Platycodon Abstracts 1

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The Effects of Platycodin D, a Saponin Purified from Platycodi Radix, on Collagen-Induced DBA/1J Mouse Rheumatoid Arthritis.
            (Kwon et al., 2014) Download
The object of this study is to observe the effects of platycodin D, a saponin purified from Platycodi Radix, on mice collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). A daily dose of 200, 100, and 50 mg/kg platycodin D was administered orally to male DBA/1J mice for 40 days after initial collagen immunization. To ascertain the effects administering the collagen booster, CIA-related features (including body weight, poly-arthritis, knee and paw thickness, and paw weight increase) was measured from histopathological changes in the spleen, left popliteal lymph node, third digit, and the knee joint regions. CIA-related bone and cartilage damage improved significantly in the platycodin D-administered CIA mice. Additionally, myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in the paw were reduced in platycodin D-treated CIA mice compared to CIA control groups. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of oxidative stress, decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the platycodin D group. Finally, the production of IL-6 and TNF- alpha , involved in rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis, was suppressed by treatment with platycodin D. Taken together, these results suggest that platycodin D is a promising new effective antirheumatoid arthritis agent, exerting anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and immunomodulatory effects in CIA mice.

Platycosides from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum and Their Health Benefits.
            (Nyakudya et al., 2014) Download
The extracts and pure saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) are reported to have a wide range of health benefits. Platycosides (saponins) from the roots of PG are characterized by a structure containing a triterpenoid aglycone and two sugar chains. Saponins are of commercial significance, and their applications are increasing with increasing evidence of their health benefits. The biological effects of saponins include cytotoxic effects against cancer cells, neuroprotective activity, antiviral activity, and cholesterol lowering effects. Saponins with commercial value range from crude plant extracts, which can be used for their foaming properties, to high purity saponins such as platycodin D, which can be used for its health applications (e.g., as a vaccine adjuvant). This review reveals that platycosides have many health benefits and have the potential to be used as a remedy against many of the major health hazards (e.g., cancer, obesity, alzheimer's) faced by populations around the world. Methods of platycoside purification and analysis are also covered in this review.

Anti-allergic activity of a platycodon root ethanol extract
            (Oh et al., 2010) Download
Platycodon grandiflorum (Campanulaceae) is used as traditional medicine in Asian countries. In Korean traditional medicine, Platycodon root has been widely used since ancient times as a traditional drug to treat cold, cough and asthma. However, its effects on bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC)-mediated allergy and inflammation mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the biological effect of Platycodon root ethanol extract (PE) was evaluated in BMMC after induction of allergic mediators by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) stimulation. The effect of PE on the production of several allergic mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)), beta-Hexosaminidase (beta-Hex) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, was investigated. The results demonstrate that PE inhibits PMA + A23187 induced production of IL-6, PGD(2), LTC(4), beta-Hexosaminidase and COX-2 protein. Taken together, these results indicate that PE has the potential for use in the treatment of allergy.

Effects of the root of Platycodon grandiflorum on airway mucin hypersecretion in vivo and platycodin D(3) and deapi-platycodin on production and secretion of airway mucin in vitro
            (Ryu et al., 2014) Download
We investigated whether aqueous extract of the root of Platycodon grandiflorum A. de Candolle (APG), platycodinD(3) and deapi-platycodin significantly affect the production and secretion of airway mucin using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Effect of APG was checked on hypersecretion of pulmonary mucin in sulfur dioxide-induced bronchitis in rats. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with platycodinD(3) or deapi-platycodin for 30min and then stimulated with PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) for 24h. The MUC5AC mucin production and secretion were measured by ELISA. The results were as follows: (1) APG stimulated the secretion of airway mucin in sulfur dioxide-induced bronchitis rat model; (2) platycodinD(3) and deapi-platycodin inhibited the production of MUC5AC mucin induced by PMA from NCI-H292 cells, respectively; (3) however, platycodinD(3) and deapi-platycodin did not inhibit but stimulated the secretion of MUC5AC mucin induced by PMA from NCI-H292 cells, respectively. This result suggests that aqueous extract of P. grandiflorum A. de Candolle and the two natural products derived from it, platycodinD(3) and deapi-platycodin, can regulate the production and secretion of airway mucin and, at least in part, explains the traditional use of aqueous extract of P. grandiflorum A. de Candolle as expectorants in diverse inflammatory pulmonary diseases.

