Milk Abstracts 3

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Nutritional status and food intake of children with cow's milk allergy.
            (Boaventura et al., 2019)  Download
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES:  Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is common, especially in children. The treatment is based on the exclusion of milk and dairy products and guidance regarding the exclusion diet. This study aimed to compare the anthropometric measurements and food intake of children with CMA with those of healthy controls, and to evaluate the serum concentrations of Vitamin A and 25(OH)D in children with CMA. METHODS:  This is a cross-sectional study with 27 children in the CMA group and 30 in the control group. z-Scores of body mass index and height, skinfolds, food intake and serum concentrations of retinol, beta-carotene, lycopene, 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were evaluated. RESULTS:  Mean age was four years (±1.9). The CMA group evidenced a lower height compared to those from the control group (p=0.0043). The CMA group showed a lower intake of calcium (p=0.0033) and lipids (p=0.0123). Low serum concentrations of retinol, beta-carotene, lycopene, 25(OH)D were found in 25.9%, 59.3%, 48.1% and 70.3% of the CMA group, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:  Children with CMA consume smaller amounts of calcium and lipids and have shorter height compared to healthy controls. Insufficient levels of vitamins A and D were frequent in the CMA group, emphasizing the need for nutritional guidance and monitoring.

Native Whey Induces Similar Adaptation to Strength Training as Milk, despite Higher Levels of Leucine, in Elderly Individuals.
            (Hamarsland et al., 2019)  Download
BACKGROUND:  Large amounts of protein (40 g) or supplementing suboptimal servings of protein with leucine are able to overcome the anabolic resistance in elderly muscle. Our aim was to compare the effects of supplementation of native whey, high in leucine, with milk on gains in muscle mass and strength during a period of strength training, in elderly individuals. METHODS:  In this double-blinded, randomized, controlled study, a total of 30 healthy men and women received two daily servings of 20 g of either milk protein or native whey, during an 11-week strength training intervention. Muscle strength, lean mass, m. vastus lateralis thickness, muscle fiber area, and resting and post-exercise phosphorylation of p70S6K, 4E-BP1, and eEF-2 were assessed prior to and after the intervention period. RESULTS:  Muscle mass and strength increased, by all measures applied in both groups (p < 0.001), with no differences between groups (p > 0.25). p70S6K phosphorylation increased (~1000%, p < 0.045) 2 h after exercise in the untrained and trained state, with no differences between supplements. Total and phosphorylated mTORC-1 decreased after training. CONCLUSION:  Supplementation with milk or native whey during an 11-week strength training period increased muscle mass and strength similarly in healthy elderly individuals.

Cow milk and human health-a review
            (Kumar et al., 2014)  Download
The milk of every species of mammal is unique and specifically tailored to the requirements of that animal. For example, cows' milk is three to four times richer in protein than human milk. It has five to seven times the mineral content. However, it is markedly deficient in essential fatty acids when compared to human mothers' milk. Mothers' milk has six to ten times as much of the essential fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (incidentally, skimmed cow's milk has no linoleic acid). It simply is not designed for humans. Except for domesticated animals to which we feed milk, humans are the only species that drinks the breast milk of another species, and the only species that continues to drink breast milk into adulthood. Today the top producers give ten times more milk. How was this accomplished? Drugs, antibiotics, hormones, forced feeding plans and specialized breeding; that's how.

Cow's milk allergy in adults is rare but severe: both casein and whey proteins are involved
            (Lam et al., 2008)  Download
BACKGROUND: Studies on cow's milk allergy (CMA) in adults are scarce. Little is known about the clinical symptoms, eliciting doses (ED), and allergens involved. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical symptoms, ED and allergen recognition in adult CMA patients, compared with cow's milk (CM)-sensitized, but tolerant controls. METHODS: Adult CMA patients were evaluated by standardized questionnaires (n=30), skin prick tests (SPTs) and specific IgE for CM allergens (n=18), and a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC, n=10). A control group (n=25) of CM-sensitized, but tolerant adults was included. RESULTS: The majority of CMA patients (20/30, 67%) reported severe symptoms. In all patients participating in DBPCFC, CMA was confirmed. ED for subjective symptoms (0.3-300 mg CM protein) were significantly lower than that for objective symptoms (300-9000 mg CM protein). The severity of CMA by history and ED was not correlated with SPT or IgE. Patients had higher SPT reactivity than controls for CM, alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin (P=0.002, P=0.014 and P=0.004) but not for casein. Specific IgE to CM tended to be higher (P=0.068) and IgE to casein was higher in patients than that in controls (P=0.016). No difference was observed for IgE to alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin. CONCLUSION: Adult CMA is severe in nature. ED are low, starting from 0.3 mg CM protein. Patients with CMA recognize the same major allergens (casein and whey proteins) as controls, but display a stronger SPT and IgE reactivity.


