Dopamine Abstracts 2

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Dopamine modulates reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli.
            (Oei et al., 2012) Download
Dopaminergic medication influences conscious processing of rewarding stimuli, and is associated with impulsive-compulsive behaviors, such as hypersexuality. Previous studies have shown that subconscious subliminal presentation of sexual stimuli activates brain areas known to be part of the 'reward system'. In this study, it was hypothesized that dopamine modulates activation in key areas of the reward system, such as the nucleus accumbens, during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli. Young healthy males (n=53) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups or a control group, and were administered a dopamine antagonist (haloperidol), a dopamine agonist (levodopa), or placebo. Brain activation was assessed during a backward-masking task with subliminally presented sexual stimuli. Results showed that levodopa significantly enhanced the activation in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal anterior cingulate when subliminal sexual stimuli were shown, whereas haloperidol decreased activations in those areas. Dopamine thus enhances activations in regions thought to regulate 'wanting' in response to potentially rewarding sexual stimuli that are not consciously perceived. This running start of the reward system might explain the pull of rewards in individuals with compulsive reward-seeking behaviors such as hypersexuality and patients who receive dopaminergic medication.

Beneficial effects of carnosic acid on dieldrin-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death.
            (Park et al., 2008) Download
Carnosic acid (CA) is one of the bioactive polyphenols present in extracts of the herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). In this study, we examined possible protective effects of CA on neurotoxicity induced by dieldrin, an organochlorine pesticide implicated in sporadic Parkinson's disease, in cultured dopaminergic cells (SN4741). CA (5-10 muM) pretreatment showed potent protective effects in a concentration-related manner and prevented dieldrin (10 muM)-induced caspase-3 activation, Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, and caspase-12 activation. Furthermore, dieldrin-induced downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor production was significantly attenuated by CA. These results suggest that CA may safeguard dopaminergic neuronal cells from environmental neurotoxins by enhancing brain-derived neurotrophic factor and repressing apoptotic molecules.


Effects of NADH on dopamine release in rat striatum.
            (Pearl et al., 2000) Download
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) may be utilized for the synthesis and regeneration of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), which in turn is an essential cofactor for tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine (DA). NADH has been reported to relieve some of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, presumably by altering dopaminergic function. The present study examines the efficacy of NADH in influencing DA activity in the rat striatum. In striatal slices, NADH (350 microM) significantly increased basal DA and DOPAC efflux and caused a 2-fold increase in the DA overflow evoked by high KCl (25 mM). Tissue levels of BH(4), basal BH(4) efflux, and KCl-evoked BH(4) overflow were unaffected by NADH, as was [(3)H]DA uptake into striatal synaptosomes. In contrast to the effects of NADH on DA function in vitro, no effects were observed when NADH was administered systemically. NADH (10 or 100 mg/kg, s.c.) did not influence the tissue content of DA, 5-HT, or their metabolites in the midbrain or striatum, nor did it alter DA extracellular concentrations. These results indicate that NADH can increase DA release from striatal slices, although we are as yet unable to detect this effect in vivo.

Histamine induces microglia activation and dopaminergic neuronal toxicity via H1 receptor activation.
            (Rocha et al., 2016) Download
BACKGROUND:  Histamine is an amine widely known as a peripheral inflammatory mediator and as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Recently, it has been suggested that histamine acts as an innate modulator of microglial activity. Herein, we aimed to disclose the role of histamine in microglial phagocytic activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and to explore the consequences of histamine-induced neuroinflammation in dopaminergic (DA) neuronal survival. METHODS:  The effect of histamine on phagocytosis was assessed both in vitro by using a murine N9 microglial cell line and primary microglial cell cultures and in vivo. Cells were exposed to IgG-opsonized latex beads or phosphatidylserine (PS) liposomes to evaluate Fcγ or PS receptor-mediated microglial phagocytosis, respectively. ROS production and protein levels of NADPH oxidases and Rac1 were assessed as a measure of oxidative stress. DA neuronal survival was evaluated in vivo by counting the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) of mice. RESULTS:  We found that histamine triggers microglial phagocytosis via histamine receptor 1 (H1R) activation and ROS production via H1R and H4R activation. By using apocynin, a broad NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor, and Nox1 knockout mice, we found that the Nox1 signaling pathway is involved in both phagocytosis and ROS production induced by histamine in vitro. Interestingly, both apocynin and annexin V (used as inhibitor of PS-induced phagocytosis) fully abolished the DA neurotoxicity induced by the injection of histamine in the SN of adult mice in vivo. Blockade of H1R protected against histamine-induced Nox1 expression and death of DA neurons in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:  Overall, our results highlight the relevance of histamine in the modulation of microglial activity that ultimately may interfere with neuronal survival in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD) and, eventually, other neurodegenerative diseases which are accompanied by microglia-induced neuroinflammation. Importantly, our results also open promising new perspectives for the therapeutic use of H1R antagonists to treat or ameliorate neurodegenerative processes.

