PABA Abstracts 3

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Adrenal response of rats to salicylamide and sodium salicylate with and without para-aminobenzoic acid.
            (Forbes et al., 1954) Download
The administration of either acetylsalicylic acid or sodium salicylate to rats has been shown to cause a marked drop in the content of ascorbic acid and to a lesser extent of cholesterol in the adrenals, an effect which is not found in the hypophysectomized animal. Both oral and intraperitoneal administration of salicylamide to rats was found to cause a drop in the ascorbic acid and cholesterol content of the adrenal glands. The simultaneous administration of PABA or its sodium salt along with either salicylamide or Na-salicylate had no influence on the intensity or duration of the adrenal effect.

Adrenal atrophy and thyroid inhibition following PABA.
            (McCarthy and Murphree, 1960) Download
These data indicate that under conditions where administration of PABA produced adrenal atrophy, inhibition of the thyroid gland occurred as indicated by reduced thyroidal uptake. Thus further evidence is presented to associate goitrogenic activity with ability to induce adrenal atrophy, though the possibility of a direct action of PABA on the adrenal gland coupled with thyroid inhibition can not be excluded.

Effects of potassium para-aminobenzoate on growth and macromolecule synthesis in fibroblasts cultured from normal and sclerodermatous human skin, and rheumatoid synovial cells.
            (Priestley and Brown, 1979) Download
Potassium para-aminobenzoate was tested for its ability to affect growth and macromolecule synthesis in vitro using fibroblasts from normal human skin, from affected skin of patients with scleroderma, and rheumatoid synovial cells. The proliferation of all 3 cell types showed dose-dependent inhibition beginning at about 3000 microgram/ml. Acid mucopolysaccharide secretion by rheumatoid synovial cells and scleroderma fibroblasts was inhibited even at 100 microgram/ml, which is within the therapeutic range, and there was over 50% inhibition at 5000 microgram/ml. Collagen synthesis by several different strains, was not affected, despite the use of a range of concentrations and treatment times.


 

Effect of para-aminobenzoic acid on the metabolism of cortisone in liver tissue.
            (Wiesel, 1954) Download
Para-aminobenzoic acid has been shown to interfere markedly with the rapid reduction of unsaturate conjucated system of the cortisone molecule while permitting more rapid degradation of the side chain.

Long term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with para-aminobenzoic acid and cortisone acetate.
            (Wiesel and Barritt, 1954) Download
Thirty one patients with active rheumatoid arthritis were treated with a conbination of para-aminobenzoic acid and cortisone acetate for a period of one year or more. Thirty of thes patients showed improvement comparable to that obtained with a much larger dose of cortisone acetate alone. The incidence of evidence of hypercorticoidism was negligble. Other known side effects of cortisone therapy were absent.

Retrospective studies in scleroderma: effect of potassium para-aminobenzoate on survival
            (Zarafonetis et al., 1988) Download
Demographic and survival data are presented for 390 patients with scleroderma. For the entire group an estimated 81.4% survived 5 years from diagnosis and 69.4% survived 10 years. Life-table analyses revealed that adequate treatment with potassium para-aminobenzoate (Potaba KPAB) was associated with improved survival (p less than 0.01); 88.5% 5 year survival rate and 76.6% 10 year survival rate for adequately treated patients. Five and ten year survival rates for patients never treated with KPAB were 69.8 and 56.6%, respectively. Similar findings were obtained by comparing observed to expected mortality for these patients; again, KPAB therapy showed prolongation of survival. The Cox proportional hazards model was also applied to this retrospective study adjusting for baseline clinical involvement, demographics and KPAB treatment. There were some interesting results including a high significance for skin involvement per se as a prognostic indicator: the greater the extent of skin involvement the poorer prognosis. Time from first diagnosis to first University Hospital visit or admission when included as a covariate did not influence survival.

