Milk Abstracts 2


Effects of replacing the habitual consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages with milk in Chilean children.
            (Albala et al., 2008)  Download
BACKGROUND:  During the nutrition transition in Chile, dietary changes were marked by increased consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor products, including sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Obesity is now the primary nutritional problem in posttransitional Chile. OBJECTIVE:  We conducted a randomized controlled trial to examine the effects on body composition of delivering milk beverages to the homes of overweight and obese children to displace SSBs. DESIGN:  We randomly assigned 98 children aged 8-10 y who regularly consumed SSBs to intervention and control groups. During a 16-wk intervention, children were instructed to drink 3 servings/d (approximately 200 g per serving) of the milk delivered to their homes and to not consume SSBs. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data were analyzed by multiple regression analysis according to the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS:  For the intervention group, milk consumption increased by a mean (+/- SEM) of 452.5 +/- 37.7 g/d (P < 0.0001), and consumption of SSBs decreased by -711.0 +/- 33.7 g/d (P < 0.0001). For the control group, milk consumption did not change, and consumption of SSBs increased by 71.9 +/- 33.6 g/d (P = 0.04). Changes in percentage body fat, the primary endpoint, did not differ between groups. Nevertheless, the mean (+/- SE) accretion of lean body mass was greater (P = 0.04) in the intervention (0.92 +/- 0.10 kg) than in the control (0.62 +/- 0.11 kg) group. The increase in height was also greater (P = 0.01) in the intervention group (2.50 +/- 0.21 cm) than in the control group (1.77 +/- 0.20 cm) for boys but not for girls. CONCLUSION:  Replacing habitual consumption of SSBs with milk may have beneficial effects on lean body mass and growth in children, despite no changes in percentage body fat. This trial was registered at as NCT00149695.

Impact of cow's milk intake on exercise performance and recovery of muscle function: a systematic review.
            (Alcantara et al., 2019)  Download
Dairy products are thought to improve recovery after both resistance and endurance exercises due to their nutritional proprieties. We systematically reviewed the effects of dairy product intake on exercise performance and recovery of muscle function in humans. A literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE (via PubMed) and Web of Science databases from their inception to 15th April 2018. The initial search retrieved 7708 articles, and a total of 11 studies were finally included after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the selected studies were conducted with cow's milk. Whereas some studies found significant positive effect of cow's milk on exercise performance and recovery of muscle function, others did not find any effect. These controversies could be due to the heterogeneity of cow's milk ingestion (e.g., amount of cow's milk, timing of consuming the cow's milk), to the type of intervention, and to the large heterogeneity of outcomes measured. Limited studies exist examining the effects of cow's milk consumption and its influence on exercise performance and recovery of muscle function, therefore further studies are needed to draw more definitive conclusions.

Skim milk, whey, and casein increase body weight and whey and casein increase the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents.
            (Arnberg et al., 2012)  Download
In adults, dietary protein seems to induce weight loss and dairy proteins may be insulinotropic. However, the effect of milk proteins in adolescents is unclear. The objective was to test whether milk and milk proteins reduce body weight, waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment, plasma insulin, and insulin secretion estimated as the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents. Overweight adolescents (n = 203) aged 12-15 y with a BMI of 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD) were randomized to 1 L/d of skim milk, whey, casein, or water for 12 wk. All milk drinks contained 35 g protein/L. Before randomization, a subgroup of adolescents (n = 32) was studied for 12 wk before the intervention began as a pretest control group. The effects of the milk-based test drinks were compared with baseline (wk 0), the water group, and the pretest control group. Diet and physical activity were registered. Outcomes were BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZs), waist circumference, plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment, and plasma C-peptide. We found no change in BAZ in the pretest control and water groups, whereas it was greater at 12 wk in the skim milk, whey, and casein groups compared with baseline and with the water and pretest control groups. The plasma C-peptide concentration increased from baseline to wk 12 in the whey and casein groups and increments were greater than in the pretest control (P < 0.02). There were no significant changes in plasma C-peptide in the skim milk or water group. These data suggest that high intakes of skim milk, whey, and casein increase BAZs in overweight adolescents and that whey and casein increase insulin secretion. Whether the effect on body weight is primary or secondary to the increased insulin secretion remains to be elucidated.

