Iodine Articles 2

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Antineoplastic effect of iodine in mammary cancer: participation of 6-iodolactone (6-IL) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)

            (Aceves, Garcia-Solis et al. 2009) Download

INTRODUCTION: Studies in mammary cancer demonstrated that moderately high concentrations of molecular iodine (I2) have a antiproliferative and apoptotic effect either in vivo as in vitro, however the cellular intermediated involved in these effects has not been elucidated. METHODS: Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with methyl-nitrosourea (MNU: single dose ip, 50 mg/Kg bw) and the participation of arachidonic acid (AA) and PPAR receptors in the antineoplasic effect of I2 where analyzed. RESULTS: I2-treated rats for four weeks exhibited a significant reduction in the incidence (62.5 vs. 100%) and size (0.87 +/- 0.98 vs 1.96 +/- 1.5 cm3) of mammary tumors. HPLC analysis showed that tumoral but not normal mammary tissue contained an elevated basal concentration of AA and significantly more AA-iodinated called 6-iodolactone (6-IL) after chronic I2 treatment. Tumors from I2-treated rats showed fewer cells positive to proliferating cell nuclear antigen, lower blood vessel density, as well as decreases in vascular endothelial growth factor, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and PPAR type alpha (PPARalpha). These same tumors showed increases in the cell death markers, TUNEL-positive cells (p < 0.05) and the enzyme caspase-3 (trend), as well as significant induction of PPAR type gamma (PPARgamma). CONCLUSION: Together, these data demonstrate that the antineoplasic effect of iodine involves 6-IL formation and PPARgamma induction.

Uptake and gene expression with antitumoral doses of iodine in thyroid and mammary gland: evidence that chronic administration has no harmful effects

            (Anguiano, Garcia-Solis et al. 2007) Download

Several studies have demonstrated that moderately high concentrations of molecular iodine (I(2)) diminish the symptoms of mammary fibrosis in women, reduce the occurrence of mammary cancer induced chemically in rats (50-70%), and have a clear antiproliferative and apoptotic effect in the human tumoral mammary cell line MCF-7. Nevertheless, the importance of these effects has been underestimated, in part because of the notion that exposure to excess iodine represents a potential risk to thyroid physiology. In the present work we demonstrate that uptake and metabolism of iodine differ in an organ-specific manner and also depend on the chemical form of the iodine ingested (potassium iodide vs. I(2)). Further, we show that a moderately high I(2) supplement (0.05%) causes some of the characteristics of the "acute Wolff-Chaikoff effect"; namely, it lowers expression of the sodium/iodide symporter, pendrin, thyroperoxidase (TPO), and deiodinase type 1 in thyroid gland without diminishing circulating levels of thyroid hormone. Finally, we confirm that I(2) metabolism is independent of TPO, and we demonstrate that, at the doses used here, which are potentially useful to treat mammary tumors, chronic I(2) supplement is not accompanied by any harmful secondary effects on the thyroid or general physiology. Thus, we suggest that I(2) could be considered for use in clinical trials of breast cancer therapies.

Uptake and antiproliferative effect of molecular iodine in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line

            (Arroyo-Helguera, Anguiano et al. 2006) Download

This study analyzes the uptake and antiproliferative effect of two different chemical forms of iodine, iodide (I-) and molecular iodine (I2), in MCF-7 cells, which are inducible for the Na+/I- symporter (NIS) and positive for pendrin (PDS). The mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 was used as control. Our results show that in MCF-7 cells, I- uptake is sustained and dependent on NIS, whereas I2 uptake is transient with a maximal peak at 10 min and a final retention of 10% of total uptake. In contrast, no I- was taken up by NIH3T3 cells, and although I2 was captured with the same time pattern as in MCF-7 cells, its uptake was significantly lower, and it was not retained within the cell. The uptake of I2 is independent of NIS, PDS, Na+, and energy, but it is saturable and dependent on protein synthesis, suggesting a facilitated diffusion system. Radioiodine was incorporated into protein and lipid fractions only with I2 treatment. The administration of non-radiolabeled I2 and 6-iodo-5-hydroxy-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid (6-iodolactone, an iodinated arachidonic acid), but not KI, significantly inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Proliferation of NIH3T3 cells was not inhibited by 20 microM I2. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that I2 uptake does not depend on NIS or PDS; they suggest that in mammary cancer cells, I2 is taken up by a facilitated diffusion system and then covalently bound to lipids or proteins that, in turn, inhibit proliferation.

