Leptin Abstracts 1, Cancer

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Regulation of leptin production in humans.
            (Fried et al., 2000) Download
Serum levels of the adipocyte hormone leptin are increased in proportion to body fat stores as a result of increased production in enlarged fat cells from obese subjects. In vitro studies indicate that insulin and glucocorticoids work directly on adipose tissue to upregulate in a synergistic manner leptin mRNA levels and rates of leptin secretion in human adipose tissue over the long term. Thus, the increased leptin expression observed in obesity could result from the chronic hyperinsulinemia and increased cortisol turnover. Superimposed upon the long-term regulation, nutritional status can influence serum leptin over the short term, independent of adiposity. Fasting leads to a gradual decline in serum leptin that is probably attributable to the decline in insulin and the ability of catecholamines to decrease leptin expression, as observed in both in vivo and in vitro studies. In addition, increases in serum leptin occur approximately 4-7 h after meals. Increasing evidence indicates that insulin, in concert with permissive effects of cortisol, can increase serum leptin over this time frame and likely contributes to meal-induced increases in serum leptin. Further research is required to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying short- and long-term nutritional and hormonal regulation of leptin production and secretion.

Leptin influences estrogen metabolism and accelerates prostate cell proliferation.
            (Habib et al., 2015) Download
AIM:  The present study was designed to investigate the effect of leptin on estrogen metabolism in prostatic cells. MAIN METHODS:  Malignant (PC-3) and benign (BPH-1) human prostate cells were treated with 17-β-hydroxyestradiol (1 μM) alone or in combination with leptin (0.4, 4, 40 ng/ml) for 72 h. Cell proliferation assay, immunocytochemical staining of estrogen receptor (ER), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS) and semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used. KEY FINDINGS:  Cell proliferation assay demonstrated that leptin caused significant growth potentiation in both cells. Immunocytochemical staining showed that leptin significantly increased the expression of ER-α and decreased that of ER-β in PC-3 cells. LC-MS method revealed that leptin increased the concentration 4-hydroxyestrone and/or decreased that of 2-methoxyestradiol, 4-methoxyestradiol and 2-methoxyestrone. Interestingly, RT-PCR showed that leptin significantly up-regulated the expression of aromatase and cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) enzymes; however down-regulated the expression of catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme. SIGNIFICANCE:  These data indicate that leptin-induced proliferative effect in prostate cells might be partly attributed to estrogen metabolism. Thus, leptin might be a novel target for therapeutic intervention in prostatic disorders.

Vitamin D suppresses leptin stimulation of cancer growth through microRNA.
            (Kasiappan et al., 2014) Download
Obesity is a pandemic and major risk factor for cancers. The reduction of obesity would have been an effective strategy for cancer prevention, but the reality is that worldwide obesity has kept increasing for decades, remaining a major avoidable cancer risk secondary only to smoke. The present studies suggest that vitamin D may be an effective agent to reduce obesity-associated cancer risks in women. Molecular analyses showed that leptin increased human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA expression and cell growth through estrogen receptor-α (ERα) activation in ovarian cancer cells, which was suppressed by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. The suppression was compromised when miR-498 induction by the hormone was depleted with microRNA (miRNA) sponges. In mice, high-fat diet (HFD) stimulation of ovarian tumor growth was remarkably suppressed by 1,25(OH)2D3 analogue EB1089, which was also compromised by miR-498 sponges. EB1089 did not alter HFD-induced increase in serum leptin levels but increased miR-498 and decreased the diet-induced hTERT expression in tumors. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed an inverse correlation between hTERT mRNA and miR-498 in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 in estrogen-sensitive ovarian, endometrial, and breast cancers. The studies suggest that miR-498-mediated hTERT downregulation is a key event mediating the anti-leptin activity of 1,25(OH)2D3 in estrogen-sensitive tumors in women.

Associations of Probiotics with Vitamin D and Leptin Receptors and their Effects on Colon Cancer.
            (Ranji et al., 2015) Download
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Recent studies have suggested that microbial and environmental factors including diet and lifestyle can impact on colon cancer development. Vitamin D deficiency and dysfunction of vitamin D receptor (VDR) also correlate with colon cancer. Moreover, leptin, a 16-kDa polypeptide, participates in the regulation of food intake and is associated with other environmental factors affecting colon cancer through the leptin receptor. Altered levels of serum leptin and patterns of expression of its receptor (LPR) may be observed in human colon tumours. Furthermore, the collected data from in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that consuming probiotic non-pathogenic lactic acid bacteria have beneficial effects on colon cancer. Probiotics, inflammation and vitamin D/VDR have been correlated with leptin and its receptor and are also with colon cancer. Thus, in this paper, we review recent progress on the roles of probiotic, vitamin D/VDR and leptin/LPR in inflammation and colon cancer.

 

 


References

Fried, SK, et al. (2000), ‘Regulation of leptin production in humans.’, J Nutr, 130 (12), 3127S-31S. PubMedID: 11110887
Habib, CN, et al. (2015), ‘Leptin influences estrogen metabolism and accelerates prostate cell proliferation.’, Life Sci, 121 10-15. PubMedID: 25433128
Kasiappan, R, et al. (2014), ‘Vitamin D suppresses leptin stimulation of cancer growth through microRNA.’, Cancer Res, 74 (21), 6194-204. PubMedID: 25252917
Ranji, P, A Akbarzadeh, and M Rahmati-Yamchi (2015), ‘Associations of Probiotics with Vitamin D and Leptin Receptors and their Effects on Colon Cancer.’, Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16 (9), 3621-27. PubMedID: 25987012