Nigella Abstracts 1

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A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb.
            (Ahmad et al., 2013) Download
Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant.

Effect of Nigella sativa and Allium sativum coadminstered with simvastatin in dyslipidemia patients: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial.
            (Ahmad Alobaidi, 2014) Download
Dyslipidemia plays an important role in the provocation of cardiovascular disease. Psoriasis was associated with metabolic disorder and therefore the present study was performed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of combination of blackseed with garlic as a treatment for dyslipidemia. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, two arms parallel study consisted of 4 week diet stabilization period that included a 4 week base line evaluation phase, followed by an 8 week treatment period. The study comprised men (n=127) and women (n=131) aged 24 to 57 years, who met the NCEP ATP III criteria for drug treatment of hyperlipidemia and dietary intervention. Three hundred patients were randomized to treatment and 258 completed the study. The lipid profile included total cholesterol, HDL-C, Non-HDL-C, LDL-C, and Triglyceride. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups at the baseline for triglyceride, HDL, Non-HDL, LDL and total cholesterol. Following 8 weeks treatment with simvastatin plus placebo the reduction in Non-HDL, triglyceride, LDL and total cholesterol following treatment course was statistically highly significant (P= <0.01). However, the increase in HDL was significant (P=0.02). Patients who received simvastatin, plus black seed and garlic for 8 weeks of treatment show significant differences between baseline and after treatment course for all tested profiles (P=<0.01). This comparison of mean values reveals a high significant difference (P=<0.01) for cholesterol, triglyceride, Non-HDL, and LDL, and significant difference (P=0.03) for HDL between the two treatment groups. This study suggests that the evaluated combination was effective in correction of dyslipidemia. Large scale clinical trials comparing different doses are warranted.

The effect of thymoquinone on intractable pediatric seizures (pilot study).
            (Akhondian et al., 2011) Download
INTRODUCTION:  despite administration of numerous combinations of epileptic drugs, nearly 15% of childhood seizures are resistant to treatment and it is still a problem in pediatric practice. In traditional medicine, Nigella sativa was known to have anticonvulsant effects. Recent studies also have shown its anticonvulsant effects. Most of the properties of N. sativa or its extracts are mainly attributed to thymoquinone. It has been shown that thymoquinone has several therapeutic effects and no evidence of toxicity or side effects is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  in this pilot, double-blinded crossover clinical trial study on children with refractory epilepsy, thymoquinone with dose of 1mg/kg was administered as an adjunctive therapy and its effects on frequency of seizures were compared with those of a placebo. Twenty-two patients entered in the study. They were assigned in two groups and received either thymoquinone or placebo for a period of four weeks, and then during the two weeks of wash out period, they received only their pre-existing anti-epileptic drugs; then, after cross-overing, they received thymoquinone or placebo for a period of four weeks again. During these periods their effects on seizure frequency were investigated. RESULTS:  the reduction of frequency of seizures at the end of first period in comparison with the same period before the study demonstrated a significant difference between two groups (thymoquinone and placebo) (P=0.04). Also reduction of frequency of seizure has shown significant difference between two groups at the end of second period in comparison with end of first period (P=0.02). The parental satisfaction showed significant difference between the two groups at the end of the first period (P=0.03). CONCLUSION:  it can be concluded that thymoquinone has anti-epileptic effects in children with refractory seizures.


 

Effect of black seed on dextromethorphan O- and N-demethylation in human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects.
            (Al-Jenoobi et al., 2010) Download
OBJECTIVE:  To investigate the effects of black seed on the metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 in human liver microsomes and in human subjects using dextromethorphan as a probe drug. METHODS:  CYP2D6-mediated O-demethylation and CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation of dextromethorphan (DEX) to dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively, were utilized to assess the metabolic activities of the two enzymatic pathways. In the in vitro experiments, DEX was incubated with microsomes and NADPH in absence or presence of black seed extract (10-100 microg/ml) and the formation of the metabolites were measured by HPLC. In the clinical study, four healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of DEX 30 mg alone in phase I, and along with last dose of black seed (2.5 g twice daily for seven days) in phase II. Activities of the two enzymes were evaluated based on the urinary metabolic ratios (MRs), which were calculated from eight-hour urine collections. DEX and its metabolites were assayed in urine samples by HPLC following a liquid-liquid extraction. RESULTS:  Black seed extracts significantly inhibited the formation of both metabolites in microsomes. The maximum inhibition was observed at the highest extract concentration (i.e., 100 microg/ml), which was about 80% and 60% for DOR and 3-MM, respectively. In the clinical study, the urinary MRs of DEX/DOR and DEX/3-MM increased by factors of 127 and 1.6-fold, respectively, after consumption of black seed. CONCLUSION:  Black seed significantly inhibited CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 mediated metabolism of DEX in human liver microsomes and healthy human volunteers indicating that it has the potential to interact with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrates.

