Combination of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) and eugenol for apoptosis induction synergistically in androgen independent prostate cancer cells
(Ghosh, Ganapathy et al. 2009) Download
Lack of effective treatment options for the management of hormone refractory prostate cancer (PCA) reinforce the great need to develop novel compounds that act singly or in combination. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME(2)) is an endogenous estrogenic metabolite that has been reported to work as an antiproliferative agent in various tumor models including prostate. Recently conducted clinical trial in hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) patients concluded that 2-ME(2) was safe and well tolerated. However this study identified bioavailability of 2-ME(2) as a limiting factor. Here we report the ability of a combination of 2-ME(2) and eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) as an approach for enhancing anticancerous activities in prostate cancer cells. Combining 2-ME(2) with eugenol (i) inhibited growth of prostate cancer cells and induced apoptosis at lower concentrations than either single agent alone; (ii) analysis of the data using combination index (CI) showed CI values of 0.4 indicating strong synergistic interaction; (iii) increased population of cells G(2)/M phase by 4.5-fold (p=0.01); (iv) significantly reduced expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and enhanced expression of proapoptotic protein Bax. Combination induced apoptosis was not affected in PC-3 cells that over-express or lack Bcl-2 but was associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Since 2-ME(2) was well tolerated in phase II trail in patients with HRPC; and eugenol is consumed by humans in the form of spices, the combination of 2-ME(2) with eugenol may offer a new clinically relevant treatment regimen. Combining these agents may allow ameliorating any adverse effects of either 2-ME(2) or eugenol alone by reducing their individual concentrations should these two agents be developed for human use.
2-Methoxyoestradiol-3,17-O,O-bis-sulphamate and 2-deoxy-D-glucose in combination: a potential treatment for breast and prostate cancer
(Tagg, Foster et al. 2008) Download
Drug combination therapy is a key strategy to improve treatment efficacy and survival of cancer patients. In this study the effects of combining 2-methoxyoestradiol-3,17-O,O-bis-sulphamate (STX140), a microtubule disruptor, with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) were assessed in MCF-7 (breast) and LNCaP (prostate) xenograft models in vivo. In mice bearing MCF-7 xenografts, daily p.o. administration of STX140 (5 mg kg(-1)) resulted in a 46% (P<0.05) reduction of tumour volume. However, the combination of STX140 (5 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and 2DG (2 g kg(-1) i.p.) reduced tumour volume by 76% (P<0.001). 2-Methoxyoestradiol-3,17-O,O-bis-sulphamate also reduced tumour vessel density. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose alone had no significant effect on tumour volume or vessel density. A similar benefit of the combination treatment was observed in the LNCaP prostate xenograft model. In vitro the degree of inhibition of cell proliferation by STX140 was unaffected by oxygen concentrations. In contrast, the inhibition of proliferation by 2DG was enhanced under hypoxia by 20 and 25% in MCF-7 and LNCaP cells, respectively. The combination of STX140 and 2DG in LNCaP cells under normoxia or hypoxia inhibited proliferation to a greater extent than either compound alone. These results suggest that the antiangiogenic and microtubule disruption activities of STX140 may make tumours more susceptible to inhibition of glycolysis by 2DG. This is the first study to show the benefit of combining a microtubule disruptor with 2DG in the two most common solid tumours.
