Curcumin Abstracts 6

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The synergistic effects of ω-3 fatty acids and nano-curcumin supplementation on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene expression and serum level in migraine patients.
            (Abdolahi et al., 2017) Download
Migraine is a destabilizing neuroinflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent headache attacks. Evidences show tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α play a role in neuroimmunity pathogenesis of migraine. TNF-α increase prostanoid production, hyperexcitability of neurons, and nociceptor activation resulted in neuroinflammation and neurogenic pain. ω-3 fatty acids and curcumin exert neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects via several mechanisms including suppression of TNF-α gene expression and its serum levels. The aim of this study is an evaluation of synergistic effects of ω-3 fatty acids and nano-curcumin on TNF-α gene expression and serum levels in migraine patients. The present study performed as a clinical trial over a 2 month period included 74 episodic migraine patients in 4 groups and received ω-3 fatty acids, nano-curcumin, and combination of them or placebo. At the start and the end of the study, the gene expression of TNF-α and TNF-α serum levels was measured by real-time PCR and ELISA method, respectively. Our results showed that the combination of ω-3 fatty acids and nano-curcumin downregulated TNF-α messenger RNA (mRNA) significantly in a synergistic manner (P < 0.05). As relative to gene expression, a significant greater reduction in serum levels of TNF-α were observed in the combination group, but no significant differences in other groups. Supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids or nano-curcumin alone did not show significant reduction either in mRNA or serum levels of TNF-α. In addition, a much greater reduction in attack frequency was found in the combination group (P < 0.001). These findings indicated that ω-3 fatty acids and curcumin supplementation can be considered as a new promising approach in migraine management.


 

Curcumin nanomicelle improves semen parameters, oxidative stress, inflammatory biomarkers, and reproductive hormones in infertile men: A randomized clinical trial.
            (Alizadeh et al., 2018) Download
At least 50% of infertile couple's problems are related to male factor infertility. This Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial conducted in Urology unit of Infertility Clinic on 60 infertile men. Patients were randomly assigned to one of intervention and placebo (n = 30) groups. Finally, 28 subjects in each group completed the study. Participants in the intervention group took daily 80 mg curcumin nanomicelle and those in the placebo group took daily placebo for 10 weeks. Semen analysis, anthropometric, physical activity assessments, total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde, inflammatory factors, and reproductive hormones were measured at the baseline and at the end of the study. At the end of study, statistically significant differences were seen in the total sperm count, sperm concentration, and motility in the intervention group to the control group. In treatment group, the total sperm count, sperm concentration, and motility levels were also statistically increased at the end of study compared to the baseline values. Curcumin nanomicelle supplementation also resulted in a statistically significant improvement in plasma levels of total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor a in comparison to the placebo. Medical therapy of asthenoteratospermia with curcumin nanomicelle supplement could improve quality of semen parameters. However, further investigation is suggested in this regard.

A Novel Highly Bioavailable Curcumin Formulation Improves Symptoms and Diagnostic Indicators in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Dose, Three-Arm, and Parallel-Group Study.
            (Amalraj et al., 2017)  Download
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune, chronic systemic inflammatory disorder. The long-term use of currently available drugs for the treatment of RA has many potential side effects. Natural phytonutrients may serve as alternative strategies for the safe and effective treatment of RA, and curcuminoids have been used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions for centuries. In this study, a novel, highly bioavailable form of curcumin in a completely natural turmeric matrix was evaluated for its ability to improve the clinical symptoms of RA. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm, parallel-group study was conducted to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two different doses of curcumin with that of a placebo in active RA patients. Twelve patients in each group received placebo, 250 or 500 mg of the curcumin product twice daily for 90 days. The responses of the patients were assessed using the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) response, visual analog scale (VAS), C-reactive protein (CRP), Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and rheumatoid factor (RF) values. RA patients who received the curcumin product at both low and high doses reported statistically significant changes in their clinical symptoms at the end of the study. These observations were confirmed by significant changes in ESR, CPR, and RF values in patients receiving the study product compared to baseline and placebo. The results indicate that this novel curcumin in a turmeric matrix acts as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent for the management of RA at a dose as low as 250 mg twice daily as evidenced by significant improvement in the ESR, CRP, VAS, RF, DAS28, and ACR responses compared to placebo. Both doses of the study product were well tolerated and without side effects.