A randomised controlled trial of the effect of the provision of free school milk on the growth of children.
            (Baker et al., 1980)  Download
A randomised controlled study was carried out of the effect on growth of the provision of free milk supplements to schoolchildren aged 7 and 8. In selecting children for this study, the aim was to identify those whose socioeconomic circumstances might place them at a disadvantage for growth. Five hundred and eighty-one-children were selected from schools where a high proportion of the pupils received free school meals, and from families with four or more children. The subjects were randomly allocated to receive a third of a pint (190 ml) of free milk daily for six school terms or to a control group. The mean difference in height gain at the end of twenty-one-and-a-half months was 3% or 2.93 mm (P less than 0.05) in favour of the children provided with free milk. The mean difference in weight gain was 130 g (P greater than 0.05) in their favour. The height and weight gain associated with the provision of free mild was very small in the study population, and it is therefore likely that the benefit to growth of providing free milk for the whole unselected population of schoolchildren of these ages would be even smaller.

The Impact of Chocolate Goat's and Cow's Milk on Postresistance Exercise Endocrine Responses and Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull Performance.
            (Bellar et al., 2016)  Download
The present investigation examined the effects of chocolate cow's and goat's milk on endocrine responses and isometric mid-thigh pull performance post back squat exercise. Twelve college-aged males volunteered to participate and reported to the lab on four occasions. The first visit included anthropometric measurement, one-repetition back squat (1RM), and familiarization with the isometric mid-thigh pull assessment (IMTP). During the subsequent three visits, five sets of eight repetitions of the back squat exercise at 80% of 1RM were performed. For these trials, the participants performed an IMTP and gave a saliva sample prior to, immediately after, 1 hr and 2 hr post exercise. After exercise, a treatment of low-fat chocolate goat's milk (355 ml, 225 kcal), low-fat chocolate cow's milk (355 ml, 225 kcal), or control (water 355 ml, 0 kcal) was given in a counterbalanced order. Saliva samples were analyzed for testosterone, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Cortisol and DHEA hormone were unaffected by exercise; however, testosterone values did increase significantly post exercise. For IMTP, there was a significant main effect for time (F = 8.41, p = .007) but no treatment or interactions effects. N changes were noted post supplementation for cortisol or DHEA, but testosterone was found to be significantly reduced in both diary treatments compared to control (F = 4.27, p = .022). Based upon these data, it appears that a single treatment of chocolate goat's or cow's milk results in similar endocrine alterations but both fail to enhance postexercise isometric strength following resistance exercise.

A Randomized Study of the Effect of Replacing Sugar-Sweetened Soda by Reduced Fat Milk on Cardiometabolic Health in Male Adolescent Soda Drinkers.
            (Chiu et al., 2020)  Download
Soda consumption in adolescents has been linked to poorer metabolic outcomes. We tested whether replacing soda with reduced fat milk would improve features of atherogenic dyslipidemia and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Thirty overweight and obese adolescent boys who were habitual consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages were randomly assigned to consume 24 oz/day of sugar-sweetened soda or an energy equivalent of reduced fat (2%) milk for 3 weeks with crossover to the alternate beverage after a ≥ 2 weeks washout. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins and other laboratory measures were assessed after each beverage period. Lipid and lipoprotein measurements, C-reactive protein, and serum transaminases did not differ significantly between the soda and milk phases of the study. Systolic blood pressure z-score and uric acid concentration were significantly lower after consuming milk compared to soda. Milk consumption also significantly decreased plasma glucosyl ceramide (d18:1/C16:0) and lactosylceramides (d18:1/C16:0 and d18:1/C18:0). While no effects of replacing soda with milk on lipid and lipoprotein measurements were observed in these normolipidemic weight-stable adolescent boys, decreases in systolic blood pressure, uric acid, and glycosphingolipids suggest that an overall favorable effect on cardiometabolic risk can be achieved following a short-term dietary intervention.