 

A 6-month trial of resistance training with milk supplementation in adolescents: effects on body composition.
            (Lambourne et al., 2013)  Download
Fluid milk consumed in conjunction with resistance training (RT) provides additional protein and calcium, which may enhance the effect of RT on body composition. However, the literature on this topic is inconsistent with limited data in adolescents. Therefore, we examined the effects of a supervised RT program (6 mo, 3 d/ wk, 7 exercises, 40-85% 1-repetition maximum) with daily milk supplementation (24 oz/day, one 16-oz dose immediately post-RT) on weight, fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (baseline, 3 mo, 6 mo) in a sample of middle-school students who were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 supplement groups: milk, isocaloric carbohydrate (100% fruit juice), or water (control). Thirty-nine boys and 69 girls (mean age = 13.6 yr, mean BMI percentile = 85th) completed the study: milk n = 36, juice n = 34, water n = 38. The results showed no significant differences between groups for change in body weight (milk = 3.4 ± 3.7 kg, juice = 4.2 ± 3.1 kg, water = 2.3 ±2.9 kg), FM (milk = 1.1 ±2.8 kg, juice = 1.6 ± 2.5 kg, water = 0.4 ±3.6 kg), or FFM (milk = 2.2 ± 1.9 kg, juice = 2.7 ± 1.9 kg, water = 1.7 ± 2.9 kg) over 6 mo. FFM accounted for a high proportion of the increased weight (milk = 62%, juice = 64%, water = 74%). These results from a sample of predominantly overweight adolescents do not support the hypothesis that RT with milk supplementation enhances changes in body composition compared with RT alone.

Comparative Bioavailability of Synthetic B12 and Dietary Vitamin B12 Present in Cow and Buffalo Milk: A Prospective Study in Lactovegetarian Indians.
            (Mahalle et al., 2019) Download
We assessed improvements in the vitamin B12 status of Indian lactovegetarians receiving four weeks supplementation with natural B12 in milk versus cyano-B12 in capsules. Three groups (n = 22, 23, 22) received daily oral doses of cyano-B12 (2 × 0.76 µg) or milk (2 × 200 mL) from a cow or buffalo (amounting to B12 ≈ 2 × 0.76 µg). Their blood was examined at baseline and each following week. The baselines (median (min/max)) indicated a low B12 status: plasma B12 (116(51/314)) pmol/L, holotranscobalamin (holoTC) (30(7/119)) pmol/L, total homocysteine (Hcy) (24(10/118)) µmol/L, methylmalonic acid (MMA) (0.58(0.15/2.2)) µmol/L and combined B12 index (cB12) (-1.32 - (-3.12/+0.29)). Shifts from the baselines (B12, holoTC, cB12) and ratios to the baselines (Hcy, MMA) were analyzed over time. The cyano-B12 treatment gave more total B12 in plasma at week one (+29 pmol/L, p = 0.004) but showed no further increase. Other biomarkers changed more comparably between the three groups (p ≥ 0.05): holoTC showed a transient spike that leveled off, Hcy finally decreased to 0.8 × baseline, while MMA showed marginal changes. The combined indexes improved comparably (p = 0.6) in all groups (+0.2(-0.3/+0.9), p ≤ 0.002). In conclusion, the tested formulations similarly improved B12 status, but did not normalize it.


 

On the supposed influence of milk homogenization on the risk of CVD, diabetes and allergy
            (Michalski, 2007)  Download
Commercial milk is homogenized for the purpose of physical stability, thereby reducing fat droplet size and including caseins and some whey proteins at the droplet interface. This seems to result in a better digestibility than untreated milk. Various casein peptides and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins are reported to present either harmful (e.g. atherogenic) or beneficial bioactivity (e.g. hypotensive, anticarcinogenic and others). Homogenization might enhance either of these effects, but this remains controversial. The effect of homogenization has not been studied regarding the link between early cow's milk consumption and occurrence of type I diabetes in children prone to the disease and no link appears in the general population. Homogenization does not influence milk allergy and intolerance in allergic children and lactose-intolerant or milk-hypersensitive adults. The impact of homogenization, as well as heating and other treatments such as cheesemaking processes, on the health properties of milk and dairy products remains to be fully elucidated.