Allopregnanolone increases the number of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra of a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
            (Sun et al., 2012) Download
More than a third of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients show nigrostriatal pathway disturbances, resulting in akinesia (inability to initiate movement) and bradykinesia (slowness of movement). The high prevalence of this dysfunction of dopaminergic neuron in the nigrostriatal pathway in AD suggests that the risk factors for AD appear also significant risk factors for substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) lesions. Previously, we have demonstrated that allopregnanolone (APα) promotes neurogenesis and improves the cognitive function in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTgAD). In this study, we sought to exam 1) the SNpc lesions in 3xTgAD mice and 2) the impact of APα on promoting the regeneration of new dopaminergic neurons in SNpc of the 3xTgAD mice. The number of Nissl-stained total neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurons, and BrdU/TH double positive newly formed neurons were analyzed with unbiased stereology. In the SNpc of 3xTgAD mice, TH positive neurons was 47+- 18 % (p = 0.007), total neurons was 62 +-11.6 % (p = 0.016), of those in the SNpc of non-Tg mice, respectively. APα treatment increased the TH positive neurons in the SNpc of 3xTgAD mice to 93.2 +- 18.5 (p = 0.021 vs. 3xTgAD vehicle) and the total neurons to 84.9+- 6.6 (p = 0.046 vs. 3xTgAD vehicle) of non-Tg mice. These findings indicate that there is a loss of neurons, specifically the TH positive neurons in SNpc of 3xTgAD mice, and that APα reverses the lesion in SNpc of 3xTgAD by increasing the formation of new TH neurons.

Cooperation of taurine uptake and dopamine D1 receptor activation facilitates the induction of protein synthesis-dependent late LTP.
            (Suárez et al., 2014) Download
Co-activation of NMDA and dopamine receptors is required for the induction of the late phase of LTP (L-LTP) that is dependent on new protein synthesis. Other neuromodulatory substances may also contribute to this process. Here, we examined whether taurine is one of the neuromodulators contributing to L-LTP induction, since it is known that taurine uptake induces a long-lasting synaptic potentiation dependent on protein synthesis, and taurine uptake inhibition blocks L-LTP induced by tetanization. Experiments were conducted using rat hippocampal slices where field synaptic potentials were evoked and recorded in CA3-CA1 synapses. Taurine (1 mM) applied 10 min before a high frequency stimulation (HFS) train converted a transitory early-LTP (E-LTP) into an L-LTP dependent on protein synthesis. This taurine effect was blocked by a taurine uptake inhibitor. A facilitation of L-LTP induction was also obtained by pre-application of SKF38393, a D1/D5 dopamine receptor (D1R) agonist. In this case, LTP facilitation was not affected by the taurine uptake inhibitor. Nevertheless, when taurine and SKF38393 were simultaneously pre-applied at a concentration that individually did not modify E-LTP, they produced a synergistic mechanism that facilitated the induction of L-LTP with a sole HFS train. This facilitation of L-LTP was blocked by inhibiting either taurine uptake or D1R activation. Taurine and SKF38393 activated different signaling pathways to transform E-LTP into L-LTP. Taurine-induced L-LTP facilitation required MAPK activation, while D1R-agonist-induced facilitation depended mainly on PKA activation and partially on MAPK activation. On the other hand, the synergistic mechanisms induced by the cooperative action of taurine and SKF38393 were impaired by inhibitors against MAPK, PKA and PI3-K. This pharmacological profile resembles that displayed by L-LTP induced by three HFS trains at 10-min intervals. These results indicate that taurine uptake is necessary and cooperates with other neurotransmitter systems in the induction of L-LTP.

Both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of dietary 5-hydroxytryptophan and tyrosine are found on urinary excretion of serotonin and dopamine in a large human population.
            (Trachte et al., 2009) Download
Amino acid precursors of dopamine and serotonin have been administered for decades to treat a variety of clinical conditions including depression, anxiety, insomnia, obesity, and a host of other illnesses. Dietary administration of these amino acids is designed to increase dopamine and serotonin levels within the body, particularly the brain. Convincing evidence exists that these precursors normally elevate dopamine and serotonin levels within critical brain tissues and other organs. However, their effects on urinary excretion of neurotransmitters are described in few studies and the results appear equivocal. The purpose of this study was to define, as precisely as possible, the influence of both 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and tyrosine on urinary excretion of serotonin and dopamine in a large human population consuming both 5-HTP and tyrosine. Curiously, only 5-HTP exhibited a marginal stimulatory influence on urinary serotonin excretion when 5-HTP doses were compared to urinary serotonin excretion; however, a robust relationship was observed when alterations in 5-HTP dose were compared to alterations in urinary serotonin excretion in individual patients. The data indicate three statistically discernible components to 5-HTP responses, including inverse, direct, and no relationships between urinary serotonin excretion and 5-HTP doses. The response to tyrosine was more consistent but primarily yielded an unexpected reduction in urinary dopamine excretion. These data indicate that the urinary excretion pattern of neurotransmitters after consumption of their precursors is far more complex than previously appreciated. These data on urinary neurotransmitter excretion might be relevant to understanding the effects of the precursors in other organs.

