Organotherapy Articles 2


Organo-Therapy in Addison's Disease

         (1909) Download

Glandular Therapy

         (1925) Download

A brief history of testosterone

         (Freeman, Bloom et al. 2001) Download

PURPOSE: We explore the history of testosterone in the context of medical and scientific developments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the scientific and historical literature was conducted. RESULTS: The origins and effects of testosterone have been recognized throughout the history of humankind. Hunter performed testicular transplantation experiments in 1767 while studying tissue transplantation techniques, and almost a century later Berthold linked the physiological and behavioral changes of castration to a substance secreted by the testes. Brown-Sequard gave birth to the field of organotherapy in 1889 when he announced that his auto-injection of testicular extracts resulted in rejuvenated physical and mental abilities. Steinach and Niehans expanded upon Brown-Sequard's work with rejuvenation treatments involving vasoligation, tissue grafts and cellular injections. In 1935 David et al isolated the critical ingredient in organotherapeutic treatments, testosterone. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of the powerful hormone testosterone continue to inspire research and controversy 65 years later.

The Therapeutic Action of Splenic Extract and its application in the treatment of tuberculosis

         (Harrower 1913) Download

A brief history of adrenal research: steroidogenesis - the soul of the adrenal

         (Miller 2013) Download

The adrenal is a small gland that escaped anatomic notice until the 16th century, and whose essential role in physiology was not established until the mid 19th century. Early studies were confounded by failure to distinguish the effects of the cortex from those of the medulla, but advances in steroid chemistry permitted the isolation, characterization and synthesis of many steroids by the mid 20th century. Knowledge of steroid structures, radiolabeled steroid conversions, and the identification of accumulated urinary steroids in diseases of steroidogenesis permitted a generally correct description of the steroidogenic pathways, but one confounded by the failure to distinguish species-specific differences. The advent of cloning technologies and molecular genetics rapidly corrected and clarified the understanding of steroidogenic processes. Our laboratory in San Francisco was one of several contributing to this effort, focusing on human steroidogenic enzymes, the genetic disorders in their biosynthesis and the transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms regulating enzyme activity.

The Present Position of Organotherapy

         (Williams 1923) Download


(1909). "Organo-Therapy in Addison's Disease." Lancet 174(4496): 1296-1297. [PMID:

(1925). "Glandular Therapy." Lancet 205(5289): 89–90. [PMID:

Freeman, E. R., D. A. Bloom, et al. (2001). "A brief history of testosterone." J Urol 165(2): 371-3. [PMID: 11176375]

Harrower, H. (1913). "The Therapeutic Action of Splenic Extract and its application in the treatment of tuberculosis." Lancet 181(4669): 524–526. [PMID:

Miller, W. L. (2013). "A brief history of adrenal research: steroidogenesis - the soul of the adrenal." Mol Cell Endocrinol 371(1-2): 5-14. [PMID: 23123735]

Williams, L. (1923). "The Present Position of Organotherapy." Lancet 201(5188): 255–256. [PMID: