Olive Oil Abstracts 3

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Olive Oil Polyphenols Decrease LDL Concentrations and LDL Atherogenicity in Men in a Randomized Controlled Trial.
            (Hernáez et al., 2015) Download
BACKGROUND:  Olive oil polyphenols have shown protective effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Their consumption decreased oxidative stress biomarkers and improved some features of the lipid profile. However, their effects on LDL concentrations in plasma and LDL atherogenicity have not yet been elucidated. OBJECTIVE:  Our objective was to assess whether the consumption of olive oil polyphenols could decrease LDL concentrations [measured as apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B-100) concentrations and the total number of LDL particles] and atherogenicity (the number of small LDL particles and LDL oxidizability) in humans. METHODS:  The study was a randomized, cross-over controlled trial in 25 healthy European men, aged 20-59 y, in the context of the EUROLIVE (Effect of Olive Oil Consumption on Oxidative Damage in European Populations) study. Volunteers ingested 25 mL/d raw low-polyphenol-content olive oil (LPCOO; 366 mg/kg) or high-polyphenol-content olive oil (HPCOO; 2.7 mg/kg) for 3 wk. Interventions were preceded by 2-wk washout periods. Effects of olive oil polyphenols on plasma LDL concentrations and atherogenicity were determined in the sample of 25 men. Effects on lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expression were assessed in another sample of 18 men from the EUROLIVE study. RESULTS:  Plasma apo B-100 concentrations and the number of total and small LDL particles decreased (mean ± SD: by 5.94% ± 16.6%, 11.9% ± 12.0%, and 15.3% ± 35.1%, respectively) from baseline after the HPCOO intervention. These changes differed significantly from those after the LPCOO intervention, which resulted in significant increases of 6.39% ± 16.6%, 4.73% ± 22.0%, and 13.6% ± 36.4% from baseline (P < 0.03). LDL oxidation lag time increased by 5.0% ± 10.3% from baseline after the HPCOO intervention, which was significantly different only relative to preintervention values (P = 0.038). LPL gene expression tended to increase by 26% from baseline after the HPCOO intervention (P = 0.08) and did not change after the LPCOO intervention. CONCLUSION:  The consumption of olive oil polyphenols decreased plasma LDL concentrations and LDL atherogenicity in healthy young men. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN09220811.


 

Impact of a 6-wk olive oil supplementation in healthy adults on urinary proteomic biomarkers of coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes (types 1 and 2): a randomized, parallel, controlled, double-blind study.
            (Silva et al., 2015) Download
BACKGROUND:  Olive oil (OO) consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease prevention because of both its oleic acid and phenolic contents. The capacity of OO phenolics to protect against low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is the basis for a health claim by the European Food Safety Authority. Proteomic biomarkers enable an early, presymptomatic diagnosis of disease, which makes them important and effective, but understudied, tools for primary prevention. OBJECTIVE:  We evaluated the impact of supplementation with OO, either low or high in phenolics, on urinary proteomic biomarkers of coronary artery disease (CAD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetes. DESIGN:  Self-reported healthy participants (n = 69) were randomly allocated (stratified block random assignment) according to age and body mass index to supplementation with a daily 20-mL dose of OO either low or high in phenolics (18 compared with 286 mg caffeic acid equivalents per kg, respectively) for 6 wk. Urinary proteomic biomarkers were measured at baseline and 3 and 6 wk alongside blood lipids, the antioxidant capacity, and glycation markers. RESULTS:  The consumption of both OOs improved the proteomic CAD score at endpoint compared with baseline (mean improvement: -0.3 for low-phenolic OO and -0.2 for high-phenolic OO; P < 0.01) but not CKD or diabetes proteomic biomarkers. However, there was no difference between groups for changes in proteomic biomarkers or any secondary outcomes including plasma triacylglycerols, oxidized LDL, and LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSION:  In comparison with low-phenolic OO, supplementation for 6 wk with high-phenolic OO does not lead to an improvement in cardiovascular health markers in a healthy cohort.