NADH stimulates endogenous dopamine biosynthesis by enhancing the recycling of tetrahydrobiopterin in rat phaeochromocytoma cells.
            (Vrecko et al., 1997) Download
Treatment of Parkinson patients with L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine) leads to endproduct inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase, the key enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis and the enzyme needing tetrahydrobiopterin and iron as cofactors. To overcome this problem an alternative treatment was investigated which attempted to stimulate endogenous dopamine biosynthesis. Incubation of rat PC 12 cells with NADH (beta-nicotinamide adeninedinucleotide) leads to increased dopamine production. We investigated the possibility that this increase of dopamine biosynthesis was due to stimulation of quinonoid dihydropteridine reductase, the enzyme which recycles the inactive dihydrobiopterin to the active tetrahydrobiopterin. The experiments showed that whereas NADH is able to increase dopamine production in PC 12 cells (rat phaeochromocytoma cells, clone PC 12) up to three-fold, no influence is exerted by NADH on pteridine metabolism; neither are tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations nor the de novo-biosynthesis of pteridines from guanosine triphosphate altered by NADH. Further no influence of NADH on protein de novo synthesis of quinonoid dihydropteridine reductase was observed. However, NADH was able to directly increase the catalytic activity of this enzyme. Our results suggest that the stimulation of dopamine biosynthesis by NADH is due to more rapid regeneration of quinonoid dihydrobiopterin to tetrahydrobiopterin.

Reduced presynaptic dopamine activity in fibromyalgia syndrome demonstrated with positron emission tomography: a pilot study.
            (Wood et al., 2007) Download
UNLABELLED:  Although the pathophysiology underlying the pain of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) remains unknown, a variety of clinical and investigational findings suggests a dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. We therefore investigated presynaptic dopaminergic function in 6 female FMS patients in comparison to 8 age- and gender-matched controls as assessed by positron emission tomography with 6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-DOPA as a tracer. Semiquantitative analysis revealed reductions in 6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-DOPA uptake in several brain regions, indicating a disruption of presynaptic dopamine activity wherein dopamine plays a putative role in natural analgesia. Although the small sample size makes these findings preliminary, it appears that FMS might be characterized by a disruption of dopaminergic neurotransmission. PERSPECTIVE:  An association between FMS and reduced dopamine metabolism within the pain neuromatrix provides important insights into the pathophysiology of this mysterious disorder.

The dopamine dilemma: using stimulants and antipsychotics concurrently.
            (Yanofski, 2010) Download
Stimulant and antipsychotic medications are commonly used together without concern, despite their potentially opposing mechanisms. An examination of dopamine pathways and receptors suggests that concerns regarding interactions between these two classes are justified and relevant. Efficacy of concurrent use is reviewed for several indications, with a focus on comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and aggression. The risk of adverse reactions is examined. Complex dopamine mechanisms are considered to explain the dilemma, and general treatment guidelines for stimulant-antipsychotic concurrent use are discussed.

The Dopamine Dilemma-Part II: Could Stimulants Cause Tolerance, Dependence, and Paradoxical Decompensation
            (Yanofski, 2011) Download
In this commentary, the author calls to attention that stimulants are commonly prescribed to children for years without seeming regard to the lack of studies on efficacy and safety during long-term use. The author examines evidence for stimulants losing efficacy over time and provides multiple possible mechanisms. The potential for paradoxical decompensation, an iatrogenic worsening of symptoms over time, is considered and discussed. Recommendations for detecting and responding to possible stimulant tolerance and dependence are provided.

The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(R) and its main constituent flavonoids and ginkgolides increase extracellular dopamine levels in the rat prefrontal cortex.
            (Yoshitake et al., 2010) Download
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:  Experimental and clinical data suggest that extracts of Ginkgo biloba improve cognitive function. However, the neurochemical correlates of these effects are not yet fully clarified. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated oral administration of the standardized extract EGb 761((R)) on extracellular levels of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin (5-HT), and the dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum of conscious rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:  Monoamines and their metabolites were monitored by the use of microdialysis sampling and HPLC with electrochemical or fluorescence detection. KEY RESULTS:  A single oral dose of EGb 761 (100 mg.kg(-1)) had no effect on monoamine levels. However, following chronic (100 mg.kg(-1)/14 days/once daily) treatment, the same dose significantly increased extracellular dopamine and noradrenaline levels, while 5-HT levels were unaffected. Chronic treatment with EGb 761 showed dose-dependent increases in frontocortical dopamine levels and, to a lesser extent, in the striatum. The extracellular levels of HVA and DOPAC were not affected by either acute or repeated doses. Treatment with the main constituents of EGb 761 revealed that the increase in dopamine levels was mostly caused by the flavonol glycosides and ginkgolide fractions, whereas bilobalide treatment was without effect. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:  The present results demonstrate that chronic but not acute treatment with EGb 761 increased dopaminergic transmission in the PFC. This finding may be one of the mechanisms underlying the reported effects of G. biloba in improving cognitive function.

