Prions Abstracts 1

© 2012

Prophylactic effect of dietary seaweed Fucoidan against enteral prion infection

            (Doh-Ura, Kuge et al. 2007) Download

Dietary seaweed fucoidan delays the onset of disease of enterally infected mice with scrapie when given orally for 6 days after infection, but not when given before the infection. This effect was not modified at a tested fucoidan dose range and appeared to reach the maximum level at a concentration of 2.5% or less in feed. Daily uptake of fucoidan might be prophylactic against prion diseases caused by ingestion of prion-contaminated materials, although further evaluation of its pharmacology remains to be done.

A Medicinal Herb Scutellaria lateriflora Inhibits PrP Replication in vitro and Delays the Onset of Prion Disease in Mice

            (Eiden, Leidel et al. 2012) Download

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are characterized by the misfolding of the host encoded prion protein (PrP(C)) into a pathogenic isoform (PrP(Sc)) which leads to the accumulation of beta-sheet-rich fibrils and subsequent loss of neurons and synaptic functions. Although many compounds have been identified which inhibit accumulation or dissolve fibrils and aggregates in vitro there is no therapeutic treatment to stop these progressive neurodegenerative diseases. Here we describe the effects of the traditional medicinal herb Scutellaria lateriflora (S. lateriflora) and its natural compounds, the flavonoids baicalein and baicalin, on the development of prion disease using in vitro and in vivo models. S. lateriflora extract as well as both constituents reduced the PrP(res) accumulation in scrapie-infected cell cultures and cell-free conversion assays and lead to the destabilization of pre-existing PrP(Sc) fibrils. Moreover, tea prepared from S. lateriflora, prolonged significantly the incubation time of scrapie-infected mice upon oral treatment. Therefore S. lateriflora extracts as well as the individual compounds can be considered as promising candidates for the development of new therapeutic drugs against TSEs and other neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.


Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens

            (Johnson, Bennett et al. 2011) Download

The disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrP(TSE) inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrP(TSE). Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrP(TSE)-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrP(TSE) and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

Medicinal plants: a natural chaperones source for treating neurological disorders

            (Kastenholz and Garfin 2009) Download

Currently, no pharmaceuticals for the etiological treatment of neurodegenerative protein-misfolding diseases (e.g., ALS, Alzheimer's or prion diseases) are available. In this brief communication the development of chaperone-based medications from medicinal plants (e.g., Ginkgo biloba) are reviewed as referred to specific protein-protein interactions of plant metallochaperones and human enzymes. It is indicated that bioactive copper chaperones for superoxide dismutase isolated from medicinal plants may be lead molecules for drug development in several diseases concerning metal ion metabolisms of man and animals.


Towards a unifying, systems biology understanding of large-scale cellular death and destruction caused by poorly liganded iron: Parkinson's, Huntington's, Alzheimer's, prions, bactericides, chemical toxicology and others as examples

            (Kell 2010) Download

Exposure to a variety of toxins and/or infectious agents leads to disease, degeneration and death, often characterised by circumstances in which cells or tissues do not merely die and cease to function but may be more or less entirely obliterated. It is then legitimate to ask the question as to whether, despite the many kinds of agent involved, there may be at least some unifying mechanisms of such cell death and destruction. I summarise the evidence that in a great many cases, one underlying mechanism, providing major stresses of this type, entails continuing and autocatalytic production (based on positive feedback mechanisms) of hydroxyl radicals via Fenton chemistry involving poorly liganded iron, leading to cell death via apoptosis (probably including via pathways induced by changes in the NF-kappaB system). While every pathway is in some sense connected to every other one, I highlight the literature evidence suggesting that the degenerative effects of many diseases and toxicological insults converge on iron dysregulation. This highlights specifically the role of iron metabolism, and the detailed speciation of iron, in chemical and other toxicology, and has significant implications for the use of iron chelating substances (probably in partnership with appropriate anti-oxidants) as nutritional or therapeutic agents in inhibiting both the progression of these mainly degenerative diseases and the sequelae of both chronic and acute toxin exposure. The complexity of biochemical networks, especially those involving autocatalytic behaviour and positive feedbacks, means that multiple interventions (e.g. of iron chelators plus antioxidants) are likely to prove most effective. A variety of systems biology approaches, that I summarise, can predict both the mechanisms involved in these cell death pathways and the optimal sites of action for nutritional or pharmacological interventions.

New inhibitors of scrapie-associated prion protein formation in a library of 2000 drugs and natural products

            (Kocisko, Baron et al. 2003) Download

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal, untreatable neurodegenerative diseases associated with the accumulation of a disease-specific form of prion protein (PrP) in the brain. One approach to TSE therapeutics is the inhibition of PrP accumulation. Indeed, many inhibitors of the accumulation of PrP associated with scrapie (PrP(Sc)) in scrapie-infected mouse neuroblastoma cells (ScN(2)a) also have antiscrapie activity in rodents. To expedite the search for potential TSE therapeutic agents, we have developed a high-throughput screening assay for PrP(Sc) inhibitors using ScN(2)a cells in a 96-well format. A library of 2000 drugs and natural products was screened in ScN(2)a cells infected with scrapie strain RML (Chandler) or 22L. Forty compounds were found to have concentrations causing 50% inhibition (IC(50)s) of PrP(Sc) accumulation of <or=10 microM against both strains. Seventeen had IC(50)s of <or=1 microM against both strains. Several classes of compounds were represented in the 17 most potent inhibitors, including naturally occurring polyphenols (e.g., tannic acid and tea extracts), phenothiazines, antihistamines, statins, and antimalarial compounds. These 17 compounds were also evaluated in a solid-phase cell-free hamster PrP conversion assay. Only the polyphenols inhibited the cell-free reaction, and their IC(50)s were near 100 nM. Several of the new PrP(Sc) inhibitors cross the blood-brain barrier and thus have potential to be effective after TSE infection reaches the brain. The fact that many are either approved human drugs or edible natural products should facilitate their use in animal testing and clinical trials.