Clinical efficacy of the co-administration of Turmeric and Black seeds (Kalongi) in metabolic syndrome - a double blind randomized controlled trial - TAK-MetS trial.
            (Amin et al., 2015) Download
OBJECTIVE:  To compare the clinical efficacy of Black seeds and Turmeric alone and its co-administration in lower doses among patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). DESIGN:  Double-blind-randomized-controlled trial. SETTING:  Hijrat colony, Karachi, Pakistan. INTERVENTION:  Apparently healthy males (n=250), who screened positive for MetS, were randomized to either Black seeds (1.5g/day), Turmeric (2.4g/day), its combination (900mg Black seeds and 1.5g Turmeric/day) or placebo for 8 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:  body-mass-index (BMI), body-fat-percent (BF%), waist-circumference (WC), hip-circumference (HC), blood pressure (BP), lipid-profile (cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and TG), fasting blood glucose (FBG) and c-reactive protein (CRP). RESULTS:  At 4 weeks, compared to baseline, Black seed and Turmeric alone showed improvement in BMI, WC and BF%. Combination improved all parameters except HDL-cholesterol with lower FBG and LDL-cholesterol as compared to placebo. At 8 weeks, compared to placebo, Black seeds reduced lipids and FBG, while Turmeric reduced LDL-cholesterol and CRP. Interestingly, combination group with 60% dose of the individual herbs showed an improvement in all parameters from baseline. When compared to placebo, it reduced BF%, FBG, cholesterol, TG, LDL-cholesterol, CRP and raised HDL-cholesterol. CONCLUSION:  Turmeric and Black seeds showed improvement in all parameters of metabolic syndrome, when co-administered at 60% of doses of individual herbs with enhanced efficacy and negligible adverse-effects. The combination of Black seeds and Turmeric can therefore, be recommended with lifestyle modification as a starting point for patients with MetS to halt its future complications and progression.

Ameliorative effects of Nigella sativa on dyslipidemia.
            (Asgary et al., 2015) Download
INTRODUCTION:  Dyslipidemia is an established risk factor for ischemic heart disease. Nigella sativa (NS) is a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment and prevention of a variety of diseases, in particular hyperlipidemia. METHODS:  We reviewed the existing literature published until 2014 by using the following keywords: ''Nigella sativa'', ''black cumin'', ''black seeds'', ''thymoquinone'', and ''lipid''. RESULTS:  In the conducted studies, different preparations of NS including seed powder (100 mg-20 g daily), seed oil (20-800 mg daily), thymoquinone (3.5-20 mg daily), and seed extract (methanolic extract especially), were shown to reduce plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides, but the effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was not significant. NS and thymoquinone have been reported to be safe and well tolerated with no severe adverse effect. In clinical trials, NS was found to be effective when added as adjunct to standard antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic medications. Lipid-modifying effects of NS could be attributed to the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption, decreased hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and up-regulation of LDL receptors. CONCLUSIONS:  Overall, the evidence from experimental and a clinical studies suggests that NS seeds are a promising natural therapy for dyslipidemic patients.

