Kidney Abstracts 1

A hypothesis for anti-nanobacteria effects of gallium with observations from treating kidney disease.
            (Eby, 2008) Download
Nanobacteria, 100-fold smaller than common bacteria, have been purported to exist in urine, and by precipitating calcium and other minerals into carbonate apatite around themselves, induce the formation of surrounding kidney stones. Nanobacteria-like structures have also been shown in blood, within arteries, aortic aneurysms, and cardiac valves. Gallium has antibiotic properties to iron-dependent bacteria and has potent anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-hypercalcemic properties, and it readily reverses osteoporosis. It was hypothesized that gallium nitrate might have benefit in treating kidney stones. Gallium nitrate (120mg gallium) was mixed with water making two liters of a gallium mineral water drink to treat chronic, treatment-resistant kidney stone pain and urinary tract bleeding in a 110 pound woman. On the third day of gallium mineral water treatment, the urine appeared snow white, thick (rope-like) and suggestive of a calcific crystalline nature. After release of the white urine, the urine returned to normal in color, viscosity and pH, kidney pain was no longer present, and there was no further evidence of blood in the urine. There were no treatment side effects or sequela. For a one year observation period thereafter, no kidney stones, white urine, kidney or urinary tract pain or blood in the urine was noted. The hypothetical susceptibility of nanobacteria to gallium treatment also suggests application to atherosclerosis and other diseases. Although some support for gallium in treating kidney stones is presented, this hypothesis is built upon another hypothesis, is extremely speculative, and alternative explanations for the white urine exist. Further research into gallium's effects on kidney disease and other nanobacteria-induced diseases such as cardiovascular diseases is suggested.

Nutrition support in acute kidney injury.
            (Gervasio et al., 2011) Download
Acute kidney injury is a frequent complication affecting many hospitalized patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Acute kidney injury often occurs in conjunction with critical illness, which is a hypermetabolic state presenting with hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, and increased protein catabolism. In addition to addressing these changes, the clinician should evaluate the important nutrition implications of decreased kidney function. These include vitamins, electrolytes, minerals, trace elements, and the presence and type of renal replacement therapy. Optimal nutrition management in acute kidney injury includes providing adequate macronutrient support to correct underlying conditions and prevent ongoing loss, supplementing micronutrients and vitamins during renal replacement therapy, and adjusting electrolyte replacement based on the degree and extent of renal dysfunction.

Botanical medicines used for kidney disease in the United States
            (Yarnell, 2012) Download
Herbal medicines are being used with greater frequency by practitioners of natural medicine in the United States. Many categories of herbs are used, primarily angiotensin antagonists, nonspecific nephroprotective, and immunomodulating/adaptogenic herbs. The most common herbs in each category are discussed both from a historical and scientific perspective. For the first time, a case series of the use of the proposed herbal angiotensin antagonist herb indigenous to the United States, Lespedeza capitata, is reported based on the author's clinical practice.




Eby, GA (2008), ‘A hypothesis for anti-nanobacteria effects of gallium with observations from treating kidney disease.’, Med Hypotheses, 71 (4), 584-90. PubMedID: 18579317
Gervasio, JM, WP Garmon, and M Holowatyj (2011), ‘Nutrition support in acute kidney injury.’, Nutr Clin Pract, 26 (4), 374-81. PubMedID: 21775634
Yarnell, E. L. (2012), ‘Botanical medicines used for kidney disease in the United States’, Iran J Kidney Dis, 6 (6), 407-18. PubMedID: 23146977