Signaling pathways involved in the antiproliferative effect of molecular iodine in normal and tumoral breast cells: evidence that 6-iodolactone mediates apoptotic effects

            (Arroyo-Helguera, Rojas et al. 2008) Download

Previous reports have documented the antiproliferative properties of I(2) and the arachidonic acid (AA) derivative 6-iodolactone (6-IL) in both thyroid and mammary glands. In this study, we characterized the cellular pathways activated by these molecules and their effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in normal (MCF-12F) and cancerous (MCF-7) breast cells. Low-to-moderate concentrations of I(2) (10-20 microM) cause G1 and G2/M phase arrest in MCF-12F and caspase-dependent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. In normal cells, only high doses of I(2) (40 microM) induced apoptosis, and this effect was mediated by poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) and the apoptosis-induced factor, suggesting an oxidative influence of iodine at high concentrations. Our data indicate that both I(2) and 6-IL trigger the same intracellular pathways and suggest that the antineoplasic effect of I(2) in mammary cancer involves the intracellular formation of 6-IL. Mammary cancer cells are known to contain high concentrations of AA, which might explain why I(2) exerts apoptotic effects at lower concentrations only in tumoral cells.

Hypothesis: iodine, selenium and the development of breast cancer

            (Cann, van Netten et al. 2000) Download

BACKGROUND: In this paper we examine some of the evidence linking iodine and selenium to breast cancer development. Seaweed is a popular dietary component in Japan and a rich source of both of these essential elements. We hypothesize that this dietary preference may be associated with the low incidence of benign and malignant breast disease in Japanese women. In animal and human studies, iodine administration has been shown to cause regression of both iodine-deficient goiter and benign pathological breast tissue. Iodine, in addition to its incorporation into thyroid hormones, is organified into anti-proliferative iodolipids in the thyroid; such compounds may also play a role in the proliferative control of extrathyroidal tissues. Selenium acts synergistically with iodine. All three mono-deiodinase enzymes are selenium-dependent and are involved in thyroid hormone regulation. In this way selenium status may affect both thyroid hormone homeostasis and iodine availability. CONCLUSION: Although there is suggestive evidence for a preventive role for iodine and selenium in breast cancer, rigorous retrospective and prospective studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

Seaweed prevents breast cancer?

            (Funahashi, Imai et al. 2001) Download

To investigate the chemopreventive effects of seaweed on breast cancer, we have been studying the relationship between iodine and breast cancer. We found earlier that the seaweed, wakame, showed a suppressive effect on the proliferation of DMBA (dimethylbenz(a)anthracene)-induced rat mammary tumors, possibly via apoptosis induction. In the present study, powdered mekabu was placed in distilled water, and left to stand for 24 h at 4 degrees C. The filtered supernatant was used as mekabu solution. It showed an extremely strong suppressive effect on rat mammary carcinogenesis when used in daily drinking water, without toxicity. In vitro, mekabu solution strongly induced apoptosis in 3 kinds of human breast cancer cells. These effects were stronger than those of a chemotherapeutic agent widely used to treat human breast cancer. Furthermore, no apoptosis induction was observed in normal human mammary cells. In Japan, mekabu is widely consumed as a safe, inexpensive food. Our results suggest that mekabu has potential for chemoprevention of human breast cancer.

The effect of supraphysiologic levels of iodine on patients with cyclic mastalgia