Effect of Nigella sativa supplementation over a one-year period on lipid levels, blood pressure and heart rate in type-2 diabetic patients receiving oral hypoglycemic agents: nonrandomized clinical trial.
            (Badar et al., 2017) Download
BACKGROUND:  Diabetic patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia are at a high risk of cardiovascular complications. OBJECTIVES:  To determine the effect of Nigella sativa supplementation on the lipid profile, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate in persons with type 2 diabetes on oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA). DESIGN:  Single-blind, nonrandomized. SETTING:  Diabetes clinic of a university hospital in Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS AND METHODS:  Type-2 diabetic patients were recruited by purposive sampling and assigned to treatment or control at the discretion of the investigator with the patient blinded to treatment. Before the in.tervention and every 3 months thereafter until the end of the treatment period, the following parameters were measured: triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and body mass index (BMI). Results at the baseline and each subsequent visit were compared between the two groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):  Lipid and cardiovascular parameters, and BMI. RESULTS:  Fifty-seven patients were assigned to receive N sativa 2 g daily for one year and 57 were assigned to receive an identical regimen of placebo, along with OHA. A significant decrease in HDL-C and increase in the TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were seen in the control group. The N sativa group had a signifi.cant decline in TC, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios, compared with the respective baseline data and the control group. HDL-C was significantly elevated in the N sativa group. The control group showed a significant elevation in MAP. The N sativa group had a significant reduction in SBP, DBP, MAP and HR and a significant decrease in DBP, MAP and HR as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION:  N sativa supplementation improves total cholesterol, mean arterial pressure and heart rate in type 2 diabetes patients on oral hypoglycemic agents. LIMITATIONS:  There were 9 subjects in each group lost to follow up; thus the sample size could not be maintained as per the sample size calculation. The study was nonrandomized and thus there was a possibility of allocation bias. (Clinical trial registration number: CTRI/2013/06/003781, Clinical Trial Registry of India).

Effect of Nigella sativa seeds on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
            (Bamosa et al., 2010) Download
UNLABELLED:  Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic disease affecting millions of people world wide. Standard treatment is failing to achieve required correction of blood glucose in many patients. Therefore, there is a need for investigating potential hypoglycemic drugs or herbs to improve glycemic control in diabetic patients. Nigella sativa seeds were used as an adjuvant therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 added to their anti-diabetic medications. A total of 94 patient were recruited and divided randomly into three dose groups. Capsules containing Nigella sativa were administered orally in a dose of 1, 2 and 3 gm/day for three months. The effect of Nigella sativa on the glycemic control was assessed through measurement of fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood glucose level 2 hours postprandially (2 hPG), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Serum C-peptide and changes in body weight were also measured. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function were calculated usin the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA2). Nigella sativa at a dose of 2 gm/day caused significant reductions in FBG, 2hPG, and HbA1 without significant change in body weight. Fasting blood glucose was reduced by an average of 45, 62 and 56 mg/dl at 4, 8 and 12 weeks respectively. HbAlC was reduced by 1.52% at the end of the 12 weeks of treatment (P<0.0001). Insulin resistance calculated by HOMA2 was reduced significantly (P<0.01), while B-cell function was increased (P<0.02) at 12 weeks of treatment. The use of Nigella sativa in a dose of 1 gm/day also showed trends in improvement in all the measured parameters but it was not statistically significant from the baseline. However, no further increment in the beneficial response was observed with the 3 gm/day dose. The three doses of Nigella sativa used in the study did not adversely affect either renal functions or hepatic functions of the diabetic patients throughout the study period. IN CONCLUSION:  the results of this study indicate that a dose of 2 gm/ day of Nigella sativa might be a beneficial adjuvant to oral hypoglycemic agents in type 2 diabetic patients.

Effects of Nigella sativa on outcome of hepatitis C in Egypt.
            (Barakat et al., 2013) Download
AIM:  To evaluate the safety, efficacy and tolerability of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) in patients with hepatitis C not eligible for interferon (IFN)-α. METHODS:  Thirty patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, who were not eligible for IFN/ribavirin therapy, were included in the present study. Inclusion criteria included: patients with HCV with or without cirrhosis, who had a contraindication to IFN-α therapy, or had refused or had a financial constraint to IFN-α therapy. Exclusion criteria included: patients on IFN-α therapy, infection with hepatitis B or hepatitis I virus, hepatocellular carcinoma, other malignancies, major severe illness, or treatment non-compliance. Various parameters, including clinical parameters, complete blood count, liver function, renal function, plasma glucose, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and polymerase chain reaction, were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Clinical assessment included: hepato and/or splenomegaly, jaundice, palmar erythema, flapping tremors, spider naevi, lower-limb edema, and ascites. N. sativa was administered for three successive months at a dose of (450 mg three times daily). Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. RESULTS:  N. sativa administration significantly improved HCV viral load (380808.7 ± 610937 vs 147028.2 ± 475225.6, P = 0.001) and TAC (1.35 ± 0.5 vs 1.612 ± 0.56, P = 0.001). After N. sativa administration, the following laboratory parameters improved: total protein (7.1 ± 0.7 vs 7.5 ± 0.8, P = 0.001), albumin (3.5 ± 0.87 vs 3.69 ± 0.91, P = 0.008), red blood cell count (4.13 ± 0.9 vs 4.3 ± 0.9, P = 0.001), and platelet count (167.7 ± 91.2 vs 198.5 ± 103, P = 0.004). Fasting blood glucose (104.03 ± 43.42 vs 92.1 ± 31.34, P = 0.001) and postprandial blood glucose (143.67 ± 72.56 vs 112.1 ± 42.9, P = 0.001) were significantly decreased in both diabetic and non-diabetic HCV patients. Patients with lower-limb edema decreased significantly from baseline compared with after treatment [16 (53.30%) vs 7 (23.30%), P = 0.004]. Adverse drug reactions were unremarkable except for a few cases of epigastric pain and hypoglycemia that did not affect patient compliance. CONCLUSION:  N. sativa administration in patients with HCV was tolerable, safe, decreased viral load, and improved oxidative stress, clinical condition and glycemic control in diabetic patients.

