Mitochondria Articles 3

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Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and increased PGC-1alpha expression
            (Chowanadisai et al., 2010) Download
Bioactive compounds reported to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis are linked to many health benefits such increased longevity, improved energy utilization, and protection from reactive oxygen species. Previously studies have shown that mice and rats fed diets lacking in pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) have reduced mitochondrial content. Therefore, we hypothesized that PQQ can induce mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse hepatocytes. Exposure of mouse Hepa1-6 cells to 10-30 microm PQQ for 24-48 h resulted in increased citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activity, Mitotracker staining, mitochondrial DNA content, and cellular oxygen respiration. The induction of this process occurred through the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha), a pathway known to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. PQQ exposure stimulated phosphorylation of CREB at serine 133, activated the promoter of PGC-1alpha, and increased PGC-1alpha mRNA and protein expression. PQQ did not stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis after small interfering RNA-mediated reduction in either PGC-1alpha or CREB expression. Consistent with activation of the PGC-1alpha pathway, PQQ increased nuclear respiratory factor activation (NRF-1 and NRF-2) and Tfam, TFB1M, and TFB2M mRNA expression. Moreover, PQQ protected cells from mitochondrial inhibition by rotenone, 3-nitropropionic acid, antimycin A, and sodium azide. The ability of PQQ to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis accounts in part for action of this compound and suggests that PQQ may be beneficial in diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin upregulate mitochondrial biogenesis and induce beta-oxidation in white fat
            (Flachs et al., 2005) Download
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces adipose tissue mass, preferentially in the abdomen. The more pronounced effect of marine-derived eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids on adiposity, compared with their precursor alpha-linolenic acid, may be mediated by changes in gene expression and metabolism in white fat. METHODS: The effects of EPA/DHA concentrate (6% EPA, 51% DHA) admixed to form two types of high-fat diet were studied in C57BL/6J mice. Oligonucleotide microarrays, cDNA PCR subtraction and quantitative real-time RT-PCR were used to characterise gene expression. Mitochondrial proteins were quantified using immunoblots. Fatty acid oxidation and synthesis were measured in adipose tissue fragments. RESULTS: Expression screens revealed upregulation of genes for mitochondrial proteins, predominantly in epididymal fat when EPA/DHA concentrate was admixed to a semisynthetic high-fat diet rich in alpha-linolenic acid. This was associated with a three-fold stimulation of the expression of genes encoding regulatory factors for mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha [Ppargc1a, also known as Pgc1alpha] and nuclear respiratory factor-1 [Nrf1] respectively). Expression of genes for carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A and fatty acid oxidation was increased in epididymal but not subcutaneous fat. In the former depot, lipogenesis was depressed. Similar changes in adipose gene expression were detected after replacement of as little as 15% of lipids in the composite high-fat diet with EPA/DHA concentrate, while the development of obesity was reduced. The expression of Ppargc1a and Nrf1 was also stimulated by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in 3T3-L1 cells. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The anti-adipogenic effect of EPA/DHA may involve a metabolic switch in adipocytes that includes enhancement of beta-oxidation and upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis.

Oral administration of vitamin C decreases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and hampers training-induced adaptations in endurance performance
            (Gomez-Cabrera et al., 2008) Download
BACKGROUND: Exercise practitioners often take vitamin C supplements because intense muscular contractile activity can result in oxidative stress, as indicated by altered muscle and blood glutathione concentrations and increases in protein, DNA, and lipid peroxidation. There is, however, considerable debate regarding the beneficial health effects of vitamin C supplementation. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to study the effect of vitamin C on training efficiency in rats and in humans. DESIGN: The human study was double-blind and randomized. Fourteen men (27-36 y old) were trained for 8 wk. Five of the men were supplemented daily with an oral dose of 1 g vitamin C. In the animal study, 24 male Wistar rats were exercised under 2 different protocols for 3 and 6 wk. Twelve of the rats were treated with a daily dose of vitamin C (0.24 mg/cm2 body surface area). RESULTS: The administration of vitamin C significantly (P=0.014) hampered endurance capacity. The adverse effects of vitamin C may result from its capacity to reduce the exercise-induced expression of key transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. These factors are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor co-activator 1, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A. Vitamin C also prevented the exercise-induced expression of cytochrome C (a marker of mitochondrial content) and of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. CONCLUSION: Vitamin C supplementation decreases training efficiency because it prevents some cellular adaptations to exercise.