Food allergy to meat and milk in adults
            (Choi et al., 2009)  Download
Food allergy caused by milk or meat is rare in adults, despite prevalence of combined milk and meat allergy in children. Little information is available on combined milk and meat allergy in adults, although bovine serum albumin (BSA) is known as a causative allergen of them (2). Here, we report the clinical features and immunological findings of ten patients with food allergy to both milk and meat that developed in adulthood. In conclusion, our study shows that food allergy to both meat and milk could occur in adults with various clinical manifestations, and it should be considered about the possibility of co-existence of milk and meat allergy. We also recommend the measurement of serum-specific IgE to BSA, as well as each meat and milk allergen for the diagnosis of meat and milk allergy in adult.

Cow's milk allergy in infants.
            (Clein, 1951)  Download
Milk is a common factor as a cause of symptoms in infants and children. This study is a clinical analysis of 140 infants allergic to cow’s milk, whose symptoms were immediately relieved by elimination of milk and substitution with soy milk.

Cow's milk allergy in infants.
            (Clein, 1954)  Download
Milk allergy is a common cause of a multiplicity of mild to severe symptoms in about 6 to 8 per cent of infants fed by artificial feeding. A twenty-four to forty-eight hour trial substitution feeding of soybean milk and complete elimination of cow's milk will quickly determine whether or not milk is the guilty factor. If the symptoms are completely relieved, the infant should be continued on soybean milk for at least four months. When milk allergy is suspected, a twenty-four to forty-eight hour trial on soybean milk is indicated. Early recognition and proper management of milk allergy in infants may avoid and will definitely minimize serious allergic disease in the growing child. This may prevent him from becoming an "allergic cripple." He should be able to grow and develop physically and mentally as any other average child.


Cow's milk allergy in infants and children.
            (Clein, 1958)  Download
About 6% of the infants I see in my pediatric practice have clinically significant allergies to cow’s milk. The substitution of soy­ bean milk for cow’s milk for a period of about 48 hours will rid the infant of his allergic syndrome. Re-feeding cow’s milk will cause a recurrence of the allergic syndrome. This sequence provides all the clinical proof that is necessary to make the diagnosis that the baby is allergic to cow’s milk. The infant should be fed a soybean milk formula for at least the next four months, during which time he may develop hyposensitization through abstinence to cow’s milk. Somewhat less than 80% of infants lose their allergy to cow’s milk before they become a year old. Somewhat less than 15% more lose their allergy to cow’s milk by the time they are two years old. Somewhat less than 5% lose their allergy to cow’s milk by the time they reach the age of six years. About 2 % of the infants who initially had allergies to cow’s milk continue to be allergic to this food after they reach the age of six years. Allergy to cow’s milk in infants can cause a wide range of syndromes, including those involving the skin, respiratory system, gastro-intestinal system, and central nervous system. Early recognition and specific management of this type of allergy in infants may minimize the possibility that the individual will develop more serious allergies to other materials as he grows older. With proper treatment of his milk allergy, the infant should be able to grow and develop, mentally and physically, as normally as any non-allergic child.

Cow's milk allergy: a complex disorder
            (Crittenden and Bennett, 2005)  Download
Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is a complex disorder. Numerous milk proteins have been implicated in allergic responses and most of these have been shown to contain multiple allergenic epitopes. There is considerable heterogeneity amongst allergic individuals for the particular proteins and epitopes to which they react, and to further complicate matters, allergic reactions to cow's milk are driven by more than one immunological mechanism. Finally, the incidence and dominant allergic mechanisms change with age, with IgE-mediated reactions common in infancy and non-IgE-mediated reactions dominating in adults. The complexity of CMA has lead to many public misconceptions about this disorder, including confusion with lactose intolerance and frequent self-misdiagnosis. Indeed, the prevalence of self-diagnosed CMA in the community is 10-fold higher than the clinically proven incidence, suggesting a sizable population is unnecessarily eschewing dairy products. Avoidance of dairy foods, whether for true or perceived CMA, carries with it nutritional consequences and the provision of appropriate nutritional advice is important. In this review, the epidemiology and natural course of CMA is discussed along with our current understanding of its triggers and immunological mechanisms. We examine current strategies for the primary and secondary prevention of allergic sensitization and the ongoing search for effective therapies to ultimately cure CMA.


Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in children with alleged cow's milk allergy: prevention of unnecessary elimination diets and determination of eliciting doses.
            (Dambacher et al., 2013)  Download
BACKGROUND:  Children with cow's milk allergy (CMA) need a cow's milk protein (CMP) free diet to prevent allergic reactions. For this, reliable allergy-information on the label of food products is essential to avoid products containing the allergen. On the other hand, both overzealous labeling and misdiagnosis that result in unnecessary elimination diets, can lead to potentially hazardous health situations. Our objective was to evaluate if excluding CMA by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) prevents unnecessary elimination diets in the long term. Secondly, to determine the minimum eliciting dose (MED) for an acute allergic reaction to CMP in DBPCFC positive children. METHODS:  All children with suspected CMA under our care (Oct'05-Jun'09) were prospectively enrolled in a DBPCFC. Placebo and verum feedings were administered on two randomly assigned separate days. The MED was determined by noting the 'lowest observed adverse effect level' (LOAEL) in DBPCFC-positive children. Based on the outcomes of the DBPCFC a dietary advice was given. Parents were contacted by phone several months later about the diet of their child. RESULTS:  116 children were available for analysis. In 76 children CMA was rejected. In 60 of them CMP was successfully reintroduced, in 2 the parents refused introduction, in another 3 the parents stopped reintroduction. In 9 children CMA symptoms reappeared. In 40 children CMA was confirmed. Infants aged ≤ 12 months in our study group have a higher cumulative distribution of MED than older children. CONCLUSIONS:  Excluding CMA by DBPCFC successfully stopped unnecessary elimination diets in the long term in most children. The MEDs form potential useful information for offering dietary advice to patients and their caretakers.

Cow's milk allergy in infancy.
            (Davies, 1958)  Download
It appears that, in this country, allergy to cow's milk, manifesting itself in infancy, is still regarded as a rarity. The purpose of this paper is to present the clinical findings in one infant in whom the diagnosis of milk allergy appears to have been proved and to summarize the features described in the literature. In this patient, replacement of the cow's milk by human milk and subsequent oral hyposensitization produced satisfactory results.

Lactose Intolerance: Common Misunderstandings.
            (Di Costanzo and Berni Canani, 2018)  Download
Lactose intolerance primarily refers to a syndrome having different symptoms upon the consumption of foods containing lactose. It is one of the most common form of food intolerance and occurs when lactase activity is reduced in the brush border of the small bowel mucosa. Individuals may be lactose intolerant to varying degrees, depending on the severity of these symptoms. When lactose is not digested, it can be fermented by gut microbiota leading to symptoms of lactose intolerance that include abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, and diarrhea with a considerable intraindividual and interindividual variability in the severity of clinical manifestations. These gastrointestinal symptoms could be similar to cow's milk allergy and could be wrongly labeled as symptoms of "milk allergy." There are important differences between lactose intolerance and cow's milk allergy; therefore, a better knowledge of these differences could limit misunderstandings in the diagnostic approach and in the management of these conditions.