            (Kessler 2004) Download

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial was conducted with 111 otherwise healthy euthyroid women with a history of breast pain. Patients had to document moderate or severe breast pain by recording a score > or =5 on a visual analog scale (VAS) of pain for > or =6 days per cycle and had to present with fibrosis involving at least 25% of both breast surfaces. Subjects could not be effectively treated with more conservative measures such as local heat or nonprescription analgesics. There was not a statistically significant difference in the dropout rate for patients on placebo (11.8%), 1.5 mg/day (31.3%), 3.0 mg/day (18.4%), or 6.0 mg/day (25%) of molecular iodine for 6 months. Physicians assessed breast pain, tenderness, and nodularity each cycle; patients assessed breast pain and tenderness with the Lewin breast pain scale at 3-month intervals and with a VAS at each cycle. A statistically significant improvement (p < 0.01) associated with dose was observed in the Lewin overall pain scale for all treated groups compared to placebo. Reductions in all three physician assessments were observed in patients after 5 months of therapy in the 3.0 mg/day (7/28; 25%) and 6.0 mg/day (15/27; 18.5%) treatment groups, but not the 1.5 mg/day or placebo group. Patients recorded statistically significant decreases in pain by month 3 in the 3.0 and 6.0 mg/day treatment groups, but not the 1.5 mg/day or placebo group; more than 50% of the 6.0 mg/day treatment group recorded a clinically significant reduction in overall pain. All doses were associated with an acceptable safety profile. No dose-related increase in any adverse event was observed.

Tissue iodine content and serum-mediated 125I uptake-blocking activity in breast cancer

            (Kilbane, Ajjan et al. 2000) Download

In the thyroid, active transport of iodide is under control of the TSH-dependent Na+/I- symporter (NIS), whereas in the breast such control is less well understood. In this study, NIS expression was demonstrated by RT-PCR in 2 of 2 fibroadenomata and 6 of 7 breast carcinoma messenger ribonucleic acid isolates. In addition, mean total tissue iodine levels of 80.9 +/- 9.5 ng I/mg protein in 23 benign tumors (fibroadenomata) were significantly higher than those in 19 breast cancers taken from either the tumor (18.2 +/- 4.6 ng I/mg) or morphologically normal tissue taken from within the tumor-bearing breast (31.8 +/- 4.9 ng I/mg; P < 0.05 in each case). Inhibition of 125I uptake into NIS-transfected CHO cells was observed in serum from 20 of 105 (19.0%) breast carcinoma, 8 of 49 (16.3%) benign breast disease, and 27 of 86 (31.4%) Graves' patients, but in only 1 of 33 (3.0%) age-matched female controls. IgG purified from serum of patients showing positive 125I uptake inhibition also inhibited iodide uptake, suggesting that such inhibition was antibody mediated. 125I uptake inhibition was significantly associated with thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity (P < 0.05) in sera from breast cancer patients, but not in those with benign breast disease, once again suggesting an association between thyroid autoimmunity and breast carcinoma.

Molecular iodine induces caspase-independent apoptosis in human breast carcinoma cells involving the mitochondria-mediated pathway

            (Shrivastava, Tiwari et al. 2006) Download

Molecular iodine (I2) is known to inhibit the induction and promotion of N-methyl-n-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis, to regress 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced breast tumors in rat, and has also been shown to have beneficial effects in fibrocystic human breast disease. Cytotoxicity of iodine on cultured human breast cancer cell lines, namely MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, ZR-75-1, and T-47D, is reported in this communication. Iodine induced apoptosis in all of the cell lines tested, except MDA-MB-231, shown by sub-G1 peak analysis using flow cytometry. Iodine inhibited proliferation of normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells; however, it did not induce apoptosis in these cells. The iodine-induced apoptotic mechanism was studied in MCF-7 cells. DNA fragmentation analysis confirmed internucleosomal DNA degradation. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling established that iodine induced apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner in MCF-7 cells. Iodine-induced apoptosis was independent of caspases. Iodine dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential, exhibited antioxidant activity, and caused depletion in total cellular thiol content. Western blot results showed a decrease in Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax. Immunofluorescence studies confirmed the activation and mitochondrial membrane localization of Bax. Ectopic Bcl-2 overexpression did not rescue iodine-induced cell death. Iodine treatment induces the translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria to the nucleus, and treatment of N-acetyl-L-cysteine prior to iodine exposure restored basal thiol content, ROS levels, and completely inhibited nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor and subsequently cell death, indicating that thiol depletion may play an important role in iodine-induced cell death. These results demonstrate that iodine treatment activates a caspase-independent and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway.