A promising balanced Th1 and Th2 directing immunological adjuvant, saponins from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum.
            (Xie et al., 2008) Download
The haemolytic activities and adjuvant potentials of Platycodon grandiflorum saponin (PGS) and its fractions on the cellular and humoral immune responses of ICR mice against ovalbumin (OVA) were evaluated. PGS was subjected to silica gel column chromatography to afford four fractions, and two fractions PGSC and PGSD selected for testing for activities because of containing dominant saponin peaks. PGS, PGSC, and PGSD showed a slight haemolytic effect, with their HD50 value being 37.91+/-2.24, 21.30+/-1.22, 37.58+/-1.86 microg/ml against 0.5% rabbit red blood cell, respectively. ICR mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA 100 microg alone or with OVA 100 microg dissolved in saline containing Alum (200 microg), Quil A (10 microg), PGS (50, 100 or 200 microg), PGSC, or PGSD (25, 50 or 100 microg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks later (day 28), concanavalin A (Con A)-, pokeweed (PWM)-, and OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation and OVA-specific antibodies in serum were measured. PGS and PGSC significantly enhanced the Con A-, PWM-, and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation in OVA-immunized mice at three doses (P<0.01 or P<0.001). However, no significant differences (P>0.05) were observed among the OVA group, OVA/Alum group and OVA/PGSD group. OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b antibody levels in serum were significantly enhanced by PGS, PGSC, and PGSD compared with OVA control group (P<0.05, P<0.01, or P<0.001). Moreover, the adjuvant effects of PGSC (50 or 100 microg) on the OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b antibody responses to OVA in mice were more significant than those of Alum. In conclusion, PGS seem to be a promising balanced Th1 and Th2 directing immunological adjuvants which can enhance the immunogenicity of vaccine.

Platycodin D is a potent adjuvant of specific cellular and humoral immune responses against recombinant hepatitis B antigen.
            (Xie et al., 2009) Download
The ideal adjuvants for hepatitis B vaccines should be capable of eliciting both strong humoral and cellular immune responses, especially Th1 cell and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. However, Alum used as adjuvants in the hepatitis B vaccines currently commercialized offers limitation in inducing cell-mediated response. Therefore, a less hemolytic saponin platycodin D (PD) from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum has been explored for its potential as an alternative adjuvant. In order to compare the adjuvant activity with Alum, antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses were evaluated following immunization with a formulation containing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) adjuvanted with PD and Alum in mice. The Con A-, LPS-, and HBsAg-induced splenocyte proliferation and the serum HBsAg-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibody titers in the HBsAg-immunized mice were significantly enhanced by PD (P<0.05, P<0.01 or P<0.001). PD also significantly promoted the production of Th1 (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-10) cytokines and up-regulated the mRNA expression of Th1 cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) in splenocytes from the mice immunized with HBsAg (P<0.001). Besides, PD remarkably increased the killing activities of natural killer (NK) cells and CTLs from splenocytes in the HBsAg-immunized mice (P<0.001), which may have important implications for vaccination against hepatitis B virus. The results indicated that PD has strong potential to increase both cellular and humoral immune responses and elicit a balanced Th1/Th2 response against HBsAg, and that PD may be the candidates as adjuvants for use in prophylactic and therapeutic hepatitis B vaccine.


References

Kwon, OG, et al. (2014), ‘The Effects of Platycodin D, a Saponin Purified from Platycodi Radix, on Collagen-Induced DBA/1J Mouse Rheumatoid Arthritis.’, Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2014 954508. PubMedID: 24511322
Nyakudya, E, et al. (2014), ‘Platycosides from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum and Their Health Benefits.’, Prev Nutr Food Sci, 19 (2), 59-68. PubMedID: 25054103
Oh, Y. C., et al. (2010), ‘Anti-allergic activity of a platycodon root ethanol extract’, Int J Mol Sci, 11 (7), 2746-58. PubMedID: 20717534
Ryu, J., et al. (2014), ‘Effects of the root of Platycodon grandiflorum on airway mucin hypersecretion in vivo and platycodin D(3) and deapi-platycodin on production and secretion of airway mucin in vitro’, Phytomedicine, 21 (4), 529-33. PubMedID: 24290472
Xie, Y, et al. (2008), ‘A promising balanced Th1 and Th2 directing immunological adjuvant, saponins from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum.’, Vaccine, 26 (31), 3937-45. PubMedID: 18547688
Xie, Y, HX Sun, and D Li (2009), ‘Platycodin D is a potent adjuvant of specific cellular and humoral immune responses against recombinant hepatitis B antigen.’, Vaccine, 27 (5), 757-64. PubMedID: 19041358