Puerarin protects dopaminergic neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis and upregulating glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.
            (Zhu et al., 2010) Download
Neurodegeneration is one of the primary etiologies in the onset of Parkinson's disease. In the quest for a new antiparkinsonism treatment the potential benefits of puerarin from the roots of Pueraria lobata have been recognized. Thus, we examined whether puerarin is capable to protect dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra against 6-hydroxydopamine induced neuronal cell death. Our data showed that the intraperitoneal administration of 0.12 mg/kg/day puerarin over 10 days reduced the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cell counts. Analysis of apoptosis via DNA fragmentation by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay proved that puerarin could prevent 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis. As an additional apoptotic cell death marker, the BAX and BCL-2 expression levels were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Whereas 6-hydroxydopamine increased the level of Bax (p < 0.05), the coadministrated puerarin significantly antagonized this effect in a dose-dependent manner. Bcl-2 expression was not affected. Analysis of the dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and L-dihydroxy-phenyl-alanine contents of 6-hydroxydopamine-treated animals by HPLC revealed that puerarin was capable to restore the contents of dopamine and its metabolites. Moreover, the expression level of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the striatum was higher in puerarin than in rats treated with 6-hydroxydopamine alone. These results suggest that puerarin develops its neuroprotective effect against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in the substantia nigra through the inhibition of apoptotic signaling pathways and upregulation of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the striatum.

 


References

Oei, NY, et al. (2012), ‘Dopamine modulates reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli.’, Neuropsychopharmacology, 37 (7), 1729-37. PubMed: 22395731
Park, JA, et al. (2008), ‘Beneficial effects of carnosic acid on dieldrin-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death.’, Neuroreport, 19 (13), 1301-4. PubMed: 18695511
Pearl, SM, et al. (2000), ‘Effects of NADH on dopamine release in rat striatum.’, Synapse, 36 (2), 95-101. PubMed: 10767056
Rocha, SM, et al. (2016), ‘Histamine induces microglia activation and dopaminergic neuronal toxicity via H1 receptor activation.’, J Neuroinflammation, 13 (1), 137. PubMed: 27260166
Suárez, LM, et al. (2014), ‘Cooperation of taurine uptake and dopamine D1 receptor activation facilitates the induction of protein synthesis-dependent late LTP.’, Neuropharmacology, 79 101-11. PubMed: 24225198
Sun, C, et al. (2012), ‘Allopregnanolone increases the number of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra of a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease.’, Curr Alzheimer Res, 9 (4), 473-80. PubMed: 22272610
Trachte, GJ, T Uncini, and M Hinz (2009), ‘Both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of dietary 5-hydroxytryptophan and tyrosine are found on urinary excretion of serotonin and dopamine in a large human population.’, Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 5 227-35. PubMed: 19557117
Vrecko, K, et al. (1997), ‘NADH stimulates endogenous dopamine biosynthesis by enhancing the recycling of tetrahydrobiopterin in rat phaeochromocytoma cells.’, Biochim Biophys Acta, 1361 (1), 59-65. PubMed: 9247090
Wood, PB, et al. (2007), ‘Reduced presynaptic dopamine activity in fibromyalgia syndrome demonstrated with positron emission tomography: a pilot study.’, J Pain, 8 (1), 51-58. PubMed: 17023218
Yanofski, J (2010), ‘The dopamine dilemma: using stimulants and antipsychotics concurrently.’, Psychiatry (Edgmont), 7 (6), 18-23. PubMed: 20622942
——— (2011), ‘The Dopamine Dilemma-Part II: Could Stimulants Cause Tolerance, Dependence, and Paradoxical Decompensation’, Innov Clin Neurosci, 8 (1), 47-53. PubMed: 21311708
Yoshitake, T, S Yoshitake, and J Kehr (2010), ‘The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(R) and its main constituent flavonoids and ginkgolides increase extracellular dopamine levels in the rat prefrontal cortex.’, Br J Pharmacol, 159 (3), 659-68. PubMed: 20105177
Zhu, G, et al. (2010), ‘Puerarin protects dopaminergic neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis and upregulating glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease.’, Planta Med, 76 (16), 1820-26. PubMed: 20509103