Periodontal Abstracts 2

© 2012

To evaluate the antigingivitis and antipalque effect of an Azadirachta indica (neem) mouthrinse on plaque induced gingivitis: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

            (Chatterjee, Saluja et al. 2011) Download

BACKGROUND: Azadirachta indica (neem), a Meliaceae family tree, has been used in India for several decades for the treatment of several diseases in medicine and dentistry. Neem has been considered to have antiseptic activity, but still its use for the treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis is not very clear. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of neem based mouth rinse regarding its antigingivitis effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty five subjects with plaque induced gingivitis were selected for the study. They were equally divided into three groups. Group I patients were asked to rinse with 15 ml of neem mouthwash twice daily, group II with 15 ml of chlorhexidine mouthwash twice daily, and group III with 15 ml of saline twice daily. The three groups were asked to perform the routine oral hygiene procedures thought out the study period. Bleeding on probing and gingivitis were evaluated by Muhlemann and Son's Sulcus bleeding index (1971) and Loe and Sillness gingival index (1963), respectively, at base line, after every week till one month. RESULTS: Our result showed that an A. indica mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing periodontal indices as Chlorhexidine. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of gingival, bleeding, and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 21 days as compared to placebo. CONCLUSION: A. indica-based mouth rinse is equally efficacious with fewer side effects as compared to chlorhexidine and may be used as an adjunct therapy in treating plaque induced gingivitis.


Inhibitory effect of quercetin on periodontal pathogens in vitro

         (Geoghegan, Wong et al. 2010) Download

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) are bacteria strongly associated with early onset, progressive and refractory periodontal disease and associated alveolar bone loss. Quercetin is a flavonoid found in many foods including apples, onions and tea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quercetin on in vitro growth of periodontal pathogens Aa and Pg. For comparison, quercetin's effect on several oral microbes was also evaluated. Different concentrations of quercetin solution were added to calibrated suspensions of Aa and Pg. All suspensions were incubated for 1, 3, 6, and 24 h in an anaerobic chamber at 37 degrees C. At each time point, selected dilutions from each culture broth were plated on blood agar plates. Colonies appearing on blood agar plates were visually counted on 3 days for Aa and 5 days for Pg. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of both periodontal pathogens were also determined. Both periodontal bacteria showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in viable counts after 1 h. No colony forming units of Pg could be observed after 24 h. The results suggest that quercetin possesses significant antimicrobial properties on periodontal pathogens in vitro.

Licorice and its potential beneficial effects in common oro-dental diseases

         (Messier, Epifano et al. 2012) Download

Licorice, the name given to the roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza species, has been used since ancient times as a traditional herbal remedy. Licorice contains several classes of secondary metabolites with which numerous human health benefits have been associated. Recent research suggests that licorice and its bioactive ingredients such as glycyrrhizin, glabridin, licochalcone A, licoricidin, and licorisoflavan A possess potential beneficial effects in oral diseases. This paper reviews the effects of licorice and licorice constituents on both the oral microbial pathogens and the host immune response involved in common ora-dental diseases (dental caries, periodontitis, candidiasis, and recurrent aphthous ulcers). It also summarizes results of clinical trials that investigated the potential beneficial effects of licorice and its constituents for preventing/treating oro-dental diseases.


Resveratrol inhibits periodontal pathogens in vitro

         (O'Connor, Wong et al. 2011) Download

The gram-negative anaerobic bacteria A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and P. gingivalis (Pg) are key components in the aetiology of periodontal disease, and associated hard-tissue destruction. Resveratrol is a phytoalexin, produced naturally by several plants when under attack by bacterial or fungal pathogens. It is found in many foods including mulberries, peanuts and the skin of labrusca and muscadine grapes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on the in vitro growth of periodontal pathogens Aa and Pg. For comparison, resveratrol's effect on a variety of other oral microorganisms was also evaluated. Resveratrol demonstrates a poor solubility in water, thus different concentrations of resveratrol in the solvent dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) were added to calibrated suspensions of Aa and Pg. As a control, a parallel series of dilutions containing the vehicle DMSO alone was made to measure the effect of the solvent. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the periodontal pathogens were calculated. All suspensions were incubated for 1, 3, 6 and 24 h in an anaerobic chamber at 37 degrees C. At each time interval, selected dilutions from each culture broth were plated on blood agar plates. Colonies appearing on blood agar plates were visually counted at 3 days for Aa, and at 5 days for Pg. The periodontal bacteria showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in viable counts after 1 h, whilst no colony forming units could be observed after 24 h. The results suggest that resveratrol possesses significant antimicrobial properties on periodontal pathogens in vitro.


The inhibitory effects of naringin on the growth of periodontal pathogens in vitro

         (Tsui, Wong et al. 2008) Download

Naringin is a flavonoid that is commonly found in grapefruits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of naringin on the growth of periodontal pathogens such as A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis in vitro. For comparison, the effects of naringin on several oral microbes were also studied. Different concentrations of naringin solution were added to calibrated suspensions of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis. All the suspensions were incubated for 3, 6 and 24 h in an anaerobic chamber at 37 degrees C. At each time point, selected dilutions from each culture broth were plated on blood agar plates. Colonies recovered on blood agar were visually counted on days 3 and 5, respectively. A. actinomycetemcomitans showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in viable counts after 3 h when naringin was added at baseline. P. gingivalis also showed a marked growth reduction in the presence of naringin, and no colony forming units could be observed after 24 h. Naringin also had an inhibitory effect against all bacteria and yeasts tested. The results suggest that naringin possesses significant antimicrobial properties on periodontal pathogens in vitro. It also has an inhibitory effect on some common oral microorganisms in low concentrations.


References

Chatterjee, A., M. Saluja, et al. (2011). "To evaluate the antigingivitis and antipalque effect of an Azadirachta indica (neem) mouthrinse on plaque induced gingivitis: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial." J Indian Soc Periodontol 15(4): 398-401.

Geoghegan, F., R. W. Wong, et al. (2010). "Inhibitory effect of quercetin on periodontal pathogens in vitro." Phytother Res 24(6): 817-20.

Messier, C., F. Epifano, et al. (2012). "Licorice and its potential beneficial effects in common oro-dental diseases." Oral Dis 18(1): 32-9.

O'Connor, D. J., R. W. Wong, et al. (2011). "Resveratrol inhibits periodontal pathogens in vitro." Phytother Res 25(11): 1727-31.

Tsui, V. W., R. W. Wong, et al. (2008). "The inhibitory effects of naringin on the growth of periodontal pathogens in vitro." Phytother Res 22(3): 401-6.