Daily chocolate milk consumption does not enhance the effect of resistance training in young and old men: a randomized controlled trial.
            (Mitchell et al., 2015)  Download
Older and younger men completed 12 weeks of resistance training and ingested either 500 mL of chocolate milk or placebo daily. Training increased strength in both age groups (p < 0.05), with no supplementation effect. Type I muscle fibre area increased with training (p = 0.008) with no effect of age or supplementation. Type II fibre area increased (p = 0.014) in young men only with no supplementation effect. Chocolate milk did not enhance skeletal muscle hypertrophy following training.

Cow's milk allergy in Thai children
            (Ngamphaiboon et al., 2008)  Download
Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is nowadays a common problem in Thai children. We reviewed medical records of patients with CMA from the Department of Pediatrics at King Chulalongkom Memorial Hospital of the past 10 years, from 1998 to 2007. The criteria for the diagnosis of CMA included: elimination of cow's milk formula resulting in improvement of symptoms, and: recurrence of symptoms after reintroduction of cow's milk by oral challenge or by accidental ingestion. Of the 382 children with a diagnosis of CMA, 168 were girls and 214 were boys. The average age at the time of diagnosis was 14.8 months (7 days-13 years). The average duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 9.2 months. A family history of atopic diseases was found in 64.2% of the patients. All of the mothers reported an increased consumption of cow's milk during their pregnancy. The most common symptoms were respiratory (43.2%) followed by gastrointestinal (GI) (22.5%) and skin manifestations (20.1%). Less common symptoms included failure to thrive (10.9%), anemia (2.8%), delayed speech due to chronic serous otitis media (0.2%) and anaphylactic shock (0.2%). A prick skin test with cow milk extract was positive in 61.4%. Exclusively breast-fed was found in 13.2% of the patients. Successful treatment included elimination of cow's milk and milk products and substitution with soy formula in 42.5%, partial hydrolysate formula (pHF) in 35.7%, extensive hydrolysate formula (eHF) in 14.2%, and amino acid formula in 1.7%. Continued breast feeding was successful in 5.9% (with maternal restriction of cow's milk and milk products). Our study demonstrates the variety of clinical manifestations of CMA in Thai children especially respiratory symptoms which are usually overlooked.

Adding Soy Protein to Milk Enhances the Effect of Resistance Training on Muscle Strength in Postmenopausal Women.
            (Orsatti et al., 2018)  Download
Resistance training (RT) and high-quality protein ingestion improves muscle mass (MM) and strength (MS). However, no study has evaluated the effect of ingesting milk plus soy protein (SOY) on MM and MS in postmenopausal women (PW). Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding SOY to milk on MM and MS after 16 weeks of RT. Thirty-two PW were randomized and allocated into two groups: placebo and RT (PL+RT, n = 16) and SOY and RT (SOY+RT, n = 16). The SOY+RT received 25 g of SOY while the PL+RT received 25 g of maltodextrin (placebo). All supplements were given in the form of a chocolate-flavored powder added to 200 mL of milk. The RT protocol consisted of eight total body exercises at 70% of one repetition maximum (1RM), three sets of 8-12 repetitions, 2-3 times/week. No differences were found in the baseline measures between groups (age, menopause status, anthropometric and nutrition patterns), except for protein intake, which was higher in the SOY+RT. Both groups increased the MM (bioimpedance) showing no difference between groups (PL+RT = 1.5 kg; SOY+RT = 1.1 kg). For MS, the SOY+RT showed a larger (p < .05) increase in 1RM of bench press (PL+RT = 6.7 kg; SOY+RT = 12.5 kg), knee extension (PL+RT = 3.7 kg; SOY+RT = 6.7 kg), total load (PL+RT = 15.1 kg; SOY+RT = 24.2 kg), and the total load exercises/MM (PL+RT = 0.3 kg; SOY+RT = 0.9 kg). These results suggest that adding SOY to milk combined with 16 weeks of RT resulted in more significant increases in MS in PW.

Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.
            (Pal et al., 2015)  Download
True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

Inflammatory cytokine responses to progressive resistance training and supplementation with fortified milk in men aged 50+ years: an 18-month randomized controlled trial.
            (Peake et al., 2011)  Download
We examined the effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) and supplementation with calcium-vitamin D(3) fortified milk on markers of systemic inflammation, and the relationship between inflammation and changes in muscle mass, size and strength. Healthy men aged 50-79 years (n = 180) participated in this 18-month randomized controlled trial that comprised a factorial 2 × 2 design. Participants were randomized to (1) PRT + fortified milk supplement, (2) PRT, (3) fortified milk supplement, or (4) a control group. Participants assigned to PRT trained 3 days per week, while those in the supplement groups consumed 400 ml day(-1) of milk containing 1,000 mg calcium plus 800 IU vitamin D(3). We collected venous blood samples at baseline, 12 and 18 months to measure the serum concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP. There were no exercise × supplement interactions, but serum IL-6 was 29% lower (95% CI, -62, 0) in the PRT group compared with the control group after 12 months. Conversely, IL-6 was 31% higher (95% CI, -2, 65) in the supplement group compared with the non-supplemented groups after 12 and 18 months. These between-group differences did not persist after adjusting for changes in fat mass. In the PRT group, mid-tibia muscle cross-sectional area increased less in men with higher pre-training inflammation compared with those men with lower inflammation (net difference ~2.5%, p < 0.05). In conclusion, serum IL-6 concentration decreased following PRT, whereas it increased after supplementation with fortified milk concomitant with changes in fat mass. Furthermore, low-grade inflammation at baseline restricted muscle hypertrophy following PRT.

Metabolic Footprinting of Fermented Milk Consumption in Serum of Healthy Men.
            (Pimentel et al., 2018)  Download
Background:  Fermentation is a widely used method of natural food preservation that has consequences on the nutritional value of the transformed food. Fermented dairy products are increasingly investigated in view of their ability to exert health benefits beyond their nutritional qualities. Objective:  To explore the mechanisms underpinning the health benefits of fermented dairy intake, the present study followed the effects of milk fermentation, from changes in the product metabolome to consequences on the human serum metabolome after its ingestion. Methods:  A randomized crossover study design was conducted in 14 healthy men [mean age: 24.6 y; mean body mass index (in kg/m2): 21.8]. At the beginning of each test phase, serum samples were taken 6 h postprandially after the ingestion of 800 g of a nonfermented milk or a probiotic yogurt. During the 2-wk test phases, subjects consumed 400 g of the assigned test product daily (200 g, 2 times/d). Serum samples were taken from fasting participants at the end of each test phase. The serum metabolome was assessed through the use of LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics. Results:  Postprandial serum metabolomes after milk or yogurt intake could be differentiated [orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) Q2 = 0.74]. Yogurt intake was characterized by higher concentrations of 7 free amino acids (including proline, P = 0.03), reduced concentrations of 5 bile acids (including glycocholic acid, P = 0.04), and modulation of 4 indole derivative compounds (including indole lactic acid, P = 0.01). Fasting serum samples after 2 wk of daily intake of milk or yogurt could also be differentiated based on their metabolic profiles (OPLS-DA Q2 = 0.56) and were discussed in light of the postprandial results. Conclusion:  Metabolic pathways related to amino acids, indole derivatives, and bile acids were modulated in healthy men by the intake of yogurt. Further investigation to explore novel health effects of fermented dairy products is warranted.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02230345.

The major cow milk allergen Bos d 5 manipulates T-helper cells depending on its load with siderophore-bound iron.
            (Roth-Walter et al., 2014)  Download
The mechanisms of allergic sensitization to milk are still elusive. The major allergen Bos d 5 belongs to the lipocalin-family and thus is able to transport numerous ligands. In this study we investigated its ability to bind to iron-siderophore complexes and tested the immune-modulatory properties of Bos d 5 in either forms. Structural and in silico docking analysis of Bos d 5 revealed that Bos d 5 is able to bind to iron via catechol-based flavonoids (quercetin, myricetin, luteolin) that act as siderophores as confirmed by spectral-analysis and iron staining. Calculated dissociation constants of docking analyses were below 1 µM by virtual addition of iron. When incubated with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), only the apo-form of Bos d 5 led to an increase of CD4+positive cells and significantly elevated IL13 and IFNγ-levels. In contrast, holo-Bos d 5 decreased numbers of CD4 expressing cells and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data give evidence that Bos d 5 is capable of binding iron via siderophores. Moreover, our data support for the first time the notion that the form of application (apo- or holo-form) is decisive for the subsequent immune response. The apo-form promotes Th2 cells and inflammation, whereas the holo-form appears to be immunosuppressive.

