Phenylbutyric Acid Abstracts 1

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Potential of Phenylbutyrate as Adjuvant Chemotherapy: An Overview of Cellular and Molecular Anticancer Mechanisms.
            (Al-Keilani and Al-Sawalha, 2017) Download
Despite the advancement in cancer therapy, a high number of patients fail treatment because of drug resistance. Several preclinical in vitro data suggest that phenylbutyrate has antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, antimetastatic, immunomodulatory, and differentiating properties. Moreover, phenylbutyrate administration in vivo provided an oncoprotective effect. However, the results of clinical trials indicate that the antineoplastic potential of phenylbutyrate is hindered by its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Thus, understanding the exact mechanisms of the anticancer effect of phenylbutyrate could assist in the selection of patients who will best benefit from this drug. The present review discusses the proposed mechanisms of antineoplastic effect of phenylbutyrate and the preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting its potential role as anticancer in different types of cancer.

Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases.
            (Canani et al., 2011) Download
The multiple beneficial effects on human health of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, synthesized from non-absorbed carbohydrate by colonic microbiota, are well documented. At the intestinal level, butyrate plays a regulatory role on the transepithelial fluid transport, ameliorates mucosal inflammation and oxidative status, reinforces the epithelial defense barrier, and modulates visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility. In addition, a growing number of studies have stressed the role of butyrate in the prevention and inhibition of colorectal cancer. At the extraintestinal level, butyrate exerts potentially useful effects on many conditions, including hemoglobinopathies, genetic metabolic diseases, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and ischemic stroke. The mechanisms of action of butyrate are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effects on gene expression. These data suggest a wide spectrum of positive effects exerted by butyrate, with a high potential for a therapeutic use in human medicine.


 

Ursodeoxycholic acid and 4-phenylbutyrate prevent endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced podocyte apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy.
            (Cao et al., 2016)  Download
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, resulting from the accumulation of misfolded and/or unfolded proteins in ER membranes, is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ER stress inhibitors ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) in the treatment of DN in db/db mice. Findings have revealed that diabetic db/db mice were more hyperglycemic than their non-diabetic controls, and exhibited a marked increase in body weight, water intake, urine volume, fasting plasma glucose, systolic blood pressure, glucose and insulin tolerance. UDCA (40 mg/kg/day) or 4-PBA (100 mg/kg/day) treatment for 12 weeks resulted in an improvement in these biochemical and physical parameters. Moreover, UDCA or 4-PBA intervention markedly decreased urinary albuminuria and attenuated mesangial expansion in diabetic db/db mice, compared with db/db mice treated with vehicle. These beneficial effects of UDCA or 4-PBA on DN were associated with the inhibition of ER stress, as evidenced by the decreased expression of BiP, phospho-IRE1α, phospho-eIF2α, CHOP, ATF-6 and spliced X-box binding protein-1 in vitro and in vivo. UDCA or 4-PBA prevented hyperglycemia-induced or high glucose (HG)-induced apoptosis in podocytes in vivo and in vitro via the inhibition of caspase-3 and caspase-12 activation. Autophagy deficiency was also seen in glomeruli in diabetic mice and HG-incubated podocytes, exhibiting decreased expression of LC3B and Beclin-1, which could be restored by UDCA or 4-PBA treatment. Taken together, our results have revealed an important role of ER stress in the development of DN, and UDCA or 4-PBA treatment may be a potential novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of DN.

Defining the mechanism of action of 4-phenylbutyrate to develop a small-molecule-based therapy for Alzheimer's disease.
            (Cuadrado-Tejedor et al., 2011) Download
4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) is a small molecule that restores cognitive deficits in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the molecular basis of the cognitive benefits of PBA remains unknown, a multi-modal/multi-target mechanism has been proposed. Putative targets of this drug are different from those of drugs that are now used in clinical trials. As PBA is already administered to patients with congenital defects affecting enzymes in the urea cycle, it can be rapidly tested in AD clinical trials. However, the main drawback to its therapeutic use is the high dosage required (up to 15 g/day). Thus, deciphering the precise mechanism(s) of action of this drug may enable novel drugs with similar therapeutic effects to PBA to be developed that can be used at more manageable doses.


