Mitochondria Articles 4

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Reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction by coenzyme Q10 supplement improves endothelial function in patients with ischaemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction: A randomized controlled trial
            (Dai et al., 2011) Download
AIMS: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with endothelial dysfunction and mitochondrial dysfunction (MD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ) supplementation, which is an obligatory coenzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory transport chain, can reverse MD and improve endothelial function in patients with ischaemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effects of CoQ supplement (300mg/day, n=28) vs. placebo (controls, n=28) for 8weeks on brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in patients with ischaemic LVSD(left ventricular ejection fraction <45%). Mitochondrial function was determined by plasma lactate/pyruvate ratio (LP ratio). After 8weeks, CoQ-treated patients had significant increases in plasma CoQ concentration (treatment effect 2.20mug/mL, P<0.001) and FMD (treatment effect 1.51%, P=0.03); and decrease in LP ratio (treatment effect -2.46, P=0.03) compared with controls. However, CoQ treatment did not alter nitroglycerin-mediated dilation, blood pressure, blood levels of fasting glucose, haemoglobin A1c, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and oxidative stress as determined by serum superoxide dismutase and 8-isoprostane (all P>0.05). Furthermore, the reduction in LP ratio significantly correlated with improvement in FMD (r=-0.29, P=0.047). CONCLUSION: In patients with ischaemic LVSD, 8weeks supplement of CoQ improved mitochondrial function and FMD; and the improvement of FMD correlated with the change in mitochondrial function, suggesting that CoQ improved endothelial function via reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with ischaemic LVSD.


 

Protective effect of magnesium and potassium ions on the permeability of the external mitochondrial membrane.
            (Gorgoglione et al., 2007) Download
The data reported are fully consistent with the well-known observation that exogenous cytochrome c (cyto-c) molecules do not permeate through the outer membrane of mitochondria (MOM) incubated in isotonic medium (250 mM sucrose). Cyto-c is unable to accept electrons from the sulfite/cyto-c oxido-reductase (Sox) present in the intermembrane space, unless mitochondria are solubilized. Mitochondria incubated in a very high hypotonic medium (25 mM sucrose), in contrast to any expectation, continue to be not permeable to added cyto-c even if Sox and adenylate kinase are released into the medium. The succinate/exogenous cyto-c reductase activity, very low in isotonic medium, is greatly increased decreasing the osmolarity of the medium but in both cases remains insensitive to proteolysis by added trypsin. In hypotonic medium, magnesium and potassium ions have a protective effect on the release of enzymes and on the reactivity of cyto-c as electron acceptor from both sulfite and succinate; results which are consistent with the view that MOM preserves its identity and remains not permeable to exogenous cyto-c. This report strengthens the proposal, supported by previously published data that in isotonic medium the exogenous NADH/cyto-c electron transport system is catalyzed by intact mitochondria, not permeable to added cyto-c.

Mitochondrial disease: a practical approach for primary care physicians.
            (Haas et al., 2007) Download
Notorious variability in the presentation of mitochondrial disease in the infant and young child complicates its clinical diagnosis. Mitochondrial disease is not a single entity but, rather, a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by impaired energy production due to genetically based oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction. Together, these disorders constitute the most common neurometabolic disease of childhood with an estimated minimal risk of developing mitochondrial disease of 1 in 5000. Diagnostic difficulty results from not only the variable and often nonspecific presentation of these disorders but also from the absence of a reliable biomarker specific for the screening or diagnosis of mitochondrial disease. A simplified and standardized approach to facilitate the clinical recognition of mitochondrial disease by primary physicians is needed. With this article we aimed to improve the clinical recognition of mitochondrial disease by primary care providers and empower the generalist to initiate appropriate baseline diagnostic testing before determining the need for specialist referral. This is particularly important in light of the international shortage of metabolism specialists to comprehensively evaluate this large and complex disease population. It is hoped that greater familiarity among primary care physicians with the protean manifestations of mitochondrial disease will facilitate the proper diagnosis and management of this growing cohort of pediatric patients who present across all specialties.

The in-depth evaluation of suspected mitochondrial disease
            (Haas et al., 2008) Download
Mitochondrial disease confirmation and establishment of a specific molecular diagnosis requires extensive clinical and laboratory evaluation. Dual genome origins of mitochondrial disease, multi-organ system manifestations, and an ever increasing spectrum of recognized phenotypes represent the main diagnostic challenges. To overcome these obstacles, compiling information from a variety of diagnostic laboratory modalities can often provide sufficient evidence to establish an etiology. These include blood and tissue histochemical and analyte measurements, neuroimaging, provocative testing, enzymatic assays of tissue samples and cultured cells, as well as DNA analysis. As interpretation of results from these multifaceted investigations can become quite complex, the Diagnostic Committee of the Mitochondrial Medicine Society developed this review to provide an overview of currently available and emerging methodologies for the diagnosis of primary mitochondrial disease, with a focus on disorders characterized by impairment of oxidative phosphorylation. The aim of this work is to facilitate the diagnosis of mitochondrial disease by geneticists, neurologists, and other metabolic specialists who face the challenge of evaluating patients of all ages with suspected mitochondrial disease.

