Organotherapy Articles 8

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In February The Journal (JAMA) began publication of a series of articles on Glandular Physiology and Therapy, prepared under the auspices of the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry. This series, which comprises thirty-two sections covering practically every known phase of endocrinology, is now completed and will soon be issued in book form. Preparation of the series was undertaken primarily to provide a convenient and authoritative source of information for physicians so that glandular therapy might be placed on a more rational plane. Investigators and teachers, however, will find it a valuable reference work.

Limitations Of Organotherapy
            (1924) Download
In a previous issue of The Journal, reference was made to the proper place of criticism in the scheme of scientific progress. The failure of the newer chemotherapy to accomplish all that it set out a few years ago to do specifically was cited as an illustration of the need of critical review whenever enthusiasm for a brilliant hypothesis makes us temporarily oblivious to the constant need of a rigorous test. This should not be a bar to advancement, but rather a warning to proceed with due caution and within the bounds of demonstrated fact. A similar admonition has been uttered by Carlson 2 in relation to the widely heralded organotherapy that has sustained so many false hopes in recent years. It may come as a setback to many to hear that this field of therapy can at present "be credited with two distinct successes, but it is also

The principles underlying organotherapy and hormonotherapy
            (Barker, 1922) Download
When we understand definitely what we are trying to do—and by this I mean having rather more than a vague general idea of desiring somehow or another to be of help to a sick person—we are more likely to be successful therapists than if we fumble about without plan in the hope of hitting luckily upon the right remedial agent. Much of our therapy is, it is true, empirical rather than rational, but we should know when we are working empirically and  ...


 

Glandular Therapy: Introduction
            (Billings, 1924) Download
Today it is accepted that the glands of internal secretion have a profound influence on the growth of the body, its development, including the secondary sex characters, the rate of metabolism and other important functions. Laboratory experiments and clinical observation have established opinions in regard to the normal and pathologic physiology of the ductless glands which are satisfactory to many endocrinologists, but which are not  ...

Commercial Glandular Products
            (Biskind, 1935) Download
Perhaps no group of pharmaceutical preparations in recent years has been the subject of such extravagant claims as that comprising allegedly active materials derived from various glands, non-glandular organs and bodily fluids. Only a small percentage of the many preparations are known to contain active material ; and with the few exceptions (thyroid, liver, stomach, adrencortex, and some estrogenic principles) discussed later, the products administered by mouth have little effect even if they do contain some active principle or principles. Emphasis will be confined chiefly to the more important products marketed in the United States. Only those designated with the suffix N. N. R. are accepted by the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry.

Glandular Therapy: Physiology of the Mammalian Ovaries
            (Carlson, 1924) Download
The Estrus Cycle - The chronologic order and inter-dependence of the several ovarian and uterine processes that make up the estrus cycle have been actively studied by able workers, but some of the points are still not definitely settled, notably the relation of ovulation and the corpus luteum to menstruation in the primates.

The Cause Of Painful Breasts And Treatment By Means Of Ovarian Residue
            (Cutler, 1931) Download
It is my purpose in this communication to discuss the physiologic and pathologic processes underlying the condition of "painful breasts," to emphasize their etiologic relationship to ovarian and other endocrine dysfunction, and to report the results of the treatment on this condition by means of ovarian residue. At every menstrual period the mammary  ...


 

Growth hormone of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
            (Evans, 1941) Download
Nutritional studies in the domain of the vitamins have long since shown the fallacy of designating any one of these factors as peculiarly growth promoting; as a matter of fact, growth cannot ensue with all of these factors present in a diet which is inadequate for proper nutrition. Just as normal growth is dependent on a multiplicity of these extrinsic factors, so also the same may be said as to intrinsic factors, for more than one of the glands of  ...

Ovarian Organotherapy: A Preliminary Report
            (Graves, 1917) Download
Foremost among these factors is the vagueness of our knowledge of the physiologic processes of the pelvic organs. We do not know, for example, the cause of menstruation, or why menstrual blood does not coagulate. We have no definite knowledge of the relationship between menstruation and ovulation. We are fairly secure in our belief that the ovary is an organ of internal secretion, but it has not yet been proved conclusively in what part of  ...

Glandular Therapy: Physiology Of The Suprarenal Glands
            (Hooker, 1924) Download
The suprarenals are among the glands of internal secretion which, in the higher forms, are essential to life. In man, these bodies weigh about 4 gm. each. They are innervated by way of the splanchnics, and exhibit one of the few instances of true secretory nerve fibers. They possess a rich blood supply, receiving more blood per gram-minute than any other tissues of the body.

Some Principles of Endocrinology Applicable to Organotherapy
            (Hoskins, 1922) Download
No single phase of endocrine dysfunction is satisfactorily worked out today, either clinically or experimentally. I have endeavored to present the established facts and what appear to be obstacles to progress in baseless speculations and uncritical practice. I am not foolish enough to believe that the former is free from flaws, and some of you may feel that my strictures on the latter are too severe, especially coming from an experimental  ...


