Curcumin Abstracts 7

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Curcumin and Boswellia serrata Modulate the Glyco-Oxidative Status and Lipo-Oxidation in Master Athletes.
            (Chilelli et al., 2016) Download
BACKGROUND:  Chronic intensive exercise is associated with a greater induction of oxidative stress and with an excess of endogenous advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Curcumin can reduce the accumulation of AGEs in vitro and in animal models. We examined whether supplementation with curcumin and  METHODS:  Forty-seven healthy male athletes were randomly assigned to Group 1, consisting of 22 subjects given a Mediterranean diet (MD) alone (MD group), and Group 2 consisted of 25 subjects given a MD plus curcumin and BSE (curcumin/BSE group). Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total AGE, soluble receptor for AGE (sRAGE), malondialdehyde (MDA), plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PPFA) composition, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were tested at baseline and after 12 weeks. RESULTS:  sRAGE, NEFA, and MDA decreased significantly in both groups, while only the curcumin/BSE group showed a significant decline in total AGE. Only the changes in total AGE and MDA differed significantly between the curcumin/BSE and MD groups. CONCLUSIONS:  Our data suggest a positive effect of supplementation with curcumin and BSE on glycoxidation and lipid peroxidation in chronically exercising master athletes.

Highly absorptive curcumin reduces serum atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein levels in patients with mild COPD.
            (Funamoto et al., 2016) Download
PURPOSE:  COPD is mainly caused by tobacco smoking and is associated with a high frequency of coronary artery disease. There is growing recognition that the inflammation in COPD is not only confined to the lungs but also involves the systemic circulation and can impact nonpulmonary organs, including blood vessels. α1-antitrypsin-low-density lipoprotein (AT-LDL) complex is an oxidatively modified LDL that accelerates atherosclerosis. Curcumin, one of the best-investigated natural products, is a powerful antioxidant. However, the effects of curcumin on AT-LDL remain unknown. We hypothesized that Theracurmin(®), a highly absorptive curcumin with improved bioavailability using a drug delivery system, ameliorates the inflammatory status in subjects with mild COPD. PATIENTS AND METHODS:  This is a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Subjects with stages I-II COPD according to the Japanese Respiratory Society criteria were randomly assigned to receive 90 mg Theracurmin(®) or placebo twice a day for 24 weeks, and changes in inflammatory parameters were evaluated. RESULTS:  There were no differences between the Theracurmin(®) and placebo groups in terms of age, male/female ratio, or body mass index in 39 evaluable subjects. The percent changes in blood pressure and hemoglobin A1c and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels after treatment were similar for the two groups. However, the percent change in the AT-LDL level was significantly (P=0.020) lower in the Theracurmin(®) group compared with the placebo group. CONCLUSION:  Theracurmin(®) reduced levels of atherosclerotic AT-LDL, which may lead to the prevention of future cardiovascular events in mild COPD subjects.

Adjunctive Therapy with Curcumin for Peptic Ulcer: a Randomized Controlled Trial.
            (Khonche et al., 2016) Download
BACKGROUND:  Curcumin, the bioactive ingredient of turmeric, has been shown to improve the treatment of peptic ulcer (PU) in animal studies. However, clinical studies confirming this effect of curcumin have been scant. OBJECTIVE:  To assess the efficacy of adjunctive therapy with curcumin on the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection and severity of dyspepsia in patients with PU. METHODS:  In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group trial, patients diagnosed with PU were assigned to standard H. pylori eradication triple therapy with clarithromycin (500 mg b.i.d.), amoxicillin (1 000 mg b.i.d.) and pantoprazole (40 mg b.i.d.), and randomized to receive either curcumin (500 mg/day) or placebo as adjunct to standard treatment. Severity of dyspepsia symptoms was evaluated using the Hong Kong dyspepsia index (HKDI). Eradication of H. pylori infection was assessed using the urea breath test (UBT) at 4 weeks following the end of treatment. RESULTS:  Adjunctive therapy with curcumin was associated with a greater improvement of dyspepsia symptoms according to the HKDI score (change score: -12.90±2.81 vs. -9.60±3.39 in the curcumin and control group, respectively; p<0.001). The number of subjects whose dyspepsia was resolved during the course of treatment was significantly higher in the curcumin (27.6%) vs. placebo (6.7%) group (p=0.042). Nevertheless, the results of UBT test showed equal rate (73.3%) of H. pylori eradication in the study groups. Curcumin was safe during the course of trial. CONCLUSION:  Addition of curcumin on top of the standard anti-helicobacter regimen in patients with PU is safe and improves dyspepsia symptoms but has no enhancing effect on the eradication of H. pylori infection.


