Paeonia Abstracts 1

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Total glucosides of Paeonia lactiflora Pall inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis
(Deng, Yan et al. 2010) Download
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anti-angiogenesis effect of total glucosides of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. METHODS: In this study, we determined the effect of TGP on the proliferation of human vascular endothelial cells through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. A migration assay and a tube formation assay were used to investigate the migration properties and tube formation abilities of human vascular endothelial cells after being treated with TGP. Furthermore, the in vivo anti-angiogenic ability of TGP was determined through a chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. RESULTS: TGP (12.5, 62.5, and 312.5 microg/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the proliferation of endothelial cells. This inhibition effect began 6h after treatment and lasted at least 24h. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis data showed an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, which exhibited apoptotic features indicative of cell death. The migration properties and tube forming abilities of endothelial cells were dramatically inhibited by the TGP extract. CONCLUSION: Our results show that TGP can inhibit angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of paeonia lactiflora pall., a traditional chinese herbal medicine
         (He and Dai 2011) Download
In China, Korea, and Japan, a decoction of the dried root without bark of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis, dysmenorrhea, muscle cramping and spasms, and fever for more than 1200 years. A water/ethanol extract of the root is now known as total glucosides of peony (TGP), which contains more than 15 components. Paeoniflorin is the most abundant ingredient and accounts for the pharmacological effects observed with TGP in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The analgesic effect of TGP was confirmed in various animal models of pain, which may be mediated partly by adenosine A1 receptor. The direct anti-inflammatory effects of TGP were observed in animal models of both acute and subacute inflammation, by inhibiting the production of prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, and nitric oxide, and by suppressing the increase of intracellular calcium ion concentration. TGP was also reported to have protective effects of cells against oxidative stress. In vitro, dual effects of TGP were noted on the proliferation of lymphocytes, differentiation of Th/Ts lymphocytes, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines and antibodies. In vivo, TGP inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-activated mice, and enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-suppressed mice. In adjuvant arthritis rats, paeoniflorin exerted immunosuppressive effects. The beneficial effects of TGP in treating rheumatoid arthritis were verified by randomized controlled trials. The adverse events of TGP were mainly gastrointestinal tract disturbances, mostly mild diarrhea.

Effects of total glucosides from paeony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall) roots on experimental atherosclerosis in rats
(Li, Chen et al. 2011) Download
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Total glucosides of paeony (TGP), compounds extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, have been used as an anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China. Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Risk of cardiovascular diseases is significantly higher in patients with RA than in normal population. It has a great significance to study the effects of TGP on atherosclerosis. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of TGP on atherosclerosis induced by excessive administration of vitamin D and cholesterol in rats and study the mechanisms involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Atherosclerosis was induced by excessive administration of vitamin D and cholesterol in rats. TGP was intragastrically administered for 15 weeks. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured by automatic biochemistry analyzer. Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) were determined by immunoturbidimetry method, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The morphological changes of aorta were observed with optical microscopy. RESULTS: Compared to controls, TGP significantly lowered the serum level of TC, TG, LDL-C, ApoB, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and CRP, increased the ratios of HDL-C/LDL-C and ApoA1/ApoB, decreased the intima-media thickness (IMT) of abdominal aortal wall and improved the morphological change of the aorta. CONCLUSIONS: TGP may attenuate the development of atherosclerotic disease. The beneficial effects are associated with its lowering blood lipids and inhibiting the expression of inflammatory cytokines.

Effects of total glucosides of paeony for delaying onset of Sjogren's syndrome: an animal study
         (Li, He et al. 2013) Download
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of total glucosides of paeony (TGP) on Sjogren's syndrome (SS) using non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice model. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-seven 8-week-old female NOD mice were assigned into TGP group, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) group and normal saline (NS) group, receiving corresponding drugs respectively and sacrificed at 24-week-old. Saliva flow rate (SFR), ration of regulatory T cells, level of anti-SSA/SSB, histological changes in submandibular glands (SMG) and microarray analysis were assessed. The data were analyzed using SPSS. RESULTS: Compared to NS group, in TGP group, SFR, SMG index and the ration of regulatory T cells were significantly higher, while anti-SSA/SSB and lymphocytic foci were significantly lower. HCQ group demonstrated similar results except SMG index. Altered gene expression was found in 10.71% of TGP and 13.09% of HCQ of the profile. CONCLUSION: TGP demonstrated a similar effectiveness as HCQ in delaying the onset of SS-like disease in NOD mice.