The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer

            (Smyth 2003) Download

A renewal of the search for a link between breast cancer and thyroid disease has once again demonstrated an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with breast cancer. This is the most recent of many studies showing an association between a variety of thyroid disorders and breast cancer. Such an association is not surprising as both diseases are female predominant with a similar postmenopausal peak incidence. The significance of the presence of thyroid autoantibodies, particularly thyroid peroxidase antibodies, in serum from patients with breast cancer is unknown, but it has been suggested that antibody positivity is associated with better prognosis. One area in which thyroid and breast functions overlap is in the uptake and utilization of dietary iodide. Experimental findings showing the ability of iodine or iodine-rich seaweed to inhibit breast tumour development is supported by the relatively low rate of breast cancer in Japanese women who consume a diet containing iodine-rich seaweed. However, there is as yet no direct evidence that iodine, iodinated compounds, or a combination of iodine and selenium is the antimammary carcinogenic element in the Japanese diet. It remains to be resolved whether the perceived breast cancer-thyroid disease relationship is thyroid or iodine related or, in the case of thyroid autoantibodies, is the consequence of an immune response to the carcinoma. Is this response breast specific and does it relate to iodine status? These and many other questions await resolution before a definitive role in the natural history of breast carcinoma can be assigned to the thyroid.

Iodine alters gene expression in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line: evidence for an anti-estrogen effect of iodine

            (Stoddard, Brooks et al. 2008) Download

The protective effects of iodine on breast cancer have been postulated from epidemiologic evidence and described in animal models. The molecular mechanisms responsible have not been identified but laboratory evidence suggests that iodine may inhibit cancer promotion through modulation of the estrogen pathway. To elucidate the role of iodine in breast cancer, the effect of Lugol's iodine solution (5% I(2), 10% KI) on gene expression was analyzed in the estrogen responsive MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Microarray analysis identified 29 genes that were up-regulated and 14 genes that were down-regulated in response to iodine/iodide treatment. The altered genes included several involved in hormone metabolism as well as genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression, growth and differentiation. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the array data demonstrating that iodine/iodide treatment increased the mRNA levels of several genes involved in estrogen metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and AKR1C1) while decreasing the levels of the estrogen responsive genes TFF1 and WISP2. This report presents the results of the first gene array profiling of the response of a breast cancer cell line to iodine treatment. In addition to elucidating our understanding of the effects of iodine/iodide on breast cancer, this work suggests that iodine/iodide may be useful as an adjuvant therapy in the pharmacologic manipulation of the estrogen pathway in women with breast cancer.

The mammary gland iodide transporter is expressed during lactation and in breast cancer

            (Tazebay, Wapnir et al. 2000) Download

The sodium/iodide symporter mediates active iodide transport in both healthy and cancerous thyroid tissue. By exploiting this activity, radioiodide has been used for decades with considerable success in the detection and treatment of thyroid cancer. Here we show that a specialized form of the sodium/iodide symporter in the mammary gland mediates active iodide transport in healthy lactating (but not in nonlactating) mammary gland and in mammary tumors. In addition to characterizing the hormonal regulation of the mammary gland sodium/iodide symporter, we demonstrate by scintigraphy that mammary adenocarcinomas in transgenic mice bearing Ras or Neu oncogenes actively accumulate iodide by this symporter in vivo. Moreover, more than 80% of the human breast cancer samples we analyzed by immunohistochemistry expressed the symporter, compared with none of the normal (nonlactating) samples from reductive mammoplasties. These results indicate that the mammary gland sodium/iodide symporter may be an essential breast cancer marker and that radioiodide should be studied as a possible option in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.

Nonradioactive iodide effectively induces apoptosis in genetically modified lung cancer cells

            (Zhang, Sharma et al. 2003) Download

We assessed a nonradioactive approach to induce apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer by a novel iodide uptake and retention mechanism. To enhance tumor apoptosis, we transduced non-small cell lung cancer cells with retroviral vectors containing the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and thyroperoxidase (TPO) genes. Expression of NIS and TPO facilitated concentration of iodide in tumors. As a consequence of the marked increase in intracellular levels of iodide, apoptosis was seen in >95% of NIS/TPO-modified lung cancer cells. Intraperitoneal injection of potassium iodide resulted in significant tumor volume reduction in NIS/TPO-modified tumor xenografts without apparent adverse effects in SCID mice. Iodide induced an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species. Iodide-induced apoptosis is sensitive to N-acetylcysteine inhibition, suggesting an important role by reactive oxygen species in this apoptotic process. In addition, iodide-induced apoptosis is associated with overexpression of CDKN1A (p21/Waf1)and down-regulation of survivin at both mRNA and protein levels. This is the first report demonstrating that a therapeutic dose of nonradioactive iodide has potent efficacy and high selectivity against lung cancer when used in combination with genetic modification of cancer cells to express the NIS/TPO genes.

