

Proton pump inhibitor use represents an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction.
            (Shih et al., 2014) Download
BACKGROUND:  There is substantial debate regarding the development of acute coronary syndrome in patients using proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) combined with clopidogrel. However, data remain limited to address the effect of PPIs alone on the subsequent risk of myocardial infarction (MI). We aimed to explore the subsequent risk of MI in PPI users who had no previous history of MI. METHODS:  The records of inpatients and outpatients with PPI prescriptions were retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2000 and 2009. We conducted two different study designs, the first using propensity score (PS)-matching analyses and the second using case-crossover analyses. The risk of developing MI for PPI users was analyzed in the PS-matched study. The association between risk of MI and prior PPI exposure was further validated in the case-crossover study. RESULTS:  In the PS-matched study, we included 126,367 PPI users and 126,367 PS-matched PPI non-users. After 120 days of follow-up, PPI use was associated with a 1.58-fold greater risk of MI (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11 to 2.25). In the case-crossover study, adjusted odds ratios of PPI for MI risk were 4.61 (95% CI = 1.76 to 12.07) for the 7-day window and 3.47 (95% CI = 1.76 to 6.83) for the 14-day window. CONCLUSIONS:  Use of PPIs may be independently associated with an increased risk of MI. However, the benefits of PPIs may greatly outweigh the risks of adverse cardiovascular effects, with number needed to harm of 4357.

The effect of N-acetylcysteine on the incidence of contrast-induced kidney injury: A systematic review and trial sequential analysis.
            (Wang et al., 2016) Download
BACKGROUND:  There have been a myriad of studies investigating the effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However the consensus is still out about the effectiveness of NAC pre-treatment due to vastly mixed results amongst the literature. OBJECTIVES:  The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis to determine the effects of pre-operative NAC in lowering the incidence of CIN in patients undergoing CAG and/or PCI. METHODS:  A systematic literature search was performed to include all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing NAC versus control as pretreatment for CAG and/or PCI. A traditional meta-analysis and several subgroup analyses were conducted using traditional meta-analysis with relative risk (RR), trial sequential analysis, and meta-regression analysis. RESULTS:  43 RCTs met our inclusion criteria giving a total of 3277 patients in both control and treatment arms. There was a significant reduction in the risk of CIN in the NAC treated group compared to control (OR 0.666; 95% CI, 0.532-0.834; I2=40.11%; p=0.004). Trial sequential analysis, using a relative risk reduction threshold of 15%, indicates that the evidence is firm. CONCLUSIONS:  The results of the present paper support the use of NAC in the prevention of CIN in patients undergoing CAG±PCI. Future studies should focus on the benefits of NAC amongst subgroups of high-risk patients.

Long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy and risk of hip fracture.
            (Yang et al., 2006) Download
CONTEXT:  Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may interfere with calcium absorption through induction of hypochlorhydria but they also may reduce bone resorption through inhibition of osteoclastic vacuolar proton pumps. OBJECTIVE:  To determine the association between PPI therapy and risk of hip fracture. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS:  A nested case-control study was conducted using the General Practice Research Database (1987-2003), which contains information on patients in the United Kingdom. The study cohort consisted of users of PPI therapy and nonusers of acid suppression drugs who were older than 50 years. Cases included all patients with an incident hip fracture. Controls were selected using incidence density sampling, matched for sex, index date, year of birth, and both calendar period and duration of up-to-standard follow-up before the index date. For comparison purposes, a similar nested case-control analysis for histamine 2 receptor antagonists was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:  The risk of hip fractures associated with PPI use. RESULTS:  There were 13,556 hip fracture cases and 135,386 controls. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for hip fracture associated with more than 1 year of PPI therapy was 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-1.59). The risk of hip fracture was significantly increased among patients prescribed long-term high-dose PPIs (AOR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.80-3.90; P<.001). The strength of the association increased with increasing duration of PPI therapy (AOR for 1 year, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.15-1.30]; 2 years, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.28-1.56]; 3 years, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.37-1.73]; and 4 years, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.39-1.80]; P<.001 for all comparisons). CONCLUSION:  Long-term PPI therapy, particularly at high doses, is associated with an increased risk of hip fracture.

Proton pump inhibitors and risk of fractures: a meta-analysis of 11 international studies.
            (Yu et al., 2011) Download
BACKGROUND:  Concerns have been raised about the risk of fractures with acid-suppressive medications, such as proton pump inhibitors and histamine(2)-receptor antagonists. METHODS:  This meta-analysis evaluated the association between proton pump inhibitor or histamine(2)-receptor antagonist use and fractures. We performed a systematic search of published literature (1970 to October 10, 2010) in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other sources. Ten publications reporting 11 studies were considered eligible for analysis. RESULTS:  All studies were observational case-control or cohort studies and primarily evaluated older adults. The summary effect estimate for risk of hip fracture increased modestly among individuals taking proton pump inhibitors (relative risk [RR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-1.43). There also was an increase in spine (RR 1.56, 95% CI, 1.31-1.85) and any-site fractures (RR 1.16, 95% CI, 1.04-1.30) among proton pump inhibitor users. These findings were similar in both men and women and after stratification by duration of use. In contrast, histamine(2)-receptor antagonist use was not significantly associated with increased risk of hip fracture (RR 1.12, 95% CI, 0.97-1.30). CONCLUSION:  In this meta-analysis of observational studies, proton pump inhibitors modestly increased the risk of hip, spine, and any-site fractures, whereas histamine(2)-receptor antagonists were not associated with fracture risk. The possibility of residual confounding cannot be excluded. Further skeletal evaluation should be considered for patients who are taking proton pump inhibitors and also at risk for osteoporotic fracture.

Myrtus communis L. Freeze-Dried Aqueous Extract Versus Omeprazol in Gastrointestinal Reflux Disease: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.
            (Zohalinezhad et al., 2016) Download
The current work assessed a pharmaceutical dosage form of Myrtus communis L. (myrtle) in reflux disease compared with omeprazol via a 6-week double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Forty-five participants were assigned randomly to 3 groups as A (myrtle berries freeze-dried aqueous extract, 1000 mg/d), B (omeprazol capsules, 20 mg/d), and C (A and B). The assessment at the beginning and the end of the study was done by using a standardized questionnaire of frequency scale for the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (FSSG). In all groups, both reflux and dyspeptic scores significantly decreased in comparison with the respective baselines. Concerning each group, significant changes were found in FSSG, dysmotility-like symptoms and acid reflux related scores. No significant differences were observed between all groups in final FSSG total scores (FSSG2). Further studies with more precise design and larger sample size may lead to a better outcome to suggest the preparation as an alternative intervention.

 


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