Presentation and diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders in children.
            (Koenig, 2008) Download
The first disorder of mitochondrial function was described by Luft in 1959. Over the ensuing decades, multiple cases of mitochondrial dysfunction were reported, and the term "mitochondrial disorder" arose to describe any defect in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The sequence of the mitochondrial genome was elucidated in 1981 by Anderson et al., and during the next 20 years, >200 pathogenic point mutations, deletions, insertions, and rearrangements were described. Most of the original cases were adults, and the diagnosis of a mitochondrial disorder in an adult patient became relatively straightforward. Adults present with well-defined "mitochondrial syndromes" and generally carry mitochondrial DNA mutations that are easily identified. Children with mitochondrial disorders are much harder to define. Children are more likely to have a nuclear DNA mutation, whereas the "classic" syndromic findings tend to be absent. This review describes both the varying presentations of mitochondrial disorders and the common laboratory, imaging, and pathologic findings related to children.


Influence of mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa on in vitro fertilisation outcome.
            (Marchetti et al., 2012) Download
To determine whether the outcome of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) is influenced by the percentage of spermatozoa with functional mitochondria, a total of 91 random couples undergoing IVF were included. Mitochondrial function was determined by flow cytometry and expressed as percentage of spermatozoa. Conventional sperm parameters were studied by light microscopy. Reproductive outcome parameters were fertilisation rate, embryo quality and clinical pregnancy. It was found that the fertilisation rate was correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa (r = 0.24, P = 0.01) as well as with the percentage of highly motile spermatozoa. However, we did not find any relationship between the percentage of spermatozoa and embryo quality. Nevertheless, no patient who exhibited less than 64% of spermatozoa achieved pregnancy. It is concluded that determination of Deltapsi(m) provides accurate information to guide physicians to identify male patients for whom IVF will be unlikely to result in pregnancy. Therefore, we suggest that the percentage of spermatozoa may contribute to identify the most appropriate treatment for an individual patient.

Biochemical diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders.
            (Rodenburg, 2011) Download
Establishing a diagnosis in patients with a suspected mitochondrial disorder is often a challenge. Both knowledge of the clinical spectrum of mitochondrial disorders and the number of identified disease-causing molecular genetic defects are continuously expanding. The diagnostic examination of patients requires a multi-disciplinary clinical and laboratory evaluation in which the biochemical examination of the mitochondrial functional state often plays a central role. In most cases, a muscle biopsy provides the best opportunity to examine mitochondrial function. In addition to activity measurements of individual oxidative phosphorylation enzymes, analysis of mitochondrial respiration, substrate oxidation, and ATP production rates is performed to obtain a detailed picture of the mitochondrial energy-generating system. On the basis of the compilation of clinical, biochemical, and other laboratory test results, candidate genes are selected for molecular genetic testing. In patients in whom an unknown genetic variant is identified, a compatible biochemical phenotype is often required to firmly establish the diagnosis. In addition to the current role of the biochemical analysis in the diagnostic examination of patients with a suspected mitochondria disorder, this report gives a future perspective on the biochemical diagnosis in view of both the expanding genotypes of mitochondrial disorders and the possibilities for high throughput molecular genetic diagnosis.


References

Dai, Y. L., et al. (2011), ‘Reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction by coenzyme Q10 supplement improves endothelial function in patients with ischaemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction: A randomized controlled trial’, Atherosclerosis, 216 (2), 395-401. PubMedID: 21388622
Gorgoglione, V, et al. (2007), ‘Protective effect of magnesium and potassium ions on the permeability of the external mitochondrial membrane.’, Arch Biochem Biophys, 461 (1), 13-23. PubMedID: 17320039
Haas, R. H., et al. (2008), ‘The in-depth evaluation of suspected mitochondrial disease’, Mol Genet Metab, 94 (1), 16-37. PubMedID: 18243024
Haas, RH, et al. (2007), ‘Mitochondrial disease: a practical approach for primary care physicians.’, Pediatrics, 120 (6), 1326-33. PubMedID: 18055683
Koenig, MK (2008), ‘Presentation and diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders in children.’, Pediatr Neurol, 38 (5), 305-13. PubMedID: 18410845
Marchetti, P, et al. (2012), ‘Influence of mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa on in vitro fertilisation outcome.’, Andrologia, 44 (2), 136-41. PubMedID: 21714802
Rodenburg, RJ (2011), ‘Biochemical diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders.’, J Inherit Metab Dis, 34 (2), 283-92. PubMedID: 20440652