Turmeric extract may improve irritable bowel syndrome symptomology in otherwise healthy adults: a pilot study.
            (Bundy et al., 2004)  Download
OBJECTIVES:  To assess the effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extract on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptomology in otherwise healthy adults. DESIGN:  Partially blinded, randomized, two-dose, pilot study. SUBJECTS:  Five hundred (500) volunteers were screened for IBS using the Rome II criteria. Two hundred and seven (207) suitable volunteers were randomized. INTERVENTIONS:  One or two tablets of a standardized turmeric extract taken daily for 8 weeks. OUTCOMES MEASURES:  IBS prevalence, symptom-related quality of life (IBSQOL) and self-reported effectiveness. RESULTS:  IBS prevalence decreased significantly in both groups between screening and baseline (41% and 57%), with a further significant drop of 53% and 60% between baseline and after treatment, in the one- and two-tablet groups respectively (p < 0.001). A post-study analysis revealed abdominal pain/discomfort score reduced significantly by 22% and 25% in the one- and two-tablet group respectively, the difference tending toward significance (p = 0.071). There were significant improvements in all bar one of the IBSQOL scales of between 5% and 36% in both groups, approximately two thirds of all subjects reported an improvement in symptoms after treatment, and there was a favorable shift in self-reported bowel pattern. There were no significant differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS:  Turmeric may help reduce IBS symptomology. Placebo controlled trials are now warranted to confirm these findings.

Curcumin extract for prevention of type 2 diabetes.
            (Chuengsamarn et al., 2012)  Download
OBJECTIVE:  To assess the efficacy of curcumin in delaying development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the prediabetic population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:  This randomized, double-blinded, placebo- controlled trial included subjects (n = 240) with criteria of prediabetes. All subjects were randomly assigned to receive either curcumin or placebo capsules for 9 months. To assess the T2DM progression after curcumin treatments and to determine the number of subjects progressing to T2DM, changes in β-cell functions (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA]-β, C-peptide, and proinsulin/insulin), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), anti-inflammatory cytokine (adiponectin), and other parameters were monitored at the baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 9-month visits during the course of intervention. RESULTS:  After 9 months of treatment, 16.4% of subjects in the placebo group were diagnosed with T2DM, whereas none were diagnosed with T2DM in the curcumin-treated group. In addition, the curcumin-treated group showed a better overall function of β-cells, with higher HOMA-β (61.58 vs. 48.72; P < 0.01) and lower C-peptide (1.7 vs. 2.17; P < 0.05). The curcumin-treated group showed a lower level of HOMA-IR (3.22 vs. 4.04; P < 0.001) and higher adiponectin (22.46 vs. 18.45; P < 0.05) when compared with the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS:  A 9-month curcumin intervention in a prediabetic population significantly lowered the number of prediabetic individuals who eventually developed T2DM. In addition, the curcumin treatment appeared to improve overall function of β-cells, with very minor adverse effects. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the curcumin intervention in a prediabetic population may be beneficial.