 

Curcumin Lowers Serum Lipids and Uric Acid in Subjects With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
            (Panahi et al., 2016c) Download
BACKGROUND:  Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common hepatic diseases in the general adult population. Dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and insulin resistance are common risk factors and accompanying features of NAFLD. Curcumin is a dietary natural product with beneficial metabolic effects relevant to the treatment of NAFLD. AIM:  To assess the effects of curcumin on metabolic profile in subjects with NAFLD. METHODS:  Patients diagnosed with NAFLD (grades 1-3; according to liver sonography) were randomly assigned to curcumin (1000 mg/d in 2 divided doses) (n = 50) or control (n = 52) group for a period of 8 weeks. All patients received dietary and lifestyle advises before the start of trial. Anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and uric acid concentrations were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of follow-up. RESULTS:  Eighty-seven subjects (n = 44 and 43 in the curcumin and control group, respectively) completed the trial. Supplementation with curcumin was associated with a reduction in serum levels of total cholesterol (P < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001), triglycerides (P < 0.001), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001), and uric acid (P < 0.001), whereas serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glucose control parameters remained unaltered. Curcumin was safe and well tolerated during this study. CONCLUSION:  Results of the present trial suggest that curcumin supplementation reduces serum lipids and uric acid concentrations in patients with NAFLD.

Effects of supplementation with curcumin on serum adipokine concentrations: A randomized controlled trial.
            (Panahi et al., 2016b) Download
OBJECTIVE:  Previous experimental studies have suggested curcumin as a safe phytochemical that can improve insulin resistance through effects on adiponectin and leptin. This study aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on circulating adiponectin and leptin concentrations in patients with metabolic syndrome. METHODS:  In this pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, subjects who met the criteria of metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were randomly assigned to curcumin (n = 59; 1000 mg/d) or a placebo (n = 58) for 8 wk. Serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations were determined before and after intervention. The pooled effect size for the impact of curcumin supplementation on serum adiponectin and leptin levels was also estimated using random-effects metaanalysis. RESULTS:  Eight-week supplementation with curcumin was associated with a significant increase in serum adiponectin levels (P < 0.001) and a reduction in serum leptin concentrations (P < 0.001). Serum leptin:adiponectin ratio was also improved by curcumin (P < 0.001). These beneficial effects of curcumin remained significant after adjustment for changes in serum lipids and glucose concentrations and baseline differences in body mass index and serum levels of glucose and glycated hemoglobin as potential confounders of treatment response. Metaanalysis suggested that curcumin supplementation can increase adiponectin levels by 76.78% (95% CI: 6.14-147.42; P = 0.0330), and reduce leptin by 26.49% (95% CI: -70.44 to 17.46), however this latter effect size did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.238). CONCLUSIONS:  Curcumin can improve serum levels of adiponectin and leptin in patients with metabolic syndrome. This trial was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/) under Trial No. UMIN000018339.