4-Phenylbutyrate modulates ubiquitination of hepatocanalicular MRP2 and reduces serum total bilirubin concentration.
            (Hayashi et al., 2012)  Download
BACKGROUND & AIMS:  Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (in humans, MRP2; in rodents, Mrp2) mediates biliary excretion of bilirubin glucuronides. Therefore, upregulation of MRP2/Mrp2 expression may improve hyperbilirubinemia. We investigated the effects of 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA), a drug used to treat ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), on the cell surface expression and transport function of MRP2/Mrp2 and serum T-Bil concentration. METHODS:  MRP2-expressing MDCKII (MRP2-MDCKII) cells and rats were studied to explore the change induced by 4PBA treatment in the cell surface expression and transport function of MRP2/Mrp2 and its underlying mechanism. Serum and liver specimens from OTCD patients were analyzed to examine the effect of 4PBA on hepatic MRP2 expression and serum T-Bil concentration in humans. RESULTS:  In MRP2-MDCKII cells and the rat liver, 4PBA increased the cell surface expression and transport function of MRP2/Mrp2. In patients with OTCD, hepatic MRP2 expression increased and serum T-Bil concentration decreased significantly after 4PBA treatment. In vitro studies designed to explore the mechanism underlying this drug action suggested that cell surface-resident MRP2/Mrp2 is degraded via ubiquitination-mediated targeting to the endosomal/lysosomal degradation pathway and that 4PBA inhibits the degradation of cell surface-resident MRP2/Mrp2 by reducing its susceptibility to ubiquitination. CONCLUSIONS:  4PBA activates MRP2/Mrp2 function through increased expression of MRP2/Mrp2 at the hepatocanalicular membrane by modulating its ubiquitination, and thereby decreases serum T-Bil concentration. 4PBA has thus therapeutic potential for improving hyperbilirubinemia.

Phenylbutyrate exerts adverse effects on liver regeneration and amino acid concentrations in partially hepatectomized rats.
            (Holecek and Vodenicarovova, 2016) Download
Phenylbutyrate is recommended in urea cycle disorders and liver injury to enhance nitrogen disposal by the urine. However, hypothetically there may be adverse responses to the use of phenylbutyrate in the treatment of liver disease because of its role as a histone deacetylase inhibitor and its stimulatory effect on branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine). We report the effects of phenylbutyrate on liver regeneration and amino acid levels in plasma of partially hepatectomized (PH) rats. Phenylbutyrate or saline was administered at 12-h intervals to PH or laparotomized rats. Phenylbutyrate delayed the onset of liver regeneration compared to the saline-treated controls, as indicated by lower hepatic DNA specific activities 18 and 24( ) h post-PH, decreased hepatic fractional protein synthesis rates 24 h post-PH and lowered the increases in liver weights and hepatic protein and DNA contents 48 h after PH. Hepatic DNA fragmentation (a hallmark of apoptosis) was higher in the phenylbutyrate-treated animals than in controls. Phenylbutyrate decreased the glutamine and BCAA concentrations and the ratio of the BCAA to aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine) in the blood plasma in both hepatectomized and laparotomized animals. In conclusion, the delayed onset of liver regeneration and the decrease in BCAA/AAA ratio in blood suggest that phenylbutyrate administration may be disastrous in subjects with acute hepatic injury and BCAA supplementation is needed when phenylbutyrate is used therapeutically.

Acute effects of phenylbutyrate on glutamine, branched-chain amino acid and protein metabolism in skeletal muscles of rats.
            (Holecek et al., 2017) Download
Phenylbutyrate (PB) acts as chemical chaperone and histone deacetylase inhibitor, which is used to decrease ammonia in urea cycle disorders and has been investigated for use in the treatment of a number of lethal illnesses. We performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to examine the effects of PB on glutamine (GLN), branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine) and protein metabolism in rats. In the first study, animals were sacrificed one hour after three injections of PB (300mg/kg b.w.) or saline. In the second study, soleus (SOL, slow twitch) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL, fast twitch) muscles were incubated in a medium with or without PB (5 mM). L-[1-14 C] leucine was used to estimate protein synthesis and leucine oxidation, and 3-methylhistidine release was used to evaluate myofibrillar protein breakdown. PB treatment decreased GLN, BCAA and branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) in blood plasma, decreased BCAA and increased GLN concentrations in muscles, and increased GLN synthetase activities in muscles. Addition of PB to incubation medium increased leucine oxidation (55% in EDL, 29% in SOL), decreased BCKA and increased GLN in medium of both muscles, increased GLN in muscles, decreased protein synthesis in SOL and increased proteolysis in EDL. It is concluded that PB decreases BCAA, BCKA and GLN in blood plasma, activates BCAA catabolism and GLN synthesis in muscle and exerts adverse effects on protein metabolism. The results indicate that BCAA and GLN supplementation is needed when PB is used therapeutically and that PB may be a useful prospective agent which could be effective in management of maple syrup urine disease.