Neuropharmacological effects of Nigella sativa.
            (Beheshti et al., 2016) Download
Nigella sativa (NS) (Ranunculaceae family) is generally utilized as a therapeutic plant all over the world. The seeds of the plant have a long history of use in different frameworks of medicines and food. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of therapeutics. It has been widely used to treat nervous system diseases such as memory impairment, epilepsy, neurotoxicity, pain, etc. Additionally, this is uncovered that the majority of therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone (TQ) which is a major bioactive component of the essential oil. Pharmacological studies have been done to evaluate the effects of NS on the central nervous system (CNS). The present review is an effort to provide a detailed scientific literature survey about pharmacological activities of the plant on nervous system. Our literature review showed that NS and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

The effects of Nigella sativa extract on hypothyroidism-associated learning and memory impairment during neonatal and juvenile growth in rats.
            (Beheshti et al., 2017) Download
OBJECTIVES:  It has been shown that hypothyroidism-induced oxidative damage in brain tissue is involved in its adverse effects on learning and memory. Nigella sativa (N. sativa) has been suggested to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of N. sativa on hypothyroidism-associated learning and memory impairment during neonatal and juvenile growth in rats. METHODS:  Thirty pregnant rats were kept in separate cages. After delivery, the mothers and their offspring were randomly divided into six groups including: (1) control, (2) PTU (propylthiouracil), (3) PTU-NS 100, (4) PTU-NS 200, (5) PTU-NS 400, and (6) PTU-Vit C (vitamin C). All dams except the control group received 0.005% PTU in their drinking water during lactation. Besides PTU, dams in groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 received 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg N. sativa extract, or 100 mg/kg Vit C, respectively. After lactation period, pups continued to receive same experimental treatment for the first 8 weeks of their life. Then, 10 male offspring of each group were randomly selected and assessed for the learning and memory abilities by using Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests. Blood samples were collected for thyroxine assessment, animals were euthanized, and the brain tissues were removed and analyzed for total thiol groups and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. RESULTS:  PTU exposure significantly increased the time latency in MWM test, while reduced the time spent in target quadrant, and decreased the latency for entering the dark compartment in PA test. These effects were associated with significant reduction in serum thyroxine levels and brain levels of thiol groups, and significant elevation in hippocampal MDA. Administration of 400 mg/kg N. sativa extract and 100 mg/kg Vit C reduced the time latency, while increased the time spent in target quadrant compared to the PTU group in MWM test. Treatment by 100-400 mg/kg of N. sativa extract and also Vit C significantly increased the time latency for entering the dark compartment in PA test. The serum thyroxine concentrations of the animals treated by all doses of the N. sativa extract as well as by Vit C were higher than that of the PTU group. Two hundred and four hundred milligrams/kilogram of NS extract and 100 mg/kg Vit C decreased the MDA concentration in hippocampal tissues, while increased thiol contents compared to the PTU group. DISCUSSION:  The results of this study demonstrate that the hydroalcoholic extract of N. sativa have protective effects on hypothyroidism-associated learning and memory impairment during neonatal and juvenile growth in rats. The effects were comparable to Vit C and might be due to the protective effects of N. sativa extract against brain tissues' oxidative damage.