Renoprotective effect of total glucosides of paeony (TGP) and its mechanism in experimental diabetes
         (Wu, Ren et al. 2009) Download
Total glucosides of paeony (TGP), extracted from the root of Paeonia lactiflora pall, has been shown to have ant-inflammatory and antioxidative actions. The aims of this study were to elucidate the renoprotective effect of TGP and its mechanism in experimental diabetes. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with TGP for 8 weeks. Treatment with TGP at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg significantly lowered 24-h urinary albumin excretion rate in diabetic rats. TGP treatment in all doses markedly attenuated glomerular volume, and treatment with TGP at 100 and 200 mg/kg markedly reduced indices for tubulointerstitial injury in diabetic rats. Western blot analysis showed that the expressions of 1 alpha (IV) collagen, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, interleukin (IL)-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, NF-kappaB p65, and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) protein were increased in the kidneys of diabetic rats; the increases in these proteins were all dose-dependently and significantly inhibited by TGP treatment. The expression of nephrin protein was significantly reduced in the kidneys from diabetic rats and markedly increased by TGP treatment. The expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 protein in the kidney was also significantly increased in diabetic rats, which was significantly inhibited by treatment with TGP at all doses. Our data suggest that TGP treatment ameliorates early renal injury via the inhibition of expression of ICAM-1, IL-1, TNF-alpha, and 3-NT in the kidneys of diabetic rats.

Mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas in rheumatoid arthritis
         (Zhang and Dai 2012) Download
Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, also named Chinese Paeony, is a Chinese herb. A decoction of its root has been used to treat painful or inflammatory disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. A water/ethanol extract of Radix Paeoniae is known as total glycosides of paeony (TGP), of which paeoniflorin is the major active component. Preclinical studies show that TGP/paeoniflorin is able to diminish pain, joint swelling, synovial hypertrophy, and the severity of bone erosion and cartilage degradation in experimental arthritis. TGP/paeoniflorin suppresses inflammatory process by reducing the production of prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. TGP/paeoniflorin also inhibits the proliferation of lymphocytes and fibroblast-like synoviocytes, the formation of new blood vessels, and the production of matrix metalloproteinases. Clinical data show that TGP is effective to relieve the symptoms and signs of rheumatoid arthritis without significant adverse effects. Recently, TGP is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis in China.

 

 


 

References

Deng, H., C. Yan, et al. (2010). "Total glucosides of Paeonia lactiflora Pall inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis." J Ethnopharmacol 127(3): 781-5. [PMID: 19914370]
He, D. Y. and S. M. Dai (2011). "Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of paeonia lactiflora pall., a traditional chinese herbal medicine." Front Pharmacol 2: 10. [PMID: 21687505]
Li, C. L., J. He, et al. (2013). "Effects of total glucosides of paeony for delaying onset of Sjogren's syndrome: an animal study." J Craniomaxillofac Surg 41(7): 610-5. [PMID: 23333492]
Li, J., C. X. Chen, et al. (2011). "Effects of total glucosides from paeony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall) roots on experimental atherosclerosis in rats." J Ethnopharmacol 135(2): 469-75. [PMID: 21453765]
Wu, Y., K. Ren, et al. (2009). "Renoprotective effect of total glucosides of paeony (TGP) and its mechanism in experimental diabetes." J Pharmacol Sci 109(1): 78-87. [PMID: 19151544]
Zhang, W. and S. M. Dai (2012). "Mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas in rheumatoid arthritis." Int Immunopharmacol 14(1): 27-31. [PMID: 22705050]