Clinical and experimental applications of sodium phenylbutyrate.
            (Iannitti and Palmieri, 2011) Download
Histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase are enzymes responsible for histone acetylation and deacetylation, respectively, in which the histones are acetylated and deacetylated on lysine residues in the N-terminal tail and on the surface of the nucleosome core. These processes are considered the most important epigenetic mechanisms for remodeling the chromatin structure and controlling the gene expression. Histone acetylation is associated with gene activation. Sodium phenylbutyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has been approved for treatement of urea cycle disorders and is under investigation in cancer, hemoglobinopathies, motor neuron diseases, and cystic fibrosis clinical trials. Due to its characteristics, not only of histone deacetylase inhibitor, but also of ammonia sink and chemical chaperone, the interest towards this molecule is growing worldwide. This review aims to update the current literature, involving the use of sodium phenylbutyrate in experimental studies and clinical trials.

Phenylbutyrate and β-cell function: contribution of histone deacetylases and ER stress inhibition.
            (Khan et al., 2017) Download
Incidences of diabetes are increasing globally due to involvement of genetic and epigenetic factors. Phenylbutyrate (PBA) is a US FDA approved drug for treatment of urea cycle disorder in children. PBA reduces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and is proven as a potent histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitor. Chronic ER stress results in unfolding protein response, which triggers apoptosis. Abnormal ER homoeostasis is responsible for defective processing of several genes/proteins and contributes to β-cell death/failure. Accumulated evidences indicated that HDACs modulate key biochemical pathways and HDAC inhibitors improve β-cell function and insulin resistance by modulating multiple targets. This review highlights the role of PBA on β-cell functions, insulin resistance for possible treatment of diabetes through inhibition of ER stress and HDACs.

Phenylbutyric Acid: simple structure - multiple effects.
            (Kusaczuk et al., 2015) Download
Phenylbutyrate (PBA) is an aromatic short-chain fatty acid which is a chemical derivative of butyric acid naturally produced by colonic bacteria fermentation. At the intestinal level butyrate exerts a multitude of activities including amelioration of mucosal inflammation, regulation of transepithelial fluid transport, improvement in oxidative status and colon cancer prevention. Moreover, increasing number of studies report the beneficial role of butyric acid in prevention or inhibition of other types of malignancies, leading to cancer cell growth arrest and apoptosis. Similarly, phenylbutyrate displays potentially favorable effects on many pathologies including cancer, genetic metabolic syndromes, neuropathies, diabetes, hemoglobinopathies, and urea cycle disorders. The mechanisms by which PBA exerts these effects are different. Some of them are connected with the regulation of gene expression, playing the role of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, while others contribute to the ability of rescuing conformational abnormalities of proteins, serving as chemical chaperone, and some are dedicated to its metabolic characteristic enabling excretion of toxic ammonia, thus acting as ammonia scavenger. Phenylbutyrate may exert variable effects depending on the cell type, thus the term "butyrate paradox" has been proposed. These data indicate a broad spectrum of beneficial effects evoked by PBA with a high potential in therapy. In this review, we focus on cellular and systemic effects of PBA treatment with special attention to the three main branches of its molecular activity: ammonia scavenging, chaperoning and histone deacetylase inhibiting, and describe its particular role in various human diseases.