Skim milk compared with a fruit drink acutely reduces appetite and energy intake in overweight men and women.
            (Dove et al., 2009)  Download
BACKGROUND:  Several studies show that proteins, including whey and casein, are more satiating than carbohydrates. It follows that skim milk would be more satiating than sugar-rich beverages. However, this has yet to be shown. OBJECTIVE:  The objective was to investigate the effects of drinking skim milk in comparison with a fruit drink at breakfast on self-reported postmeal satiety and energy intake at lunch. DESIGN:  In a randomized crossover trial, 34 overweight women (n = 21) and men (n = 13) attended 2 sessions 1 wk apart. At each session, participants consumed a fixed-energy breakfast together with either 600 mL skim milk (25 g protein, 36 g lactose, <1 g fat; 1062 kJ) or 600 mL fruit drink (<1 g protein, 63 g sugar, <1 g fat; approximately 1062 kJ). Participants provided satiety ratings throughout the morning. Four hours after breakfast they consumed an ad libitum lunch, and energy intake was assessed. RESULTS:  Participants consumed significantly less energy at lunch after consuming skim milk (mean: 2432 kJ; 95% CI: 2160, 2704 kJ) than after consuming the fruit drink (mean: 2658 kJ; 95% CI: 2386, 2930 kJ), with a mean difference of approximately 8.5% (P < 0.05). In addition, self-reports of satiety were higher throughout the morning after consumption of skim milk than after consumption of the fruit drink (P < 0.05) with the differences becoming larger over the 4 h (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION:  Consumption of skim milk, in comparison with a fruit drink, leads to increased perceptions of satiety and to decreased energy intake at a subsequent meal. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry at ( as ACTRN12608000510347.

Increased satiety after intake of a chocolate milk drink compared with a carbonated beverage, but no difference in subsequent ad libitum lunch intake.
            (Harper et al., 2007)  Download
The rising rate of obesity has been blamed on increased consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks, such as carbonated sodas, which fail to satisfy hunger. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect on appetite and energy intake of a sugar-sweetened beverage (cola) and a chocolate milk drink, matched for energy content and volume. It was hypothesised that chocolate milk may be more satiating because of its protein content. Twenty-two healthy young men (age 23 (SD 1 x 8) years) of normal weight (BMI 22 x 2 (SD 1 x 5) kg/m2) were recruited to the randomised cross-over study. Visual analogue scales were used to record subjective appetite ratings every 30 min on each of two test days. A drink of 500 ml cola or chocolate milk (900 kJ) was ingested 30 min before an ad libitum lunch. Satiety and fullness were significantly greater (P=0 x 0007, P=0 x 0004, respectively) 30 min after chocolate milk than after cola. Ratings of prospective consumption and hunger were significantly greater after cola than after chocolate milk, both immediately after preload intake (P=0 x 008, P=0 x 01, respectively) and 30 min afterwards (P=0 x 004, P=0 x 01, respectively). There was no significant difference (P=0 x 42) in ad libitum lunch intake after ingestion of chocolate milk (3145 (SD 1268) kJ) compared with cola (3286 (SD 1346) kJ). The results support the hypothesis that sweetened soft drinks are different from milk products in their impact on short-term hunger and satiety, although differences in subjective appetite scores were not translated into differences in energy intake.

Impact of milk consumption and resistance training on body composition of female athletes.
            (Josse and Phillips, 2012)  Download
Resistance exercise (RE) preceding the provision of high-quality dairy protein supports muscle anabolism. Milk contains bioactive components, including two high-quality protein fractions, calcium and vitamin D, each of which has been shown modulate body composition (increasing lean mass and decreasing fat mass) under energy balance and hypoenergetic conditions. These dairy nutrients are also essential for skeletal health. Acutely, no study of RE and milk/whey consumption has been undertaken exclusively in female athletes, let alone women, nevertheless, studies with both men and women show increased lean mass accretion following milk/whey compared to soy/placebo. Currently, no longer-term RE studies with milk supplementation have been done in female athletes. However, trials in young recreationally active women demonstrated augmented increases in lean mass and decreases in fat mass with RE and milk or whey protein consumption. The amount of protein consumed post-exercise is also important; two trials using yogurt (5 g protein/6 oz) failed to demonstrate a positive change in body composition compared to placebo. For bone health, RE plus dairy improved bone mineral density at clinically important sites and reduced bone resorption. With energy restriction, in one study, higher dairy plus higher protein resulted in greater fat loss, lean mass gain and improved bone health in overweight women. In another study, milk and calcium supplementation showed no greater benefit. Neither trial exclusively utilized RE. Overall, RE and milk/dairy consumption positively impact body composition in women by promoting losses in fat, gains or maintenance of lean mass and preservation of bone. Future studies in female athletes and under energy restriction with RE alone are warranted.