Effects of curcumin on serum cytokine concentrations in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial.
            (Panahi et al., 2016a) Download
BACKGROUND:  Cytokines are involved in the development of metabolic abnormalities that may result in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Since curcumin has shown anti-inflammatory properties, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of curcumin supplementation on serum cytokines concentrations in subjects with MetS. METHODS:  This study was a post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial in which males and females with diagnosis of MetS, according to the criteria defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, were studied. Subjects who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to either curcumin (daily dose of 1g/day) or a matched placebo for a period of 8 weeks. RESULTS:  One hundred and seventeen subjects were assigned to either curcumin (n=59) or placebo (n=58) groups. Within-group analysis revealed significant reductions in serum concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6, TGF-β and MCP-1 following curcumin supplementation (p<0.001). In the placebo group, serum levels of TGF-β were decreased (p=0.003) but those of IL-6 (p=0.735), TNF-α (p=0.138) and MCP-1 (p=0.832) remained unaltered by the end of study. Between-group comparison suggested significantly greater reductions in serum concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6, TGF-β and MCP-1 in the curcumin versus placebo group (p<0.001). Apart from IL-6, changes in other parameters remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders including changes in serum lipids and glucose levels, and baseline serum concentration of the cytokines. CONCLUSION:  Results of the present study suggest that curcumin supplementation significantly decreases serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in subjects with MetS.


 

Safety, Tolerance, and Enhanced Efficacy of a Bioavailable Formulation of Curcumin With Fenugreek Dietary Fiber on Occupational Stress: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.
            (Pandaran Sudheeran et al., 2016) Download
Drug delivery systems capable of delivering free (unconjugated) curcuminoids is of great therapeutic significance, since the absorption of bioactive and permeable form plays a key factor in mediating the efficacy of a substance which undergoes rapid biotransformation. Considering the recent understanding on the relatively high bioactivities and blood-brain-barrier permeability of free curcuminoids over their conjugated metabolites, the present human study investigated the safety, antioxidant efficacy, and bioavailability of CurQfen (curcumagalactomannoside [CGM]), a food-grade formulation of natural curcumin with fenugreek dietary fiber that has shown to possess improved blood-brain-barrier permeability and tissue distribution in rats. In this randomized double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial, 60 subjects experiencing occupational stress-related anxiety and fatigue were randomized to receive CGM, standard curcumin, and placebo for 30 days (500 mg twice daily). The study demonstrated the safety, tolerance, and enhanced efficacy of CGM in comparison with unformulated standard curcumin. A significant improvement in the quality of life (P < 0.05) with considerable reduction in stress (P < 0.001), anxiety (P < 0.001), and fatigue (P < 0.001) was observed among CGM-treated subjects as compared with the standard curcumin group, when monitored by SF-36, Perceived Stress Scale with 14 items, and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Improvement in the quality of life was further correlated with the significant enhancement in endogenous antioxidant markers (P < 0.01) and reduction in lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001). Further comparison of the free curcuminoids bioavailability after a single-dose (500 mg once per day) and repeated-dose (500 mg twice daily for 30 days) oral administration revealed enhanced absorption and improved pharmacokinetics of CGM upon both single- (30.7-fold) and repeated-dose (39.1-fold) administrations.

Curcumin and Fennel Essential Oil Improve Symptoms and Quality of Life in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
            (Portincasa et al., 2016) Download
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:  Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) patients still require effective treatment. The anti-inflammatory property of curcumin and the antispasmodic and carminative effect of fennel suggests that combination of these nutraceutical compounds would be useful in functional bowel disorders including IBS. We assessed the efficacy and tolerability of a combination of curcumin and fennel essential oil (CU-FEO) in IBS symptoms relief. METHODS:  121 patients with mild-to-moderate symptoms of IBS defined by an Irritable Bowel Syndrome- symptom severity score (IBS-SSS) 100-300 and abdominal pain score 30-70 on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), were randomly assigned to CU-FEO or placebo (2 capsules b.d. for 30 days). Primary endpoint was the mean decrease of IBS-SSS at the end of the treatment corrected for the mean baseline score (relative decrease). The impact of the treatment on quality of life was assessed through IBS-QoL questionnaire. RESULTS:  CU-FEO was safe, well-tolerated and induced symptom relief in patients with IBS; a significant decrease in the mean relative IBS-SSS was observed after 30 days of treatment (50.05 +/- 28.85% vs 26.12 +/- 30.62%, P<0.001). This result matched the reduction of abdominal pain and all the other symptoms of IBS-SSS. The percentage of symptom-free patients was significantly higher in the CU-FEO than in the placebo group (25.9% vs. 6.8%, P = 0.005). All domains of IBS-QoL improved consistently. CONCLUSION:  CU-FEO significantly improved symptoms and quality of life in IBS patients over 30 days.