Cellular and molecular actions of Methylene Blue in the nervous system

            (Oz, Lorke et al. 2011) Download

Methylene Blue (MB), following its introduction to biology in the 19th century by Ehrlich, has found uses in various areas of medicine and biology. At present, MB is the first line of treatment in methemoglobinemias, is used frequently in the treatment of ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy, and is routinely employed as a diagnostic tool in surgical procedures. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that MB has beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease and memory improvement. Although the modulation of the cGMP pathway is considered the most significant effect of MB, mediating its pharmacological actions, recent studies indicate that it has multiple cellular and molecular targets. In the majority of cases, biological effects and clinical applications of MB are dictated by its unique physicochemical properties including its planar structure, redox chemistry, ionic charges, and light spectrum characteristics. In this review article, these physicochemical features and the actions of MB on multiple cellular and molecular targets are discussed with regard to their relevance to the nervous system.

The prion protein binds thiamine

            (Perez-Pineiro, Bjorndahl et al. 2011) Download

Although highly conserved throughout evolution, the exact biological function of the prion protein is still unclear. In an effort to identify the potential biological functions of the prion protein we conducted a small-molecule screening assay using the Syrian hamster prion protein [shPrP(90-232)]. The screen was performed using a library of 149 water-soluble metabolites that are known to pass through the blood-brain barrier. Using a combination of 1D NMR, fluorescence quenching and surface plasmon resonance we identified thiamine (vitamin B1) as a specific prion ligand with a binding constant of ~60 muM. Subsequent studies showed that this interaction is evolutionarily conserved, with similar binding constants being seen for mouse, hamster and human prions. Various protein construct lengths, both with and without the unstructured N-terminal region in the presence and absence of copper, were examined. This indicates that the N-terminus has no influence on the protein's ability to interact with thiamine. In addition to thiamine, the more biologically abundant forms of vitamin B1 (thiamine monophosphate and thiamine diphosphate) were also found to bind the prion protein with similar affinity. Heteronuclear NMR experiments were used to determine thiamine's interaction site, which is located between helix 1 and the preceding loop. These data, in conjunction with computer-aided docking and molecular dynamics, were used to model the thiamine-binding pharmacophore and a comparison with other thiamine binding proteins was performed to reveal the common features of interaction.

Green tea extracts interfere with the stress-protective activity of PrP and the formation of PrP

            (Rambold, Miesbauer et al. 2008) Download

A hallmark in prion diseases is the conformational transition of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into a pathogenic conformation, designated scrapie prion protein (PrP(Sc)), which is the essential constituent of infectious prions. Here, we show that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and gallocatechin gallate, the main polyphenols in green tea, induce the transition of mature PrP(C) into a detergent-insoluble conformation distinct from PrP(Sc). The PrP conformer induced by EGCG was rapidly internalized from the plasma membrane and degraded in lysosomal compartments. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies revealed that EGCG directly interacts with PrP leading to the destabilizing of the native conformation and the formation of random coil structures. This activity was dependent on the gallate side chain and the three hydroxyl groups of the trihydroxyphenyl side chain. In scrapie-infected cells EGCG treatment was beneficial; formation of PrP(Sc) ceased. However, in uninfected cells EGCG interfered with the stress-protective activity of PrP(C). As a consequence, EGCG-treated cells showed enhanced vulnerability to stress conditions. Our study emphasizes the important role of PrP(C) to protect cells from stress and indicate efficient intracellular pathways to degrade non-native conformations of PrP(C).


References

Doh-Ura, K., T. Kuge, et al. (2007). "Prophylactic effect of dietary seaweed Fucoidan against enteral prion infection." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51(6): 2274-7.

Eiden, M., F. Leidel, et al. (2012). "A Medicinal Herb Scutellaria lateriflora Inhibits PrP Replication in vitro and Delays the Onset of Prion Disease in Mice." Front Psychiatry 3: 9.

Johnson, C. J., J. P. Bennett, et al. (2011). "Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens." PLoS One 6(5): e19836.

Kastenholz, B. and D. E. Garfin (2009). "Medicinal plants: a natural chaperones source for treating neurological disorders." Protein Pept Lett 16(2): 116-20.

Kell, D. B. (2010). "Towards a unifying, systems biology understanding of large-scale cellular death and destruction caused by poorly liganded iron: Parkinson's, Huntington's, Alzheimer's, prions, bactericides, chemical toxicology and others as examples." Arch Toxicol 84(11): 825-89.

Kocisko, D. A., G. S. Baron, et al. (2003). "New inhibitors of scrapie-associated prion protein formation in a library of 2000 drugs and natural products." J Virol 77(19): 10288-94.

Oz, M., D. E. Lorke, et al. (2011). "Cellular and molecular actions of Methylene Blue in the nervous system." Med Res Rev 31(1): 93-117.

Perez-Pineiro, R., T. C. Bjorndahl, et al. (2011). "The prion protein binds thiamine." FEBS J 278(21): 4002-14.

Rambold, A. S., M. Miesbauer, et al. (2008). "Green tea extracts interfere with the stress-protective activity of PrP and the formation of PrP." J Neurochem 107(1): 218-29.