 

Glandular Therapy: Pharmacology Of Thyroid Substance
            (Hunt, 1924) Download
Reference will be made in this summary only to the effects of thyroid and its preparations when administered as drugs; attempts will not be made to deduce the action of the drug thyroid from a study of conditions in which the amount of the thyroid hormone in the body is very probably increased or diminished.

Hypothyroidism And Underactivity Of The Suprarenals Corrected By Glandular Therapy
            (Kear, 1921) Download
D. T., a boy, aged 7 years, was brought for same silkworm-gut suture which is used to close the skin examination Dec. IS, 1920, because, in the parents' estimation, wound can also be utilized to tie in place and more firmly he was not making satisfactory progress, since his growth fix the piece of catheter, although this is not essential, as a had remained stationary as to both height and weight. The boy was given 2 grains of desiccated thyroid glands, 2 grains of desiccated suprarenal glands, and Blaud's mass in 5 grain capsules, three times a day. At the termination of a fortnight, there was a distinct change in the patient's facies, the ruddy glow and expression of boyhood now being present.

Organotherapy, Present achievements and future prospects
            (Lisser, 1925) Download
Since the membership of this Academy is representative of all branches and specialties of clinical medicine, it has seemed judicious to select for this address a phase of endocrinology interesting to all practitioners. Although this youthful field of internal medicine may be regarded by some as rather narrow, arrogant and obstreperous, it does in truth reach out and touch closely each and all of the subdivisions of medical practice and preclinical  ...

Glandular Therapy: The Physiology Of The Thyroid Gland
            (Lusk, 1924) Download
“The thyroid acts on oxidation as a pair of bellows rejuvenates a fire" (von Noorden, 1912). The active principle, thyroxin, has been isolated and its chemical formula determined as being a derivative of tryptophan, containing 65 per cent. of iodin (EC Kendall, 1914). Thyroxin" is a catalyst that accelerates the formation of a quantum of potential energy in the cells of the organism"(Plummer, 1915). The colloid contained within the vesicles of the  ...


 

Glandular therapy: The parathyroid glands
            (MacCallum, 1924) Download
The general results of the studies of the parathyroid glands and their relation to disease, in the last few years, are about as follows. A more detailed review, with literature, will appear shortly in "Medicine."   ... Little has been added to our knowledge of the anatomy, embryology and histology of the glands. Even yet there is no precise knowledge of the differences in function between the ordinary cells and those with small, deeply staining nucleus and eosinophil cytoplasm.

Glandular Therapy Pancreatic Gland Preparations: I. Physiology
            (Macleod, 1924) Download
The pancreas is a gland having, in general, two functions:(1) It secretes into the intestine a digestive juice containing the ferments trypsin (for proteins), lipase (for fats) and amylase (for starches);(2) it secretes into the blood a hormone, insulin, which regulates the process of carbohydrate metabolism.

Functional Disorders Of Menstruation: With Remarks On Organotherapy
            (Novak, 1930) Download
All of the figures given demonstrate a trend but fall far short of indicating the real degree of infertility. The data that they contain, however, are susceptible of further analysis, the end-result of whichmay be regarded as indicating a tendency, even though the absolute magnitude of the figures lacks the authority intrinsic in larger groups similarly analyzed. These data are given in table 6. It will be noted that those who have been married less  ...

The therapeutic use of estrogenic substances
            (Novak, 1935) Download
Estrogenic substances are those which produce estrus directly. The present article deals with the therapeutic application of estrogenic substance itself.

Early Organotherapy and Talismans
            (Osler, 1921) Download
The second world-wide practice which finds its earliest record among the Egyptians is the use of the secretions and parts of the animal body as medicine. The practice was one of great antiquity with primitive man, but the papyri already mentioned contain the earliest known records.


 

Glandular Therapy: The Administration Of Thyroid Preparations
            (Plummer and Boothby, 1924) Download
In the other articles of this series, the function of the thyroid gland and its secretion has been presented in considerable detail. The points there brought out that are of paramount importance for the proper administration of thyroid preparations may be briefly restated here. The function of the thyroid gland is to furnish a secretion, the active principle of which is thyroxin. The exact physicochemical status of thyroxin as it leaves the thyroid  ...

Glandular Physiology And Therapy: The Thymus Gland
            (Rowntree, 1935) Download
Uncertainty has characterized our knowledge of the thymus gland from ancient down to modern times; its function has remained a riddle. Despite the fact that the gland occurs in all higher animals and in lower orders down to primitive fishes, its nature is not understood. By some it is considered a gland of internal secretion, by others a part of the lymphatic system or a vestigial structure. Though epithelial in origin, the gland becomes lymphoid in character at birth or with advancing years. Pappenheimer1 regards it as

Glandular Therapy: Pharmacology of the Pituitary Gland
            (Sollmann, 1924) Download
In analogy with the suprarenal gland and the pancreas, the pituitary gland contains two portions that differ absolutely in function and in pharmacology. It is remarkable that the parts of the suprarenal and pituitary that are most important to life have the least pharmacologic actions, while those parts whose extracts produce very striking pharmacologic effects—the suprarenal medulla and the posterior pituitary—appear to be  ...