High-milk supplementation with healthy diet counseling does not affect weight loss but ameliorates insulin action compared with low-milk supplementation in overweight children.
            (St-Onge et al., 2009)  Download
Milk consumption has decreased in children over the past years. This may play a role in the prevalence of pediatric obesity, because clinical studies have found a beneficial effect of milk consumption for weight management. The objectives of this study were to test whether high-milk consumption leads to greater weight loss and improvements in metabolic risk factors than low milk consumption during a 16-wk healthy eating diet. Overweight children aged 8-10 y were randomized to either high (4 x 236 mL/d) or low (1 x 236 mL/d) milk consumption. Children were provided dietary counseling on healthy eating at baseline and at wk 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12. Serum glucose, insulin, and lipids were measured in fasting children at baseline and wk 8 and 16. An oral glucose tolerance test and body composition assessment by magnetic resonance imaging were conducted at baseline and endpoint. Body weight changes during the 16-wk study not differ between the high-milk (1.3 +/- 0.3 kg) and low-milk (1.1 +/- 0.3 kg) groups. There was no beverage x week interaction on any of the body composition and metabolic variables studied (blood pressure, serum lipids, glucose, and insulin). There was a beverage x week interaction (P = 0.044) on insulin area under the curve showing a trend toward reduced insulin output with a glucose challenge after high-milk consumption (P = 0.062). These data suggest that in overweight children, high-milk consumption in conjunction with a healthy diet does not lead to greater weight loss but may ameliorate insulin action compared with low-milk consumption.

Dairy product intake in relation to glucose regulation indices and risk of type 2 diabetes.
            (Struijk et al., 2013)  Download
BACKGROUND AND AIM:  A high intake of dairy has been linked to lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The relationship between dairy intake and glucose metabolism is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the intake of total dairy and dairy subgroups and T2D and measures of glucose metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS:  A total of 5953 Danish men and women aged 30-60 years without baseline diabetes or cardiovascular diseases were included in this prospective analysis. The dairy intake at baseline was categorised into low-fat dairy, full-fat dairy, milk and milk products, cheese and fermented dairy. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), HbA1c, insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA2-B) were considered at 5-year follow-up. In the maximally-adjusted model (demographics, lifestyle factors, dietary factors and waist), cheese intake was inversely associated with 2hPG (β = -0.048, 95% CI -0.095; -0.001). Fermented dairy intake was inversely associated with FPG (β = -0.028, 95% CI -0.048; -0.008) and HbA1c (β = -0.016, 95% CI -0.030; -0.001). Total dairy intake and the dairy subgroups were not related to HOMA-IR and HOMA-B in the maximally-adjusted model. Furthermore, there was no significant association between intake of total dairy or any of the dairy subgroups and incidence of T2D. CONCLUSION:  Our data suggest a modest beneficial effect of cheese and fermented dairy on glucose regulation measures; however, this did not translate into a significant association with incident T2D.

Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: a review.
            (Ugidos-Rodríguez et al., 2018)  Download
Food lactose and lactose intolerance are today hot topics in the field of food and nutrition. About 70% of the adult world population is lactose-intolerant, due to low levels of intestinal lactase, also called lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH), a β-d-galactosidase found in the apical surface of the intestinal microvilli. This may be due to the loss of intestinal lactase in adulthood, a condition transmitted by an autosomal recessive gene, which differs in humans according to race. According to the cultural-historical hypothesis, the mutation that allows the metabolization of lactose appeared about 10 000 years ago in the inhabitants of Northern Europe where mammalian milk continued in the diet after weaning, and lactase-persistent populations were genetically selected in some areas. Many intolerant individuals can tolerate low levels of lactose in their daily diet. Probiotics have also been proposed as an alternative that could avoid some symptoms of lactose intolerance. Many products are marketed nowadays as alternatives to dairy products for lactose-intolerant individuals. However, the rules for low-lactose foods are currently not harmonised in the European Union. As scientific knowledge on lactose intolerance has notably advanced in recent decades, the aim of this work was to review the current state of the knowledge on lactose and lactose intolerance, its diagnosis and clinical management, and the various food products that are offered specifically for non-tolerant individuals.