Urinary phenylacetylglutamine as dosing biomarker for patients with urea cycle disorders.
            (Mokhtarani et al., 2012) Download
UNLABELLED:  We have analyzed pharmacokinetic data for glycerol phenylbutyrate (also GT4P or HPN-100) and sodium phenylbutyrate with respect to possible dosing biomarkers in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCD). STUDY DESIGN:  These analyses are based on over 3000 urine and plasma data points from 54 adult and 11 pediatric UCD patients (ages 6-17) who participated in three clinical studies comparing ammonia control and pharmacokinetics during steady state treatment with glycerol phenylbutyrate or sodium phenylbutyrate. All patients received phenylbutyric acid equivalent doses of glycerol phenylbutyrate or sodium phenylbutyrate in a cross over fashion and underwent 24-hour blood samples and urine sampling for phenylbutyric acid, phenylacetic acid and phenylacetylglutamine. RESULTS:  Patients received phenylbutyric acid equivalent doses of glycerol phenylbutyrate ranging from 1.5 to 31.8 g/day and of sodium phenylbutyrate ranging from 1.3 to 31.7 g/day. Plasma metabolite levels varied widely, with average fluctuation indices ranging from 1979% to 5690% for phenylbutyric acid, 843% to 3931% for phenylacetic acid, and 881% to 1434% for phenylacetylglutamine. Mean percent recovery of phenylbutyric acid as urinary phenylacetylglutamine was 66.4 and 69.0 for pediatric patients and 68.7 and 71.4 for adult patients on glycerol phenylbutyrate and sodium phenylbutyrate, respectively. The correlation with dose was strongest for urinary phenylacetylglutamine excretion, either as morning spot urine (r = 0.730, p < 0.001) or as total 24-hour excretion (r = 0.791 p<0.001), followed by plasma phenylacetylglutamine AUC(24-hour), plasma phenylacetic acid AUC(24-hour) and phenylbutyric acid AUC(24-hour). Plasma phenylacetic acid levels in adult and pediatric patients did not show a consistent relationship with either urinary phenylacetylglutamine or ammonia control. CONCLUSION:  The findings are collectively consistent with substantial yet variable pre-systemic (1st pass) conversion of phenylbutyric acid to phenylacetic acid and/or phenylacetylglutamine. The variability of blood metabolite levels during the day, their weaker correlation with dose, the need for multiple blood samples to capture trough and peak, and the inconsistency between phenylacetic acid and urinary phenylacetylglutamine as a marker of waste nitrogen scavenging limit the utility of plasma levels for therapeutic monitoring. By contrast, 24-hour urinary phenylacetylglutamine and morning spot urine phenylacetylglutamine correlate strongly with dose and appear to be clinically useful non-invasive biomarkers for compliance and therapeutic monitoring.


 

Amyloid-induced β-cell dysfunction and islet inflammation are ameliorated by 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) treatment.
            (Montane et al., 2017)  Download
Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) aggregation is associated with β-cell dysfunction and death in type 2 diabetes (T2D). we aimed to determine whether in vivo treatment with chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) ameliorates hIAPP-induced β-cell dysfunction and islet amyloid formation. Oral administration of PBA in hIAPP transgenic (hIAPP Tg) mice expressing hIAPP in pancreatic β cells counteracted impaired glucose homeostasis and restored glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Moreover, PBA treatment almost completely prevented the transcriptomic alterations observed in hIAPP Tg islets, including the induction of genes related to inflammation. PBA also increased β-cell viability and improved insulin secretion in hIAPP Tg islets cultured under glucolipotoxic conditions. Strikingly, PBA not only prevented but even reversed islet amyloid deposition, pointing to a direct effect of PBA on hIAPP. This was supported by in silico calculations uncovering potential binding sites of PBA to monomeric, dimeric, and pentameric fibrillar structures, and by in vitro assays showing inhibition of hIAPP fibril formation by PBA. Collectively, these results uncover a novel beneficial effect of PBA on glucose homeostasis by restoring β-cell function and preventing amyloid formation in mice expressing hIAPP in β cells, highlighting the therapeutic potential of PBA for the treatment of T2D.-Montane, J., de Pablo, S., Castaño, C., Rodríguez-Comas, J., Cadavez, L., Obach, M., Visa, M., Alcarraz-Vizán, G., Sanchez-Martinez, M., Nonell-Canals, A., Parrizas, M., Servitja, J.-M., Novials, A. Amyloid-induced β-cell dysfunction and islet inflammation are ameliorated by 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) treatment.

A randomized trial to study the comparative efficacy of phenylbutyrate and benzoate on nitrogen excretion and ureagenesis in healthy volunteers.
            (Nagamani et al., 2018) Download
PURPOSE:  Benzoate and phenylbutyrate are widely used in the treatment of urea cycle disorders, but detailed studies on pharmacokinetics and comparative efficacy on nitrogen excretion are lacking. METHODS:  We conducted a randomized, three-arm, crossover trial in healthy volunteers to study pharmacokinetics and comparative efficacy of phenylbutyrate (NaPB; 7.15 g•m RESULTS:  The conjugation efficacy for both phenylbutyrate and benzoate was 65%; conjugation was superior at the lower dose used in the MIX arm. Whereas NaPB and MIX treatments were more effective at excreting nitrogen than NaBz, nitrogen excretion as a drug conjugate was similar between phenylbutyrate and MIX arms. Nitrogen excreted per USD was higher with combination therapy compared with NaPB. CONCLUSION:  Phenylbutyrate was more effective than benzoate at disposing nitrogen. Increasing phenylbutyrate dose may not result in higher nitrogen excretion due to decreased conjugation efficiency at higher doses. Combinatorial therapy with phenylbutyrate and benzoate has the potential to significantly decrease treatment cost without compromising the nitrogen disposal efficacy.