Constitutional Approach In The Treatment Of Male Infertility
            (Weisman, 1947) Download
To the Editor:—In The Journal, January 18, in an attempt to forestall useless endocrine therapy where it is not indicated, I wrote on" Endocrine Therapy in Male Sterility of Nonendocrine Origin Valueless." In The Journal, May 24, Dr. Laman A. Gray apparently took exception to my conclusion, terming it a" nihilistic point of view." Obviously Dr. Gray is a bit confused, since he writes that"... Dr. Abner I. Weisman indicated in a communication to the  ...


 

Glandular Therapy: The Use Of Extracts Of The Pituitary Gland In Obstetrics
            (Williams, 1924) Download
In the absence of disproportion between the size of the pelvis and that of the fetus, and when the presen-tation is normal, the employment of pituitary extract serves a useful purpose after the cervixhas become fully dilated and the obstacle to prompt delivery is clue solely to deficient uterine action. In such circumstances, the administration of the dose mentioned above is promptly followed by marked improvement in the force of the uterine  ...

 


References

Barker, LF (1922), ‘The principles underlying organotherapy and hormonotherapy’, Endocrinology, 6 (5), 591-95. PubMed:
Billings, F (1924), ‘Glandular Therapy: Introduction’, JAMA, 83 (13), 1000-1. PubMed:
Biskind, MS (1935), ‘Commercial Glandular Products’, JAMA, 105 (9), 667-76. PubMed:
Carlson, AJ (1924), ‘Glandular Therapy: Physiology of the Mammalian Ovaries’, JAMA, 83 (24), 1920-23. PubMed:
Cutler, M. (1931), ‘The Cause Of Painful Breasts And Treatment By Means Of Ovarian Residue’, JAMA, 96 (15), 1201-5. PubMed:
Evans, HM (1941), ‘Growth hormone of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland’, JAMA, 117 (4), 287-91. PubMed:
Graves, WP (1917), ‘Ovarian Organotherapy: A Preliminary Report’, JAMA, 69 (9), 701-6. PubMed:
Hooker, DR (1924), ‘Glandular Therapy: Physiology Of The Suprarenal Glands’, JAMA, 83 (18), 1430-31. PubMed:
Hoskins, RG (1922), ‘Some Principles of Endocrinology Applicable to Organotherapy’, JAMA, 79 (2), 104-9. PubMed:
Hunt, Reid (1924), ‘Glandular Therapy: Pharmacology Of Thyroid Substance’, JAMA, 83 (16), 1244-45. PubMed:
Kear (1921), ‘Hypothyroidism And Underactivity Of The Suprarenals Corrected By Glandular Therapy’, JAMA, 76 (20), 1349. PubMed:
(1924), ‘Limitations Of Organotherapy’, JAMA, 82 (13), 1048. PubMed:
Lisser, H (1925), ‘Organotherapy, Present achievements and future prospects’, Endocrinology, 9 (1), 1-20. PubMed:
Lusk, G (1924), ‘Glandular Therapy: The Physiology Of The Thyroid Gland’, JAMA, 83 (15), 1165-66. PubMed:
MacCallum, WG (1924), ‘Glandular therapy: The parathyroid glands’, JAMA, 83 (23), 1846-47. PubMed:
Macleod, JJR (1924), ‘Glandular Therapy Pancreatic Gland Preparations: I. Physiology’, JAMA, 83 (14), 1077-78. PubMed:
Novak, E (1930), ‘Functional Disorders Of Menstruation: With Remarks On Organotherapy’, JAMA, 95 (17), 1221-28. PubMed:
——— (1935), ‘The therapeutic use of estrogenic substances’, JAMA, 104 (20), 1815-21. PubMed:
Osler, W (1921), ‘Early Organotherapy and Talismans’, JAMA, 259 (10), 1492-1492. PubMed:
Plummer, HS and WM Boothby (1924), ‘Glandular Therapy: The Administration Of Thyroid Preparations’, JAMA, 83 (17), 1333-35. PubMed:
Rowntree (1935), ‘Glandular Physiology And Therapy: The Thymus Gland’, JAMA, 105 (8), 592-95. PubMed:
Sollmann, TH (1924), ‘Glandular Therapy: Pharmacology of the Pituitary Gland’, JAMA, 83 (21), 1683-84. PubMed:
Weisman, AI (1947), ‘Constitutional Approach In The Treatment Of Male Infertility’, JAMA, 134 (10), 914-914. PubMed:
Williams, JW (1924), ‘Glandular Therapy: The Use Of Extracts Of The Pituitary Gland In Obstetrics’, JAMA, 83 (22), 1768-69. PubMed: