Fluoride Abstracts 4

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A new perspective on metals and other contaminants in fluoridation chemicals.
            (Mullenix, 2014) Download
BACKGROUND:  Fluoride additives contain metal contaminants that must be diluted to meet drinking water regulations. However, each raw additive batch supplied to water facilities does not come labeled with concentrations per contaminant. This omission distorts exposure profiles and the risks associated with accidents and routine use. OBJECTIVES:  This study provides an independent determination of the metal content of raw fluoride products. METHODS:  Metal concentrations were analyzed in three hydrofluorosilicic acid (HFS) and four sodium fluoride (NaF) samples using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Arsenic levels were confirmed using graphite furnace atomic absorption analysis. RESULTS:  Results show that metal content varies with batch, and all HFS samples contained arsenic (4·9-56·0 ppm) or arsenic in addition to lead (10·3 ppm). Two NaF samples contained barium (13·3-18·0 ppm) instead. All HFS (212-415 ppm) and NaF (3312-3630 ppm) additives contained a surprising amount of aluminum. CONCLUSIONS:  Such contaminant content creates a regulatory blind spot that jeopardizes any safe use of fluoride additives.

Are fluoride levels in drinking water associated with hypothyroidism prevalence in England? A large observational study of GP practice data and fluoride levels in drinking water.
            (Peckham et al., 2015) Download
BACKGROUND:  While previous research has suggested that there is an association between fluoride ingestion and the incidence of hypothyroidism, few population level studies have been undertaken. In England, approximately 10% of the population live in areas with community fluoridation schemes and hypothyroidism prevalence can be assessed from general practice data. This observational study examines the association between levels of fluoride in water supplies with practice level hypothyroidism prevalence. METHODS:  We used a cross-sectional study design using secondary data to develop binary logistic regression models of predictive factors for hypothyroidism prevalence at practice level using 2012 data on fluoride levels in drinking water, 2012/2013 Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) diagnosed hypothyroidism prevalence data, 2013 General Practitioner registered patient numbers and 2012 practice level Index of Multiple Deprivation scores. FINDINGS:  We found that higher levels of fluoride in drinking water provide a useful contribution for predicting prevalence of hypothyroidism. We found that practices located in the West Midlands (a wholly fluoridated area) are nearly twice as likely to report high hypothyroidism prevalence in comparison to Greater Manchester (non-fluoridated area). INTERPRETATION:  In many areas of the world, hypothyroidism is a major health concern and in addition to other factors-such as iodine deficiency-fluoride exposure should be considered as a contributing factor. The findings of the study raise particular concerns about the validity of community fluoridation as a safe public health measure.

 

Curcumin attenuates neurotoxicity induced by fluoride: An in vivo evidence.
            (Sharma et al., 2014) Download
BACKGROUND:  Curcumin (Cur), an active ingredient of turmeric is known to have multiple activities, including an antioxidant property and has been suggested to be useful in treatment of several neurological diseases. OBJECTIVE:  To investigate the neuroprotective effects of Cur to mitigate the effect of the Fluoride (F) induced neurotoxicity in mice brain using the histological and the biochemical parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Exposure of mice (30 days old male) to F (120 ppm) daily for 30 days. RESULT AND DISCUSSION:  Treatment with the F causes an increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and also increase in the neurodegenerative cells in the hippocampal sub-regions. Interestingly, co-treatment with Cur (30 mg/kg BW) with F (120 ppm) for 30 days results in significant decreases in LPO with a concomitant decrease in neurodegeneration as compared with those treated with F alone. CONCLUSION:  Our study reveals that Cur is useful in ameliorating degenerative effects of F in mice brain.

 


References

Mullenix, PJ (2014), ‘A new perspective on metals and other contaminants in fluoridation chemicals.’, Int J Occup Environ Health, 20 (2), 157-66. PubMed: 24999851
Peckham, S, D Lowery, and S Spencer (2015), ‘Are fluoride levels in drinking water associated with hypothyroidism prevalence in England? A large observational study of GP practice data and fluoride levels in drinking water.’, J Epidemiol Community Health, 69 (7), 619-24. PubMed: 25714098
Sharma, C, et al. (2014), ‘Curcumin attenuates neurotoxicity induced by fluoride: An in vivo evidence.’, Pharmacogn Mag, 10 (37), 61-65. PubMed: 24696547