Phenylbutyrate ameliorates cognitive deficit and reduces tau pathology in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.
            (Ricobaraza et al., 2009) Download
Chromatin modification through histone acetylation is a molecular pathway involved in the regulation of transcription underlying memory storage. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) is a well-known histone deacetylase inhibitor, which increases gene transcription of a number of genes, and also exerts neuroprotective effects. In this study, we report that administration of 4-PBA reversed spatial learning and memory deficits in an established mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) without altering beta-amyloid burden. We also observed that the phosphorylated form of tau was decreased in the AD mouse brain after 4-PBA treatment, an effect probably due to an increase in the inactive form of the glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta). Interestingly, we found a dramatic decrease in brain histone acetylation in the transgenic mice that may reflect an indirect transcriptional repression underlying memory impairment. The administration of 4-PBA restored brain histone acetylation levels and, as a most likely consequence, activated the transcription of synaptic plasticity markers such as the GluR1 subunit of the AMPA receptor, PSD95, and microtubule-associated protein-2. The results suggest that 4-PBA, a drug already approved for clinical use, may provide a novel approach for the treatment of AD.

Phenylbutyric acid reduces amyloid plaques and rescues cognitive behavior in AD transgenic mice.
            (Wiley et al., 2011) Download
Trafficking through the secretory pathway is known to regulate the maturation of the APP-cleaving secretases and APP proteolysis. The coupling of stress signaling and pathological deterioration of the brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD) supports a mechanistic connection between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and neurodegeneration. Consequently, small molecular chaperones, which promote protein folding and minimize ER stress, might be effective in delaying or attenuating the deleterious progression of AD. We tested this hypothesis by treating APPswePS1delta9 AD transgenic mice with the molecular chaperone phenylbutyric acid (PBA) for 14 months at a dose of 1 mg PBA g(-1) of body weight in the drinking water. Phenylbutyric acid treatment increased secretase-mediated APP cleavage, but was not associated with any increase in amyloid biosynthesis. The PBA-treated AD transgenic mice had significantly decreased incidence and size of amyloid plaques throughout the cortex and hippocampus. There was no change in total amyloid levels suggesting that PBA modifies amyloid aggregation or pathogenesis independently of biogenesis. The decrease in amyloid plaques was paralleled by increased memory retention, as PBA treatment facilitated cognitive performance in a spatial memory task in both wild-type and AD transgenic mice. The molecular mechanism underlying the cognitive facilitation of PBA is not clear; however, increased levels of both metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors, as well as ADAM10 and TACE, were observed in the cortex and hippocampus of PBA-treated mice. The data suggest that PBA ameliorates the cognitive and pathological features of AD and supports the investigation of PBA as a therapeutic for AD.

Topical ocular sodium 4-phenylbutyrate rescues glaucoma in a myocilin mouse model of primary open-angle glaucoma.
            (Zode et al., 2012) Download
PURPOSE:  Mutations in the myocilin gene (MYOC) are the most common known genetic cause of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The purpose of this study was to determine whether topical ocular sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) treatment rescues glaucoma phenotypes in a mouse model of myocilin-associated glaucoma (Tg-MYOC(Y437H) mice). METHODS:  Tg-MYOC(Y437H) mice were treated with PBA eye drops (n = 10) or sterile PBS (n = 8) twice daily for 5 months. Long-term safety and effectiveness of topical PBA (0.2%) on glaucoma phenotypes were examined by measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) and pattern ERG (PERG), performing slit lamp evaluation of the anterior chamber, analyzing histologic sections of the anterior segment, and comparing myocilin levels in the aqueous humor and trabecular meshwork of Tg-MYOC(Y437H) mice. RESULTS:  Tg-MYOC(Y437H) mice developed elevated IOP at 3 months of age when compared with wild-type (WT) littermates (n = 24; P < 0.0001). Topical PBA did not alter IOP in WT mice. However, it significantly reduced elevated IOP in Tg-MYOC(Y437H) mice to the level of WT mice. Topical PBA-treated Tg-MYOC(Y437H) mice also preserved PERG amplitudes compared with vehicle-treated Tg-MYOC(Y437H) mice. No structural abnormalities were observed in the anterior chamber of PBA-treated WT and Tg-MYOC(Y437H) mice. Analysis of the myocilin in the aqueous humor and TM revealed that PBA significantly improved the secretion of myocilin and reduced myocilin accumulation as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the TM of Tg-MYOC(Y437H) mice. Furthermore, topical PBA reduced IOP elevated by induction of ER stress via tunicamycin injections in WT mice. CONCLUSIONS:  Topical ocular PBA reduces glaucomatous phenotypes in Tg-MYOC(Y437H) mice, most likely by reducing myocilin accumulation and ER stress in the TM. Topical ocular PBA could become a novel treatment for POAG patients with myocilin mutations.