Olive oil has a beneficial effect on impaired glucose regulation and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Di@bet.es study.
            (Soriguer et al., 2013) Download
BACKGROUND:  Despite the marked increase in cardiovascular risk factors in Spain in recent years, the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular diseases have not risen as expected. Our objective is to examine the association between consumption of olive oil and the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors in the context of a large study representative of the Spanish population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:  A population-based, cross-sectional, cluster sampling study was conducted. The target population was the whole Spanish population. A total of 4572 individuals aged ≥ 18 years in 100 clusters (health centers) were randomly selected with a probability proportional to population size. The main outcome measures were clinical and demographic structured survey, lifestyle survey, physical examination (weight, height, body mass index, waist, hip and blood pressure) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (75 g). RESULTS:  Around 90% of the Spanish population use olive oil, at least for dressing, and slightly fewer for cooking or frying. The preference for olive oil is related to age, educational level, alcohol intake, body mass index and serum glucose, insulin and lipids. People who consume olive oil (vs sunflower oil) had a lower risk of obesity (odds ratio (OR)=0.62 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.41-0.93, P=0.02)), impaired glucose regulation (OR=0.49 (95% CI=0.28-0.86, P=0.04)), hypertriglyceridemia (OR=0.53 (95% CI=0.33-0.84, P=0.03)) and low HDL cholesterol levels (OR=0.40 (95% CI=0.26-0.59, P=0.0001)). CONCLUSIONS:  The results show that consumption of olive oil has a beneficial effect on different cardiovascular risk factors, particularly in the presence of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance or a sedentary lifestyle.

Effects of extra virgin olive oil and fish oil on lipid profile and oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome.
            (Venturini et al., 2015) Download
OBJECTIVE:  The aim of this study was to verify if extra virgin olive oil and fish oil have a synergistic effect on lipid and oxidative stress parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS:  This intervention study included 102 patients (81 women and 21 men) with MetS (mean age 51.45 ± 8.27 y) from the ambulatory center of the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups: Patients in the control group (CG) were instructed to maintain their usual diet; the second group (fish oil group [FO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids (10 capsules); the third group (extra virgin olive oil group [OO]) received 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil at lunch and dinner; and the fourth group (fish oil and extra virgin olive oil group [FOO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids and 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil. MetS related markers and oxidative stress were measured at baseline and after 90 d. RESULTS:  Differences across treatment groups showed a statistically significant decrease (P < 0.05) in total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) when FOO was compared with CG and OO, respectively. Hydroperoxides showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) when FOO was compared with CG, whereas there was an increase in total peroxyl radical-trapping antioxidant potential/advanced oxidation protein products (TRAP/AOPP; P < 0.05) in FOO when compared with FO. In relation to baseline values, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in LDL-C values, and TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-C/HDL-C indexes in FOO. There was also a decrease (P < 0.05) in hydroperoxides, in AOPP and in AOPP/TRAP index in FOO, and an increase (P < 0.05) in TRAP/AOPP index in FOO and in TRAP/uric acid ratio in OO. CONCLUSION:  The present study provides evidence that increased dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and extra virgin olive oil have beneficial synergistic effects on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in patients with MetS.

 


References

Hernáez, Á, et al. (2015), ‘Olive Oil Polyphenols Decrease LDL Concentrations and LDL Atherogenicity in Men in a Randomized Controlled Trial.’, J Nutr, 145 (8), 1692-97. PubMed: 26136585
Silva, S, et al. (2015), ‘Impact of a 6-wk olive oil supplementation in healthy adults on urinary proteomic biomarkers of coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes (types 1 and 2): a randomized, parallel, controlled, double-blind study.’, Am J Clin Nutr, 101 (1), 44-54. PubMed: 25527749
Soriguer, F, et al. (2013), ‘Olive oil has a beneficial effect on impaired glucose regulation and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Di@bet.es study.’, Eur J Clin Nutr, 67 (9), 911-16. PubMed: 23859999
Venturini, D, et al. (2015), ‘Effects of extra virgin olive oil and fish oil on lipid profile and oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome.’, Nutrition, 31 (6), 834-40. PubMed: 25933490