Therapeutic possibilities of para-amino-benzoic acid.
            (Zarafonetis, 1949) Download
The first important clinical use of PABA was evolved during World War II, when it was found to be of value in the treatment of several of the rickettsial diseases. Results have been encouraging in a number of diverse conditions of unknown etiology. For example, a beneficial effect has been noted in lymphoblastoma cutis, ' in certain forms of lupus erythematosus, in active dermatomyositis, ' in scleroderma, PABA will cause a striking fall in the leukocyte counts of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. PABA is rapidly excreted in the urine. This is of importance in treating certain disease entities where it is desired to maintain a high blood level of the compound.

Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with p-aminobenzoate and acetylsalicylic acid.
            (Zarafonetis et al., 1953) Download
It appears warranted, therefore, to report at this time data which indicate that p-aminobenzoic acid and acetylsalicylic acid, in appropriate combination, are capable of producing beneficial effects in a significant proportion of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. The present report deals with the results obtained in the treatment of 44 patients with rheumatoid arthritis during the past 18 months. The therapeutic regimen consisted primarily of p-aminobenzoic acid and acetylsalicylic acid, but some patients also received small doses of cortisone, especially during the earlier phases of the study. Improvement appears to have occurred in 34 patients who continued the program for three months or longer. Thirty-four (77%) of the patients showed functional improvement, as evidenced by increased range of motion, striking weight gain, and diminution in joint heat, swelling, pain, and tenderness. This improvement has been maintained for from 6 to 18 months.The dosage of potassium or sodium p-aminobenzoate was 12.0 gm. per day, given in six divided doses. Acetylsalicylic acid was administered in doses of 0.6 gm. four times a day.

Treatment of pemphigus with potassium para-aminobenzoate.
            (Zarafonetis et al., 1956) Download
Note: Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune disease that causes blisters and sores on the skin. It is thought that PABA (in the form of PAMBA, para-aminomethylbenzoic acid) may benefit people with this condition and reduce the need for steroids. However, more studies are needed in this area.

 


References

Forbes, JC, JA Board, and GM Duncan (1954), ‘Adrenal response of rats to salicylamide and sodium salicylate with and without para-aminobenzoic acid.’, Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 85 (1), 37-39. PubMed: 13134281
McCarthy, JL and RL Murphree (1960), ‘Adrenal atrophy and thyroid inhibition following PABA.’, Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 105 515-17. PubMed: 13773770
Priestley, GC and JC Brown (1979), ‘Effects of potassium para-aminobenzoate on growth and macromolecule synthesis in fibroblasts cultured from normal and sclerodermatous human skin, and rheumatoid synovial cells.’, J Invest Dermatol, 72 (4), 161-64. PubMed: 155125
Wiesel, LL (1954), ‘Effect of para-aminobenzoic acid on the metabolism of cortisone in liver tissue.’, Am J Med Sci, 227 (1), 80-82. PubMed: 13114218
Wiesel, LL and AS Barritt (1954), ‘Long term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with para-aminobenzoic acid and cortisone acetate.’, Am J Med Sci, 227 (1), 74-79. PubMed: 13114217
Zarafonetis, C. J., et al. (1988), ‘Retrospective studies in scleroderma: effect of potassium para-aminobenzoate on survival’, J Clin Epidemiol, 41 (2), 193-205. PubMed: 3257255
Zarafonetis, CJ (1949), ‘Therapeutic possibilities of para-amino-benzoic acid.’, Ann Intern Med, 30 (6), 1188-211. PubMed: 18150180
Zarafonetis, CJ, et al. (1953), ‘Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with p-aminobenzoate and acetylsalicylic acid.’, AMA Arch Intern Med, 92 (2), 204-15. PubMed: 13079341
Zarafonetis, CJ, AC Curtis, and JM Shaw (1956), ‘Treatment of pemphigus with potassium para-aminobenzoate.’, Am J Med Sci, 231 (1), 30-50. PubMed: 13275470