Hydroxytyrosol promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
            (Hao et al., 2010) Download
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) in extra-virgin olive oil is considered one of the most important polyphenolic compounds responsible for the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet for lowering incidence of cardiovascular disease, the most common and most serious complication of diabetes. We propose that HT may prevent these diseases by a stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis that leads to enhancement of mitochondrial function and cellular defense systems. In the present study, we investigated effects of HT that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and promote mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. HT over the concentration range of 0.1-10 micromol/L stimulated the promoter transcriptional activation and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1 alpha, the central factor for mitochondrial biogenesis) and its downstream targets; these included nuclear respiration factors 1 and 2 and mitochondrial transcription factor A, which leads to an increase in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and in the number of mitochondria. Knockdown of Ppargc1 alpha by siRNA blocked HT's stimulating effect on Complex I expression and mtDNA copy number. The HT treatment resulted in an enhancement of mitochondrial function, including an increase in activity and protein expression of Mitochondrial Complexes I, II, III and V; increased oxygen consumption; and a decrease in free fatty acid contents in the adipocytes. The mechanistic study of the PPARGC1 alpha activation signaling pathway demonstrated that HT is an activator of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase and also up-regulates gene expression of PPAR alpha, CPT-1 and PPAR gamma. These data suggest that HT is able to promote mitochondrial function by stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis.

Brain mitochondrial dysfunction in aging, neurodegeneration, and Parkinson's disease
            (Navarro and Boveris, 2010) Download
Brain senescence and neurodegeneration occur with a mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by impaired electron transfer and by oxidative damage. Brain mitochondria of old animals show decreased rates of electron transfer in complexes I and IV, decreased membrane potential, increased content of the oxidation products of phospholipids and proteins and increased size and fragility. This impairment, with complex I inactivation and oxidative damage, is named "complex I syndrome" and is recognized as characteristic of mammalian brain aging and of neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction is more marked in brain areas as rat hippocampus and frontal cortex, in human cortex in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, and in substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease. The molecular mechanisms involved in complex I inactivation include the synergistic inactivations produced by ONOO- mediated reactions, by reactions with free radical intermediates of lipid peroxidation and by amine-aldehyde adduction reactions. The accumulation of oxidation products prompts the idea of antioxidant therapies. High doses of vitamin E produce a significant protection of complex I activity and mitochondrial function in rats and mice, and with improvement of neurological functions and increased median life span in mice. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, as the Skulachev cations covalently attached to vitamin E, ubiquinone and PBN and the SS tetrapeptides, are negatively charged and accumulate in mitochondria where they exert their antioxidant effects. Activation of the cellular mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis is another potential therapeutic strategy, since the process generates organelles devoid of oxidation products and with full enzymatic activity and capacity for ATP production.

High doses of vitamin E improve mitochondrial dysfunction in rat hippocampus and frontal cortex upon aging
            (Navarro et al., 2011) Download
Rat aging from 4 to 12 mo was accompanied by hippocampus and frontal cortex mitochondrial dysfunction, with decreases of 23 to 53% in tissue and mitochondrial respiration and in the activities of complexes I and IV and of mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) (P < 0.02). In aged rats, the two brain areas showed mitochondria with higher content (35-78%) of oxidation products of phospholipids and proteins and with higher (59-95%) rates of O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2) production (P < 0.02). Dietary supplementation with vitamin E (2.0 or 5.0 g/kg of food) from 9 to 12 mo of rat age, restored in a dose-dependent manner, the decreases in tissue and mitochondrial respiration (to 90-96%) and complexes I and IV and mtNOS activities (to 86-88%) of the values of 4-mo-old rats (P < 0.02). Vitamin E prevented, by 73-80%, the increases in oxidation products, and by 62-68%, the increases in O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2) production (P < 0.05). High resolution histochemistry of cytochrome oxidase in the hippocampal CA1 region showed higher staining in vitamin E-treated rats than in control animals. Aging decreased (19%) hippocampus mitochondrial mass, an effect that was restored by vitamin E. High doses of vitamin E seem to sustain mitochondrial biogenesis in synaptic areas.