Treatment of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Curcumin: A Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial.
            (Rahmani et al., 2016) Download
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global health problem. Although many aspects of NAFLD pathogenesis have been understood, there is a paucity of effective treatments to be used as the second line when lifestyle modification is insufficient. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol from turmeric, has been shown to be effective against development of hepatic steatosis and its progression to steatohepatitis, yet these beneficial effects have not been explored in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of curcumin on hepatic fat content as well as biochemical and anthropometric features of patients with NAFLD. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, patients with ultrasonographic evidence of NAFLD were randomly assigned to receive an amorphous dispersion curcumin formulation (500 mg/day equivalent to 70-mg curcumin) or matched placebo for a period of 8 weeks. Liver fat content (assessed through ultrasonography), glycemic and lipid profile, transaminase levels, and anthropometric indices were evaluated at baseline and at the end of follow-up period. The clinical trial protocol was registered under the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials ID: IRCT2014110511763N18. Compared with placebo, curcumin was associated with a significant reduction in liver fat content (78.9% improvement in the curcumin vs 27.5% improvement in the placebo group). There were also significant reductions in body mass index and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin compared with the placebo group. Curcumin was safe and well tolerated during the course of trial. Findings of the present proof-of-concept trial suggested improvement of different features of NAFLD after a short-term supplementation with curcumin. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


 

Curcumin and cognition: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of community-dwelling older adults.
            (Rainey-Smith et al., 2016) Download
Curcumin therapy in animals has produced positive cognitive and behavioural outcomes; results of human trials, however, have been inconsistent. In this study, we report the results of a 12-month, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study that investigated the ability of a curcumin formulation to prevent cognitive decline in a population of community-dwelling older adults. Individuals (n 96) ingested either placebo or 1500 mg/d BiocurcumaxTM for 12 months. A battery of clinical and cognitive measures was administered at baseline and at the 6-month and 12-month follow-up assessments. A significant time×treatment group interaction was observed for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (repeated-measures analysis; time×treatment; F=3·85, P<0·05). Subsequent analysis revealed that this association was driven by a decline in function of the placebo group at 6 months that was not observed in the curcumin treatment group. No differences were observed between the groups for all other clinical and cognitive measures. Our findings suggest that further longitudinal assessment is required to investigate changes in cognitive outcome measures, ideally in conjunction with biological markers of neurodegeneration.

Curcumin supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress.
            (Santos-Parker et al., 2017) Download
We hypothesized that curcumin would improve resistance and conduit artery endothelial function and large elastic artery stiffness in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Thirty-nine healthy men and postmenopausal women (45-74 yrs) were randomized to 12 weeks of curcumin (2000 mg/day Longvida®; n=20) or placebo (n=19) supplementation. Forearm blood flow response to acetylcholine infusions (FBFACh; resistance artery endothelial function) increased 37% following curcumin supplementation (107±13 vs. 84±11 AUC at baseline, P=0.03), but not placebo (P=0.2). Curcumin treatment augmented the acute reduction in FBFACh induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; P=0.03), and reduced the acute increase in FBFACh to the antioxidant vitamin C (P=0.02), whereas placebo had no effect (both P>0.6). Similarly, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (conduit artery endothelial function) increased 36% in the curcumin group (5.7±0.4 vs. 4.4±0.4% at baseline, P=0.001), with no change in placebo (P=0.1). Neither curcumin nor placebo influenced large elastic artery stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity or carotid artery compliance) or circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation (all P>0.1). In healthy middle-aged and older adults, 12 weeks of curcumin supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function by increasing vascular nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress, while also improving conduit artery endothelial function.