Milk and Health.
            (Willett and Ludwig, 2020)  Download
This review summarizes the evidence for the benefits and possible risks associated with consumption of cow’s milk. The authors describe the relationship of milk consumption to the risks of fracture, obesity, cardiovascular disease, allergies, and various cancers.

 


References

Boaventura, RM, et al. (2019), ‘Nutritional status and food intake of children with cow’s milk allergy.’, Allergol Immunopathol (Madr), 47 (6), 544-50. PubMed: 31167726
Hamarsland, H, et al. (2019), ‘Native Whey Induces Similar Adaptation to Strength Training as Milk, despite Higher Levels of Leucine, in Elderly Individuals.’, Nutrients, 11 (9), PubMed: 31487819
Kumar, S, K Kumar, and S Suman… (2014), ‘Cow milk and human health-a review’, J Dairy Sci and Tech, 3 (3), 1-3. PubMed:
Lam, H. Y., et al. (2008), ‘Cow’s milk allergy in adults is rare but severe: both casein and whey proteins are involved’, Clin Exp Allergy, 38 (6), 995-1002. PubMed: 18384430
Lambourne, K, et al. (2013), ‘A 6-month trial of resistance training with milk supplementation in adolescents: effects on body composition.’, Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 23 (4), 344-56. PubMed: 23239680
Mahalle, N, et al. (2019), ‘Comparative Bioavailability of Synthetic B12 and Dietary Vitamin B12 Present in Cow and Buffalo Milk: A Prospective Study in Lactovegetarian Indians.’, Nutrients, 11 (2), PubMed: 30717112
Michalski, M. C. (2007), ‘On the supposed influence of milk homogenization on the risk of CVD, diabetes and allergy’, Br J Nutr, 97 (4), 598-610. PubMed: 17349070
Mitchell, CJ, et al. (2015), ‘Daily chocolate milk consumption does not enhance the effect of resistance training in young and old men: a randomized controlled trial.’, Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 40 (2), 199-202. PubMed: 25610954
Ngamphaiboon, J., P. Chatchatee, and T. Thongkaew (2008), ‘Cow’s milk allergy in Thai children’, Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 26 (4), 199-204. PubMed: 19317338
Orsatti, FL, et al. (2018), ‘Adding Soy Protein to Milk Enhances the Effect of Resistance Training on Muscle Strength in Postmenopausal Women.’, J Diet Suppl, 15 (2), 140-52. PubMed: 28604135
Pal, S, et al. (2015), ‘Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.’, Nutrients, 7 (9), 7285-97. PubMed: 26404362
Peake, JM, et al. (2011), ‘Inflammatory cytokine responses to progressive resistance training and supplementation with fortified milk in men aged 50+ years: an 18-month randomized controlled trial.’, Eur J Appl Physiol, 111 (12), 3079-88. PubMed: 21455612
Pimentel, G, et al. (2018), ‘Metabolic Footprinting of Fermented Milk Consumption in Serum of Healthy Men.’, J Nutr, 148 (6), 851-60. PubMed: 29788433
Roth-Walter, F, et al. (2014), ‘The major cow milk allergen Bos d 5 manipulates T-helper cells depending on its load with siderophore-bound iron.’, PLoS One, 9 (8), e104803. PubMed: 25117976
St-Onge, MP, LL Goree, and B Gower (2009), ‘High-milk supplementation with healthy diet counseling does not affect weight loss but ameliorates insulin action compared with low-milk supplementation in overweight children.’, J Nutr, 139 (5), 933-38. PubMed: 19321584
Struijk, EA, et al. (2013), ‘Dairy product intake in relation to glucose regulation indices and risk of type 2 diabetes.’, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 23 (9), 822-28. PubMed: 22831954
Ugidos-Rodríguez, S, MC Matallana-González, and MC Sánchez-Mata (2018), ‘Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: a review.’, Food Funct, 9 (8), 4056-68. PubMed: 29999504
Willett, WC and DS Ludwig (2020), ‘Milk and Health.’, N Engl J Med, 382 (7), 644-54. PubMed: 32053300