 


References

Al-Keilani, MS and NA Al-Sawalha (2017), ‘Potential of Phenylbutyrate as Adjuvant Chemotherapy: An Overview of Cellular and Molecular Anticancer Mechanisms.’, Chem Res Toxicol, 30 (10), 1767-77. PubMed: 28930444
Canani, RB, et al. (2011), ‘Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases.’, World J Gastroenterol, 17 (12), 1519-28. PubMed: 21472114
Cao, AL, et al. (2016), ‘Ursodeoxycholic acid and 4-phenylbutyrate prevent endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced podocyte apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy.’, Lab Invest, 96 (6), 610-22. PubMed: 26999661
Cuadrado-Tejedor, M, et al. (2011), ‘Defining the mechanism of action of 4-phenylbutyrate to develop a small-molecule-based therapy for Alzheimer’s disease.’, Curr Med Chem, 18 (36), 5545-53. PubMed: 22172064
Hayashi, H, et al. (2012), ‘4-Phenylbutyrate modulates ubiquitination of hepatocanalicular MRP2 and reduces serum total bilirubin concentration.’, J Hepatol, 56 (5), 1136-44. PubMed: 22245901
Holecek, M and M Vodenicarovova (2016), ‘Phenylbutyrate exerts adverse effects on liver regeneration and amino acid concentrations in partially hepatectomized rats.’, Int J Exp Pathol, 97 (3), 278-84. PubMed: 27381898
Holecek, M, M Vodenicarovova, and P Siman (2017), ‘Acute effects of phenylbutyrate on glutamine, branched-chain amino acid and protein metabolism in skeletal muscles of rats.’, Int J Exp Pathol, 98 (3), 127-33. PubMed: 28621016
Iannitti, T and B Palmieri (2011), ‘Clinical and experimental applications of sodium phenylbutyrate.’, Drugs R D, 11 (3), 227-49. PubMed: 21902286
Khan, S, SK Komarya, and G Jena (2017), ‘Phenylbutyrate and β-cell function: contribution of histone deacetylases and ER stress inhibition.’, Epigenomics, 9 (5), 711-20. PubMed: 28470097
Kusaczuk, M, M Bartoszewicz, and M Cechowska-Pasko (2015), ‘Phenylbutyric Acid: simple structure - multiple effects.’, Curr Pharm Des, 21 (16), 2147-66. PubMed: 25557635
Mokhtarani, M, et al. (2012), ‘Urinary phenylacetylglutamine as dosing biomarker for patients with urea cycle disorders.’, Mol Genet Metab, 107 (3), 308-14. PubMed: 22958974
Montane, J, et al. (2017), ‘Amyloid-induced β-cell dysfunction and islet inflammation are ameliorated by 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) treatment.’, FASEB J, 31 (12), 5296-306. PubMed: 28821639
Nagamani, SCS, et al. (2018), ‘A randomized trial to study the comparative efficacy of phenylbutyrate and benzoate on nitrogen excretion and ureagenesis in healthy volunteers.’, Genet Med, 20 (7), 708-16. PubMed: 29693650
Ricobaraza, A, et al. (2009), ‘Phenylbutyrate ameliorates cognitive deficit and reduces tau pathology in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model.’, Neuropsychopharmacology, 34 (7), 1721-32. PubMed: 19145227
Wiley, JC, C Pettan-Brewer, and WC Ladiges (2011), ‘Phenylbutyric acid reduces amyloid plaques and rescues cognitive behavior in AD transgenic mice.’, Aging Cell, 10 (3), 418-28. PubMed: 21272191
Zode, GS, et al. (2012), ‘Topical ocular sodium 4-phenylbutyrate rescues glaucoma in a myocilin mouse model of primary open-angle glaucoma.’, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 53 (3), 1557-65. PubMed: 22328638