The efficacy and safety of a combination of glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate and bio-curcumin with exercise in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
            (Sterzi et al., 2016) Download
BACKGROUND:  Knee osteoarthritis (OA) conservative treatment aims to delay cartilage degeneration; chondroprotective agents are a valid approach in this sense. A commercially available dietary supplement, CartiJoint Forte, containing glucosamine hydrochloride (GH), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and Bio-Curcumin BCM-95®, was used in this trial. AIM:  The aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of CartiJoint Forte combined with physical therapy in treating subjects with knee OA. DESIGN:  A multicenter, prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. SETTING:  Outpatients referred to the Rehabilitation Departments of two University Hospitals. POPULATION:  Fifty-three patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (N=26) or a control group (N.=27). Experimental subjects received two tablets of CartiJoint Forte each day for 8 weeks, while those in the control group were provided with a placebo. Three subjects dropped out during the course of the study. METHODS:  The two groups both received 20 sessions of physical therapy during the course of the trial. Primary outcome was pain intensity, measured both at motion and at rest, using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A secondary outcome was an assessment of knee function by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and Lequesne Index, knee ROM, and two inflammation markers (C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Each assessment was carried out at baseline (T0), at 8 weeks (T1) and at 12 weeks (T2). RESULTS:  VAS at rest was found to be reduced between T0 and T1, as well as between T0 and T2 (F=13.712; P=0.0001), with no differences between groups (F=1.724; P=0.191). VAS at motion revealed a significant "group × time-check" interaction (F=2.491; P=0.032), with increasing effect of time on VAS reduction (F=17.748; P=0.0001). This was most pronounced in the experimental group at 8 weeks (F=3.437; P=0.045). The Lequesne Index showed reductions at T1 and T2 compared to T0 (F=9.535; P=0.0001), along with group effect, since the experimental group presented a lower score at T2 (F=7.091; P=0.009). No significant changes were found in the knee ROM and inflammation markers. CONCLUSION:  CartiJoint Forte, added to physical therapy, may ameliorate pain and help to improve algofunctional score in knee OA patients. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT:  Treatment of knee OA with curcuminoids plus glycosaminoglycans, added to physical therapy, improves VAS at motion and Lequesne Index scores.


 

Efficacy of an orally administered combination of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, curcumin and quercetin for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women.
            (Torella et al., 2016) Download
OBJECTIVE:  To assess whether the orally administered combination of hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), curcumin and quercetin could be effective in preventing recurrent cystitis in postmenopausal women and whether its efficacy was conditioned by the concurrent use of local estrogen therapy. STUDY DESIGN:  This was a prospective evaluation of 145 postmenopausal women consecutively recruited from the database of three different investigators. All women should have mild-to-moderate urogenital atrophy and a history of recurrent urinary tract infections (≥2 episodes within 6 months or ≥3 episodes within 12 months documented by positive urine cultures) during the last year. Patients were assigned to three different therapeutic regimens: the first group was treated only with vaginal estrogens, the second group only with HA, CS, curcumin and quercetin per os, and the third group was treated with HA, CS, curcumin and quercetin associated with local estrogens. We evaluated the number of patients with <2 infective episodes in the 6-month follow-up and <3 episodes in the 12-month follow-up (main aim definition) and the reduction of related symptoms through a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF) patient symptom scale. Student's t-test and chi-squared test were used for data analysis as appropriate. RESULTS:  At 6-month follow up, the main aim rate was 8%, 11.1% and 25% in the three groups, respectively (p<0.05 compared to baseline only in group 3). Although the reduction in the number of recurrent episodes became significant in all groups at 1 year follow-up, the main aim rate was almost double in women receiving both local estrogens and oral therapy (group 3) compared to those receiving single treatments. The improvement of related symptoms was significant in all groups at 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:  In postmenopausal women, the combination of HA, CS, curcumin and quercetin per os was effective in preventing recurrent urinary tract infections, especially if administered with vaginal estrogen therapy.