Cow's milk allergy is associated with recurrent otitis media during childhood
            (Juntti et al., 1999)  Download
To determine whether cow's milk allergy (CMA) in infancy is associated with recurrent otitis media (ROM) or other chronic ear infections, we conducted a cohort study by enrolling 56 milk-allergic and 204 control schoolchildren. We also studied the association between ear problems and different atopic manifestations. A higher proportion of children with CMA had had ROM. defined as at least 15 acute otitis media episodes by the age of 10 years (27%, vs 12%, p = 0.009), and had undergone adenoidectomy and or tympanostomy compared with the controls (48%, vs 28%, p = 0.005). However, this was only true of the children who had developed respiratory atopy. Asthma and/or allergic rhinitis, but not atopic dermatitis, posed a significant risk for ROM, while all the three atopic manifestations enhanced the risk for secretory otitis media. Positive skin prick tests with food, but not with inhaled allergens, tended to be associated with ear problems. In conclusion, we found that children with CMA in infancy, even when properly treated, had experienced significantly more ROM, the risk associating with concomitant development of respiratory atopy.

Effects of a multi-component exercise program and calcium-vitamin-D3-fortified milk on bone mineral density in older men: a randomised controlled trial.
            (Kukuljan et al., 2009b)  Download
SUMMARY:  We examined the independent and combined effects of a multi-component exercise program and calcium-vitamin-D(3)-fortified milk on bone mineral density (BMD) in older men. Exercise resulted in a 1.8% net gain in femoral neck BMD, but additional calcium-vitamin D(3) did not enhance the response in this group of older well-nourished men. INTRODUCTION:  This 12-month randomised controlled trial assessed whether calcium-vitamin-D(3)-fortified milk could enhance the effects of a multi-component exercise program on BMD in older men. METHODS:  Men (n = 180) aged 50-79 years were randomised into: (1) exercise + fortified milk; (2) exercise; (3) fortified milk; or (4) controls. Exercise consisted of high intensity progressive resistance training with weight-bearing impact exercise. Men assigned to fortified milk consumed 400 mL/day of low fat milk providing an additional 1,000 mg/day calcium and 800 IU/day vitamin D(3). Femoral neck (FN), total hip, lumbar spine and trochanter BMD and body composition (DXA), muscle strength 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were assessed. RESULTS:  There were no exercise-by-fortified milk interactions at any skeletal site. Exercise resulted in a 1.8% net gain in FN BMD relative to no-exercise (p < 0.001); lean mass (0.6 kg, p < 0.05) and muscle strength (20-52%, p < 0.001) also increased in response to exercise. For lumbar spine BMD, there was a net 1.4-1.5% increase in all treatment groups relative to controls (all p < 0.01). There were no main effects of fortified milk at any skeletal site. CONCLUSION:  A multi-component community-based exercise program was effective for increasing FN BMD in older men, but additional calcium-vitamin D(3) did not enhance the osteogenic response.

Effects of resistance exercise and fortified milk on skeletal muscle mass, muscle size, and functional performance in middle-aged and older men: an 18-mo randomized controlled trial.
            (Kukuljan et al., 2009a)  Download
Limited data have suggested that the consumption of fluid milk after resistance training (RT) may promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to assess whether a milk-based nutritional supplement could enhance the effects of RT on muscle mass, size, strength, and function in middle-aged and older men. This was an 18-mo factorial design (randomized control trial) in which 180 healthy men aged 50-79 yr were allocated to the following groups: 1) exercise + fortified milk, 2) exercise, 3) fortified milk, or 4) control. Exercise consisted of progressive RT with weight-bearing impact exercise. Men assigned to the fortified milk consumed 400 ml/day of low-fat milk, providing an additional 836 kJ, 1000 mg calcium, 800 IU vitamin D(3), and 13.2 g protein per day. Total body lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), midfemur muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) (quantitative computed tomography), muscle strength, and physical function were assessed. After 18 mo, there was no significant exercise by fortified milk interaction for total body LM, muscle CSA, or any functional measure. However, main effect analyses revealed that exercise significantly improved muscle strength ( approximately 20-52%, P < 0.001), LM (0.6 kg, P < 0.05), FM (-1.1 kg, P < 0.001), muscle CSA (1.8%, P < 0.001), and gait speed (11%, P < 0.05) relative to no exercise. There were no effects of the fortified milk on muscle size, strength, or function. In conclusion, the daily consumption of low-fat fortified milk does not enhance the effects of RT on skeletal muscle size, strength, or function in healthy middle-aged and older men with adequate energy and nutrient intakes.