The effect of Nigella sativa Linn. seed on memory, attention and cognition in healthy human volunteers.
            (Bin Sayeed et al., 2013) Download
BACKGROUND:  Experimental evidences have demonstrated that Nigella sativa Linn. seed (NS) has positive modulation effects on aged rats with memory impairments, prevents against hippocampal pyramidal cell loss and enhances consolidation of recall capability of stored information and spatial memory in rats. NS has neuroprotective, nephroprotective, lung protective, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective activities as established by previous studies on animals. Several clinical trials with NS on human have also demonstrated beneficial effect. AIM OF THE STUDY:  The present study was designed to investigate the effects of NS on memory, attention and cognition in healthy elderly volunteers. Furthermore, safety profile of NS was assessed during the nine-week study period. METHODS:  Forty elderly volunteers were recruited and divided randomly into group A and group B--each consisting of 20 volunteers. The treatment procedure for group A was 500 mg NS capsule twice daily for nine weeks and Group B received placebo instead of NS in the similar manner. All the volunteers were assessed for neuropsychological state and safety profile twice before treatment and after nine weeks. The neuropsychological tests were logical memory test, digit span test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, letter cancellation test, trail making test and stroop test. Safety profile was assessed by measuring biochemical markers of Cardiac (total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatine kinase-MB); Liver (aspartate aminotransferase, alanin aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, bilirubin) and Kidney (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) through using commercial kits. RESULTS:  There was significant difference (p<0.05) in the score of logical memory test-I and II, total score of digit span, 30 min delayed-recall, percent score in Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, time taken to complete letter cancellation test, time taken in trail making test-A and test-B, score in part C of stroop test due to ingestion of NS for nine weeks. There were not statistically significant changes (p>0.05) in any of the biochemical markers of cardiac, liver, kidney function during this nine-week study period. CONCLUSIONS:  The current study demonstrates the role of NS in enhancing memory, attention and cognition. Therefore, whether NS could be considered as potential food supplement for preventing or slow progressing of Alzheimer disease needs further investigations. However, study with Alzheimer's patients with large population size for longer period of time is recommended before using NS daily and extensive phytochemical investigations are recommended for novel drug discovery from NS for treating cognitive disorders.

Nigella sativa L. seeds modulate mood, anxiety and cognition in healthy adolescent males.
            (Bin Sayeed et al., 2014) Download
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:  Previous studies conducted on animals linked consumption of Nigella sativa L. seeds (NS) to decreased anxiety and improved memory. The present study, which was carried out at a boarding school in Bangladesh, was designed to examine probable effect of NS on mood, anxiety and cognition in adolescent human males. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Forty-eight healthy adolescent human males aged between 14 to 17 years were randomly recruited as volunteers and were randomly split into two groups: A (n=24) and B (n=24). The treatment procedure for group A and B were one capsule of 500 mg placebo and 500 mg NS respectively once daily for four weeks. All the volunteers were assessed for cognition with modified California verbal learning test-II (CVLT-II), mood with Bond-Lader scale and anxiety with State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at the beginning and after four weeks of either NS or placebo ingestion. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:  No parameter showed statistically significant variation between A and B in measurements in the beginning, but after 4 weeks of one capsule of NS 500 mg intake, there was statistically significant variation of mood within group B but there was not statistically significant variation between group A and B. No significant variation was found in state anxiety within groups and between group A and B but in case of trait anxiety, significant variation was found within group B but not between group A and B. In case of CVLT II, there was significant variation within B in immediate short-term recall at trial 4 and 5 whereas this difference was found only in case of trial 5 between group A and B. Within group B, short term-free recall, long-term free recall and long-term cued recall had statistical difference whereas between group A and B long-term free recall and long-term cued recall had statistical difference. No parameters had significant variation within group A after placebo intake for 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS:  Over the 4 weeks study period, the use of NS as a nutritional supplement been observed to- stabilize mood, decrease anxiety and modulate cognition positively. However, long term study is suggested before using NS extensively.