Effect of curcumin on nasal symptoms and airflow in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.
            (Wu and Xiao, 2016) Download
BACKGROUND:  Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common disorder that can significantly affect patient quality of life. Previous studies have found that curcumin had anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and clinical benefits in cancer and asthma. OBJECTIVE:  To determine the efficacy of curcumin in the treatment of AR and to explore the molecular mechanisms involved. METHODS:  In a randomized, double-blind study, 241 patients with AR received either placebo or oral curcumin for 2 months. The therapeutic effects of curcumin were evaluated by nasal symptoms and nasal airflow resistance. In addition, the production of interferon γ, interleukin (IL) 4, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α from mononuclear cells and IL-8, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule, polyethylene glycol 2, and leukotriene C RESULTS:  Curcumin alleviated nasal symptoms (sneezing and rhinorrhea) and nasal congestion through reduction of nasal airflow resistance. Curcumin was found to exert diverse immunomodulatory effects, including suppression of IL-4, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor α and increased production of IL-10 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule. However, curcumin did not affect the release of prostaglandin E CONCLUSION:  This pilot study provides the first evidence of the capability of curcumin of improving nasal airflow and modulating immune response in patients with AR.

 


References

Chilelli, NC, et al. (2016), ‘Curcumin and Boswellia serrata Modulate the Glyco-Oxidative Status and Lipo-Oxidation in Master Athletes.’, Nutrients, 8 (11), PubMed: 27879642
Funamoto, M, et al. (2016), ‘Highly absorptive curcumin reduces serum atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein levels in patients with mild COPD.’, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, 11 2029-34. PubMed: 27616885
Khonche, A, et al. (2016), ‘Adjunctive Therapy with Curcumin for Peptic Ulcer: a Randomized Controlled Trial.’, Drug Res (Stuttg), 66 (8), 444-48. PubMed: 27351245
Panahi, Y, et al. (2016a), ‘Effects of curcumin on serum cytokine concentrations in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial.’, Biomed Pharmacother, 82 578-82. PubMed: 27470399
Panahi, Y, et al. (2016b), ‘Effects of supplementation with curcumin on serum adipokine concentrations: A randomized controlled trial.’, Nutrition, 32 (10), 1116-22. PubMed: 27297718
Panahi, Y, et al. (2016c), ‘Curcumin Lowers Serum Lipids and Uric Acid in Subjects With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.’, J Cardiovasc Pharmacol, 68 (3), 223-29. PubMed: 27124606
Pandaran Sudheeran, S, et al. (2016), ‘Safety, Tolerance, and Enhanced Efficacy of a Bioavailable Formulation of Curcumin With Fenugreek Dietary Fiber on Occupational Stress: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.’, J Clin Psychopharmacol, 36 (3), 236-43. PubMed: 27043120
Portincasa, P, et al. (2016), ‘Curcumin and Fennel Essential Oil Improve Symptoms and Quality of Life in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.’, J Gastrointestin Liver Dis, 25 (2), 151-57. PubMed: 27308645
Rahmani, S, et al. (2016), ‘Treatment of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Curcumin: A Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial.’, Phytother Res, 30 (9), 1540-48. PubMed: 27270872
Rainey-Smith, SR, et al. (2016), ‘Curcumin and cognition: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of community-dwelling older adults.’, Br J Nutr, 115 (12), 2106-13. PubMed: 27102361
Santos-Parker, JR, et al. (2017), ‘Curcumin supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress.’, Aging (Albany NY), 9 (1), 187-208. PubMed: 28070018
Sterzi, S, et al. (2016), ‘The efficacy and safety of a combination of glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate and bio-curcumin with exercise in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.’, Eur J Phys Rehabil Med, 52 (3), 321-30. PubMed: 26937646
Torella, M, et al. (2016), ‘Efficacy of an orally administered combination of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, curcumin and quercetin for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women.’, Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 207 125-28. PubMed: 27838537
Wu, S and D Xiao (2016), ‘Effect of curcumin on nasal symptoms and airflow in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.’, Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol, 117 (6), 697-702.e1. PubMed: 27789120