Di-iodothyronine as part of the oestradiol and catechol oestrogen receptor--the role of iodine, thyroid hormones and melatonin in the aetiology of breast cancer

            (Clur 1988) Download

Hypothyroidism and low iodine intake may be important aetiological factors in oestrogen dependent tumours of the breast, uterus and ovary. They are preventable risk factors. Iodine supplementation will hopefully lead to a decreased incidence of these cancers in future generations. The present author proposes that the tyrosyl residue in the hydrophobic oestrogen binding site of the oestrogen receptor is post translationally modified to monoiodotyrosine and hence 3,3' di-iodothyronine monoamine (T2) by peroxidase activity. He has previously proposed that various monoamine receptors are also T2 based. The densities of these receptors are increased in hypothyroidism and they exert control over release of prolactin and other hormones, including melatonin at multiple sites in the hypothalamic--pituitary axis. Melatonin is a metabolite of serotonin and hence melatonin receptors may be T2 or rT3 based as well. These factors could be significant in the aetiology of breast cancer as high prolactin and melatonin levels may be protective. Oestrogen receptor density may be increased in hypothyroidism as is certain monoamine receptor density. This would amplify the effect of high circulation oestrogen levels in hypothyroidism and may help explain why hypothyroidism and low iodine intake are risk factors for breast, uterine and ovarian cancer.

Disease family trees: the possible roles of iodine in goitre, cretinism, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and cancers of the thyroid, nervous system and skin

            (Foster 1987) Download

Geographical distribution patterns of incidence and mortality for a wide variety of diseases display strong positive and negative correlations when analyzed statistically. It is argued that these relationships do not occur by chance, but reflect the causal role of surpluses and/or deficiencies of various bulk and trace elements. This concept is explored for one such "disease family tree", that of iodine. Deficiencies of this essential trace element appear to be associated with many diseases, or birth defects, including goitre, cretinism, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cancer of the thyroid and nervous system. Although the evidence is weaker, iodine deficiency may also be implicated in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In contrast, too much iodine may be linked to elevated mortality from cancer of the skin and melanoma. Rat studies indicate that iodine deficiencies can cause reduced brain weight, limited myelin formation, retarded neuronal maturation, a lowering of the production of various enzymes and slowing of the rates of protein and R.N.A. synthesis. Similar processes appear to occur in many of the diseases identified above.

The iodine-selenium connection: its possible roles in intelligence, cretinism, sudden infant death syndrome, breast cancer and multiple sclerosis

            (Foster 1993) Download

Several diseases and disorders display spatial patterns that suggest the involvement of both selenium and iodine deficiencies, or excesses, in their etiologies. It is suggested that many of these similarities in geographical distribution occur because both elements influence thyroid hormone metabolism.

Suppressive effect of iodine on DMBA-induced breast tumor growth in the rat

            (Funahashi, Imai et al. 1996) Download

Concerning the suppressive effect of inorganic iodine on the growth of 7,12-dimethyl-benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast tumor in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, we previously reported that although iodine itself had a suppressive effect on the tumor growth, its effect was not as strong as that of MPA (medroxy-progesterone acetate). However, the combined medication of iodine at a low concentration + MPA showed a stronger effect than MPA alone. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate this mechanism of action by determining the uptake of the administered iodine into breast tumor tissue. Breast tumors were induced with DMBA in female SD rats, and these animals were treated with MPA + inorganic iodine at various concentrations for 4 weeks to determine tumor growth and tumor iodine content. In the comparison of tissue iodine content in growth-suppressive tumors with that in nonsuppressive tumors, the former showed a much higher iodine content. This suggests that direct uptake of inorganic iodine by breast tumors led to the suppression of tumor growth.

Spontaneous remission of metastatic lung cancer following myxedema coma--an apoptosis-related phenomenon?