Mitochondrial biogenesis in the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease
            (Ren et al., 2010) Download
The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic disorders including obesity, hypertension, and insulin resistance, components which are risk factors for the development of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular, and renal disease. Pathophysiological abnormalities that contribute to the development of the metabolic syndrome include impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis, dampened insulin metabolic signaling, endothelial dysfunction, and associated myocardial functional abnormalities. Recent evidence suggests that impaired myocardial mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid metabolism, and antioxidant defense mechanisms lead to diminished cardiac substrate flexibility, decreased cardiac energetic efficiency, and diastolic dysfunction. In addition, enhanced activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and associated increases in oxidative stress can lead to mitochondrial apoptosis and degradation, altered bioenergetics, and accumulation of lipids in the heart. In addition to impairments in metabolic signaling and oxidative stress, genetic and environmental factors, aging, and hyperglycemia all contribute to reduced mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial dysfunction. These mitochondrial abnormalities can predispose a metabolic cardiomyopathy characterized by diastolic dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction and resulting lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle, liver, and pancreas also impede insulin metabolic signaling and glucose metabolism, ultimately leading to a further increase in mitochondrial dysfunction. Interventions to improve mitochondrial function have been shown to correct insulin metabolic signaling and other metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities. This review explores mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction with a focus on impaired oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis in the pathophysiology of metabolic heart disease.

Regulation of Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Metabolic Syndrome
            (Rolo et al., 2011) Download
Insulin resistant individuals manifest multiple disturbances in free fatty acids metabolism and have excessive lipid accumulation in insulin-target tissues. A wide range of evidence suggests that defective muscle mitochondrial metabolism, and subsequent impaired ability to oxidize fatty acids, may be a causative factor in the accumulation of intramuscular lipid and the development of insulin resistance. Such mitochondrial dysfunction includes loss of mitochondria, defects in the mitochondrial OXPHOS system and decreased rate of ATP synthesis. Stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis appears as a strategy for the clinical management of the metabolic syndrome, by enhancing mitochondrial activity and protecting the cell against the increased flux of reduced substrates to the electron transport chain and thus reducing metabolic inflammation.
References

Chowanadisai, W., et al. (2010), ‘Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and increased PGC-1alpha expression’, J Biol Chem, 285 (1), 142-52. PubMedID: 19861415
Flachs, P., et al. (2005), ‘Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin upregulate mitochondrial biogenesis and induce beta-oxidation in white fat’, Diabetologia, 48 (11), 2365-75. PubMedID: 16205884
Gomez-Cabrera, M. C., et al. (2008), ‘Oral administration of vitamin C decreases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and hampers training-induced adaptations in endurance performance’, Am J Clin Nutr, 87 (1), 142-49. PubMedID: 18175748
Hao, J., et al. (2010), ‘Hydroxytyrosol promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 adipocytes’, J Nutr Biochem, 21 (7), 634-44. PubMedID: 19576748
Navarro, A. and A. Boveris (2010), ‘Brain mitochondrial dysfunction in aging, neurodegeneration, and Parkinson’s disease’, Front Aging Neurosci, 2 PubMedID: 20890446
Navarro, A., et al. (2011), ‘High doses of vitamin E improve mitochondrial dysfunction in rat hippocampus and frontal cortex upon aging’, Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 300 (4), R827-34. PubMedID: 21106913
Ren, J., et al. (2010), ‘Mitochondrial biogenesis in the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease’, J Mol Med, 88 (10), 993-1001. PubMedID: 20725711
Rolo, A. P., A. P. Gomes, and C. M. Palmeira (2011), ‘Regulation of Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Metabolic Syndrome’, Curr Drug Targets, PubMedID: 21269264