Albala, C, et al. (2008), ‘Effects of replacing the habitual consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages with milk in Chilean children.’, Am J Clin Nutr, 88 (3), 605-11. PubMed: 18779274
Alcantara, JMA, et al. (2019), ‘Impact of cow’s milk intake on exercise performance and recovery of muscle function: a systematic review.’, J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 16 (1), 22. PubMed: 31060583
Arnberg, K, et al. (2012), ‘Skim milk, whey, and casein increase body weight and whey and casein increase the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents.’, J Nutr, 142 (12), 2083-90. PubMed: 23077192
Baker, IA, et al. (1980), ‘A randomised controlled trial of the effect of the provision of free school milk on the growth of children.’, J Epidemiol Community Health, 34 (1), 31-34. PubMed: 6892711
Bellar, D, et al. (2016), ‘The Impact of Chocolate Goat’s and Cow’s Milk on Postresistance Exercise Endocrine Responses and Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull Performance.’, J Diet Suppl, 13 (5), 560-69. PubMed: 26900896
Chiu, S, et al. (2020), ‘A Randomized Study of the Effect of Replacing Sugar-Sweetened Soda by Reduced Fat Milk on Cardiometabolic Health in Male Adolescent Soda Drinkers.’, Nutrients, 12 (2), PubMed: 32033078
Choi, G. S., et al. (2009), ‘Food allergy to meat and milk in adults’, Allergy, PubMed: 20002659
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——— (1954), ‘Cow’s milk allergy in infants.’, Pediatr Clin North Am, 949-62. PubMed: 13204086
——— (1958), ‘Cow’s milk allergy in infants and children.’, Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol, 13 (3-4), 245-56. PubMed: 13598520
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Dambacher, WM, et al. (2013), ‘Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in children with alleged cow’s milk allergy: prevention of unnecessary elimination diets and determination of eliciting doses.’, Nutr J, 12 22. PubMed: 23394146
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Dove, ER, et al. (2009), ‘Skim milk compared with a fruit drink acutely reduces appetite and energy intake in overweight men and women.’, Am J Clin Nutr, 90 (1), 70-75. PubMed: 19474132
Harper, A, et al. (2007), ‘Increased satiety after intake of a chocolate milk drink compared with a carbonated beverage, but no difference in subsequent ad libitum lunch intake.’, Br J Nutr, 97 (3), 579-83. PubMed: 17313721
Josse, AR and SM Phillips (2012), ‘Impact of milk consumption and resistance training on body composition of female athletes.’, Med Sport Sci, 59 94-103. PubMed: 23075559
Juntti, H., et al. (1999), ‘Cow’s milk allergy is associated with recurrent otitis media during childhood’, Acta Otolaryngol, 119 (8), 867-73. PubMed: 10728925
Kukuljan, S, et al. (2009a), ‘Effects of resistance exercise and fortified milk on skeletal muscle mass, muscle size, and functional performance in middle-aged and older men: an 18-mo randomized controlled trial.’, J Appl Physiol (1985), 107 (6), 1864-73. PubMed: 19850735
Kukuljan, S, et al. (2009b), ‘Effects of a multi-component exercise program and calcium-vitamin-D3-fortified milk on bone mineral density in older men: a randomised controlled trial.’, Osteoporos Int, 20 (7), 1241-51. PubMed: 18958384