            (Hercbergs and Leith 1993) Download


A complex between 6-iodolactone and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type gamma may mediate the antineoplastic effect of iodine in mammary cancer

            (Nunez-Anita, Arroyo-Helguera et al. 2009) Download

Recently we and other groups have shown that molecular iodine (I(2)) exhibits potent antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in mammary cancer models. In the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, I(2) treatment generates iodine-containing lipids similar to 6-iodo-5-hydroxy-eicosatrienoic acid and the 6-iodolactone (6-IL) derivative of arachidonic acid (AA), and it significantly decreases cellular proliferation and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis. Several studies have shown that AA is a natural ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which are nuclear transcription factors thought to participate in regulating cancer cell proliferation. Our results show that in MCF-7 cells: (1) 6-IL binds specifically and with high affinity to PPAR proteins (EMSA assays), (2) 6-IL activates both transfected (by transactivation assays) and endogenous (by lipid accumulation) peroxisome proliferator response elements, and (3) 6-IL supplementation increases PPAR gamma and decreases PPAR alpha expression. These results implicate PPARs in a molecular mechanism by which I(2), through formation of 6-IL, inhibits the growth of human breast cancer cells.

Role of iodine in antioxidant defence in thyroid and breast disease

            (Smyth 2003) Download

The role played in thyroid hormonogenesis by iodide oxidation to iodine (organification) is well established. Iodine deficiency may produce conditions of oxidative stress with high TSH producing a level of H_2O_2, which because of lack of iodide is not being used to form thyroid hormones. The cytotoxic actions of excess iodide in thyroid cells may depend on the formation of free radicals and can be attributed to both necrotic and apoptotic mechanisms with necrosis predominating in goiter development and apoptosis during iodide induced involution. These cytotoxic effects appear to depend on the status of antioxidative enzymes and may only be evident in conditions of selenium deficiency where the activity of selenium containing antioxidative enzymes is impaired. Less compelling evidence exists of a role for iodide as an antioxidant in the breast. However the Japanese experience may indicate a protective effect against breast cancer for an iodine rich seaweed containing diet. Similarly thyroid autoimmunity may also be associated with improved prognosis. Whether this phenomenon is breast specific and its possible relationship to iodine or selenium status awaits resolution.


Role of iodine in evolution and carcinogenesis of thyroid, breast and stomach

            (Venturi, Donati et al. 2000) Download

The authors have hypothesized that dietary iodine (deficiency or excess) is associated with the development of some gastric and mammary cancers, as it is well-known for thyroid cancer. They report a short review of their own work and of the general literature on this correlation and on the antioxidant function of iodide in stomach, breast and thyroid. Thyroid cells phylogenetically derived from primitive iodide-concentrating gastroenteric cells which, during evolution, migrated and specialized in uptake and storage of iodine, also in order to adapt the organisms from iodine-rich sea to iodine-deficient land. Mammary cells also derived from primitive iodide-concentrating ectoderm. Stomach, breast and thyroid share an important iodide-concentrating ability and an efficient peroxidase activity, which transfers electrons from iodides to the oxygen of hydrogen peroxide and so protects the cells from damage caused by lipid peroxidation. The authors suggest that iodide might have an ancestral antioxidant function in all iodide-concentrating cells from primitive Algae to more recent Vertebrates. In Italy, gastric cancer is more frequent in farmers and in iodine-deficient populations, living in mountainous and hilly areas, than in fishermen. In the last two decades, Italian decrease of gastric cancer seems to be correlated more to the higher dietary consumption of iodine-rich fish rather than to consumption of fruit and vegetables, which indeed has decreased in Italy.

Is there a role for iodine in breast diseases?

            (Venturi 2001) Download

It is hypothesized that dietary iodine deficiency is associated with the development of mammary pathology and cancer. A review of the literature on this correlation and of the author's own work on the antioxidant function of iodide in iodide-concentrating extrathyroidal cells is reported. Mammary gland is embryogenetically derived from primitive iodide-concentrating ectoderm, and alveolar and ductular cells of the breast specialize in uptake and secretion of iodine in milk in order to supply offsprings with this important trace-element. Breast and thyroid share an important iodide-concentrating ability and an efficient peroxidase activity, which transfers electrons from iodide to the oxygen of hydrogen peroxide, forming iodoproteins and iodolipids, and so protects the cells from peroxidative damage. The mammary gland has only a temporary ability to concentrate iodides, almost exclusively during pregnancy and lactation, which are considered protective conditions against breast cancer.


References

Aceves, C., P. Garcia-Solis, et al. (2009). "Antineoplastic effect of iodine in mammary cancer: participation of 6-iodolactone (6-IL) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)." Mol Cancer 8: 33.

Anguiano, B., P. Garcia-Solis, et al. (2007). "Uptake and gene expression with antitumoral doses of iodine in thyroid and mammary gland: evidence that chronic administration has no harmful effects." Thyroid 17(9): 851-9.

Arroyo-Helguera, O., B. Anguiano, et al. (2006). "Uptake and antiproliferative effect of molecular iodine in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line." Endocr Relat Cancer 13(4): 1147-58.

Arroyo-Helguera, O., E. Rojas, et al. (2008). "Signaling pathways involved in the antiproliferative effect of molecular iodine in normal and tumoral breast cells: evidence that 6-iodolactone mediates apoptotic effects." Endocr Relat Cancer 15(4): 1003-11.

Cann, S. A., J. P. van Netten, et al. (2000). "Hypothesis: iodine, selenium and the development of breast cancer." Cancer Causes Control 11(2): 121-7.

Clur, A. (1988). "Di-iodothyronine as part of the oestradiol and catechol oestrogen receptor--the role of iodine, thyroid hormones and melatonin in the aetiology of breast cancer." Med Hypotheses 27(4): 303-11.

Foster, H. D. (1987). "Disease family trees: the possible roles of iodine in goitre, cretinism, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and cancers of the thyroid, nervous system and skin." Med Hypotheses 24(3): 249-63.

Foster, H. D. (1993). "The iodine-selenium connection: its possible roles in intelligence, cretinism, sudden infant death syndrome, breast cancer and multiple sclerosis." Med Hypotheses 40(1): 61-5.

Funahashi, H., T. Imai, et al. (2001). "Seaweed prevents breast cancer?" Jpn J Cancer Res 92(5): 483-7.

Funahashi, H., T. Imai, et al. (1996). "Suppressive effect of iodine on DMBA-induced breast tumor growth in the rat." J Surg Oncol 61(3): 209-13.

Hercbergs, A. and J. T. Leith (1993). "Spontaneous remission of metastatic lung cancer following myxedema coma--an apoptosis-related phenomenon?" J Natl Cancer Inst 85(16): 1342-3.

Kessler, J. H. (2004). "The effect of supraphysiologic levels of iodine on patients with cyclic mastalgia." Breast J 10(4): 328-36.

Kilbane, M. T., R. A. Ajjan, et al. (2000). "Tissue iodine content and serum-mediated 125I uptake-blocking activity in breast cancer." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85(3): 1245-50.

Nunez-Anita, R. E., O. Arroyo-Helguera, et al. (2009). "A complex between 6-iodolactone and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type gamma may mediate the antineoplastic effect of iodine in mammary cancer." Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 89(1-2): 34-42.

Shrivastava, A., M. Tiwari, et al. (2006). "Molecular iodine induces caspase-independent apoptosis in human breast carcinoma cells involving the mitochondria-mediated pathway." J Biol Chem 281(28): 19762-71.

Smyth, P. P. (2003). "Role of iodine in antioxidant defence in thyroid and breast disease." Biofactors 19(3-4): 121-30.

Smyth, P. P. (2003). "The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer." Breast Cancer Res 5(5): 235-8.

Stoddard, F. R., 2nd, A. D. Brooks, et al. (2008). "Iodine alters gene expression in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line: evidence for an anti-estrogen effect of iodine." Int J Med Sci 5(4): 189-96.

Tazebay, U. H., I. L. Wapnir, et al. (2000). "The mammary gland iodide transporter is expressed during lactation and in breast cancer." Nat Med 6(8): 871-8.

Venturi, S. (2001). "Is there a role for iodine in breast diseases?" Breast 10(5): 379-82.

Venturi, S., F. M. Donati, et al. (2000). "Role of iodine in evolution and carcinogenesis of thyroid, breast and stomach." Adv Clin Path 4(1): 11-7.

Zhang, L., S. Sharma, et al. (2003). "Nonradioactive iodide effectively induces apoptosis in genetically modified lung cancer cells." Cancer Res 63(16): 5065-72.