2-Methoxyestradiol modulates beta-catenin in prostate cancer cells: a possible mediator of 2-methoxyestradiol-induced inhibition of cell growth
(Van Veldhuizen, Ray et al. 2008) Download
2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME(2)) is a novel anticancer agent because of its ability to potentiate apoptotic cell death and inhibit cancer cell growth and angiogenesis. The modes of action of this agent, however, have not yet been fully elucidated. In our study, we have investigated whether 2-ME2 is able to modulate beta-catenin signaling in prostate cancer cells, which is one of the major players in cell-cell adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. We found that beta-catenin levels were significantly upregulated by 2-ME(2) in a dose-dependent manner in androgen dependent and independent prostate cancer total cellular extracts. We further show that beta-catenin levels were significantly increased in the membrane fraction, while nuclear fractions of beta-catenin were downregulated in the 2-ME(2)-treated cells. Accumulation of dephospho-beta-catenin (nondegraded form) parallel with Bcl-2 and Cyclin D1 downregulation was also achieved after 2-ME(2) treatment. Moreover, we demonstrate that the beta-catenin production by 2-ME(2) is mediated through the MEK/ERK-2 signaling pathway. Collectively, these results suggest that the cytostatic effect of 2-ME(2) may be mediated through the prevention of the translocation of beta-catenin to the nucleus parallel with an increase in cell-cell adhesion by increasing membrane beta-catenin production, eventually preventing cell migration. Moreover, dephospho-beta-catenin accumulation by 2ME(2) in the cytoplasm may contribute to the induction of apoptosis of these cells. Finally, studies testing the efficacy of 2-ME(2) in human prostate cancer are warranted to determine whether the inhibition of the expected loss of membranous beta-catenin and the upregulation of nuclear beta-catenin can prevent prostate cancer development and progression.
A phase II multicenter, randomized, double-blind, safety trial assessing the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of oral 2-methoxyestradiol capsules in hormone-refractory prostate cancer
(Sweeney, Liu et al. 2005) Download
PURPOSE: To determine whether the preclinical antitumor and antiangiogenic activity of 2-methoxyestradiol can be translated to the clinic. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer were enrolled into this phase II randomized, double-blind trial of two doses of oral 2-methoxyestradiol capsules (400 and 1,200 mg/d) given in 4-week cycles. Pharmacokinetic sampling was done on day 1 of cycles 1 and 2 and trough samples were obtained weekly. RESULTS: Thirty-three men were accrued between February and September 2001. The notable toxicity related to therapy was one grade 2 and two grade 3 episodes of liver transaminase elevation, which resolved with continued treatment in two patients. There were two cases of deep venous thromboses. The drug had nonlinear pharmacokinetic, rapid conversion to 2-methoxyestrone and approximately 85% conjugation. Trough plasma levels of unconjugated 2-methoxyestradiol and 2-methoxyestrone were approximately 4 and 40 ng/mL, respectively. Prostate-specific antigen declines between 21% and 40% were seen in seven patients in the 1,200 mg group and in one patient in the 400 mg group. The higher-dose group showed significantly decreased prostate-specific antigen velocity (P = 0.037) and compared with the 400 mg dose had a longer median time to prostate-specific antigen progression (109 versus 67 days; P = 0.094) and time on study (126 versus 61 days; P = 0.024). There was a 2.5- and 4-fold increase in sex hormone-binding globulin for the 400 and 1,200 mg dose levels, respectively, at days 28 and 56. CONCLUSION: 2-Methoxyestradiol is well tolerated and, despite suboptimal plasma levels and limited oral bioavailability with this capsule formulation, still showed some anticancer activity at 1,200 mg/d.
Ghosh, R., M. Ganapathy, et al. (2009). "Combination of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) and eugenol for apoptosis induction synergistically in androgen independent prostate cancer cells." J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 113(1-2): 25-35.
Sweeney, C., G. Liu, et al. (2005). "A phase II multicenter, randomized, double-blind, safety trial assessing the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of oral 2-methoxyestradiol capsules in hormone-refractory prostate cancer." Clin Cancer Res 11(18): 6625-33.
Tagg, S. L., P. A. Foster, et al. (2008). "2-Methoxyoestradiol-3,17-O,O-bis-sulphamate and 2-deoxy-D-glucose in combination: a potential treatment for breast and prostate cancer." Br J Cancer 99(11): 1842-8.
Van Veldhuizen, P. J., G. Ray, et al. (2008). "2-Methoxyestradiol modulates beta-catenin in prostate cancer cells: a possible mediator of 2-methoxyestradiol-induced inhibition of cell growth." Int J Cancer 122(3): 567-71.