The possible prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in asthmatic patients.
            (Boskabady et al., 2007) Download
In previous studies, the relaxant, anticholinergic (functional antagonism) antihistaminic, effects of Nigella sativa have been demonstrated on guinea-pig tracheal chains. In the present study, the prophylactic effect of boiled extract of N. sativa on asthmatic disease was examined. Twenty-nine asthmatic adults were randomly divided into control group (14 patients) and study group (15 patients), and they were studied for 3 months. In the study group 15 mL/kg of 0.1 g% boiled extract and in the control group a placebo solution was administrated daily throughout the study. Asthma symptom score, asthma severity, frequency of symptoms/week and wheezing were recorded in the beginning (first visit), 45 days after treatment (second visit), and at the end of the study (third visit). Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were also measured, and the drug regimen of the patients was evaluated at three different visits. All asthma symptoms, frequency of asthma symptoms/week, chest wheezing, and PFT values in the study group significantly improved in the second and third visits compared with the first visit (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). In addition, further improvement of chest wheezing and severity of disease on the third visit were observed compared with the second visit in this group (P < 0.05 for both cases). In the third visit all symptoms in the study group were significantly different from those of the control group (P < 0.01 to P < 0.001). However, in the control group, there were only small improvements in some parameters in just the second visit. The usage of inhaler and oral beta-agonists, oral corticosteroid, oral theophylline and even inhaler corticosteroid in the study group decreased at the end of the study while there were no obvious changes in usage of the drugs in control subjects. The results of phase I study generally suggest a prophylactic effect of N. sativa on asthma disease and warrant further research regarding this effect.

 


References

Ahmad Alobaidi, AH (2014), ‘Effect of Nigella sativa and Allium sativum coadminstered with simvastatin in dyslipidemia patients: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial.’, Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem, 13 (1), 68-74. PubMed: 23848231
Ahmad, A, et al. (2013), ‘A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb.’, Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 3 (5), 337-52. PubMed: 23646296
Akhondian, J, et al. (2011), ‘The effect of thymoquinone on intractable pediatric seizures (pilot study).’, Epilepsy Res, 93 (1), 39-43. PubMed: 21112742
Al-Jenoobi, FI, et al. (2010), ‘Effect of black seed on dextromethorphan O- and N-demethylation in human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects.’, Drug Metab Lett, 4 (1), 51-55. PubMed: 20201775
Amin, F, et al. (2015), ‘Clinical efficacy of the co-administration of Turmeric and Black seeds (Kalongi) in metabolic syndrome - a double blind randomized controlled trial - TAK-MetS trial.’, Complement Ther Med, 23 (2), 165-74. PubMed: 25847554
Asgary, S, A Sahebkar, and N Goli-Malekabadi (2015), ‘Ameliorative effects of Nigella sativa on dyslipidemia.’, J Endocrinol Invest, 38 (10), 1039-46. PubMed: 26134064
Badar, A, et al. (2017), ‘Effect of Nigella sativa supplementation over a one-year period on lipid levels, blood pressure and heart rate in type-2 diabetic patients receiving oral hypoglycemic agents: nonrandomized clinical trial.’, Ann Saudi Med, 37 (1), 56-63. PubMed: 28151458
Bamosa, AO, et al. (2010), ‘Effect of Nigella sativa seeds on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.’, Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, 54 (4), 344-54. PubMed: 21675032
Barakat, EM, LM El Wakeel, and RS Hagag (2013), ‘Effects of Nigella sativa on outcome of hepatitis C in Egypt.’, World J Gastroenterol, 19 (16), 2529-36. PubMed: 23674855
Beheshti, F, M Khazaei, and M Hosseini (2016), ‘Neuropharmacological effects of Nigella sativa.’, Avicenna J Phytomed, 6 (1), 104-16. PubMed: 27247928
Beheshti, F, et al. (2017), ‘The effects of Nigella sativa extract on hypothyroidism-associated learning and memory impairment during neonatal and juvenile growth in rats.’, Nutr Neurosci, 20 (1), 49-59. PubMed: 25087773
Bin Sayeed, MS, et al. (2013), ‘The effect of Nigella sativa Linn. seed on memory, attention and cognition in healthy human volunteers.’, J Ethnopharmacol, 148 (3), 780-86. PubMed: 23707331
Bin Sayeed, MS, et al. (2014), ‘Nigella sativa L. seeds modulate mood, anxiety and cognition in healthy adolescent males.’, J Ethnopharmacol, 152 (1), 156-62. PubMed: 24412554
Boskabady, MH, et al. (2007), ‘The possible prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in asthmatic patients.’, Fundam Clin Pharmacol, 21 (5), 559-66. PubMed: 17868210