The Effects of Curcumin and Curcumin-Phospholipid Complex on the Serum Pro-oxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome.
            (Ghazimoradi et al., 2017) Download
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined by a clustering of metabolic and anthropometric abnormalities and is associated by an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We have investigated the effect of curcumin supplementation on the serum pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) in patients with MetS. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted over 6 weeks. Subjects (n = 120) were randomly allocated to one of three groups (curcumin, phospholipidated curcumin, and placebo). The curcumin group received 1 g/day of simple curcumin, the phospholipidated curcumin group received 1 g/day of phospholipidated curcumin (containing 200 mg of pure curcumin), and the control group received 1 g/day of placebo. Serum PAB was measured before and after the intervention (at baseline and at 6 weeks). Data analyses were performed using spss software (version 16.0). Serum PAB increased significantly in the curcumin group (p < 0.001), but in the phospholipidated curcumin group, elevation of PAB level was not significant (p = 0.053). The results of our study did not suggest any improvement of PAB following supplementation with curcumin in MetS subjects. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Efficacy and safety of curcumin and its combination with boswellic acid in osteoarthritis: a comparative, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
            (Haroyan et al., 2018) Download
BACKGROUND:  The aim of this clinical trial was to assess the efficacy and safety of curcuminoid complex extract from turmeric rhizome with turmeric volatile oil (CuraMed®) and its combination with boswellic acid extract from Indian frankincense root (Curamin®) vs placebo for the treatment of 40- to 70-year-old patients with osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS:  The effects of CuraMed® 500-mg capsules (333 mg curcuminoids) and Curamin® 500-mg capsules (350 mg curcuminoids and 150 mg boswellic acid) taken orally three times a day for 12 weeks in 201 patients was investigated in a three-arm, parallel-group, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Primary outcome efficacy measures included OA physical function performance-based tests, the WOMAC recommended index of joint pain, morning stiffness, limitations of physical function, and the patients' global assessment of disease severity. RESULTS:  Favorable effects of both preparations compared to placebo were observed after only 3 months of continuous treatment. A significant effect of Curamin® compared to placebo was observed both in physical performance tests and the WOMAC joint pain index, while superior efficacy of CuraMed vs placebo was observed only in physical performance tests. The effect size compared to placebo was comparable for both treatment groups but was superior in the Curamin® group. The treatments were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS:  Twelve-week use of curcumin complex or its combination with boswellic acid reduces pain-related symptoms in patients with OA. Curcumin in combination with boswellic acid is more effective. Combining Curcuma longa and Boswellia serrata extracts in Curamin® increases the efficacy of OA treatment presumably due to synergistic effects of curcumin and boswellic acid. TRIAL REGISTRATION:  This trial is registered at the database www.clinicaltrials.gov . https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02390349?term=EuroPharma&rank=1 . Study registration number: NCT02390349 .

Curcumin In Combination With Triple Therapy Regimes Ameliorates Oxidative Stress And Histopathologic Changes In Chronic Gastritis-Associated Helicobacter Pylori Infection.
            (Judaki et al., 2017) Download
BACKGROUND:  Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastric infection is a main cause of inflammatory changes and gastric cancers. OBJECTIVE:  The aim of this study was finding the effects of curcumin on oxidative stress and histological changes in chronic gastritis associated with H. pylori. METHODS:  In a randomized clinical trial, patients were divided into two groups: a standard triple therapy group and triple therapy with curcumin group. Endoscopic and histological examinations were measured for all patients before and after 8 weeks. RESULTS:  Triple therapy with curcumin treatment group significantly decreased malondialdehyde markers, glutathione peroxides and increased total antioxidant capacity of the gastric mucosa at the end of study compared to baseline and triple regimen groups. In addition, the oxidative damage to DNA was significantly decreased in triple therapy with curcumin group at the end of study compared to baseline and compared to triple therapy (P<0.05 for both). Triple therapy group in combination with Curcumin significantly decreased all active, chronic and endoscopic inflammation scores of patients compared to the baseline and triple therapy group (P<0.05 for both). The eradication rate by triple therapy + curcumin was significantly increased compared to triple therapy alone (P<0.05). CONCLUSION:  Curcumin can be a useful supplement to improve chronic inflammation and prevention of carcinogenic changes in patients with chronic gastritis associated by H. pylori.

Oral supplementation of turmeric decreases proteinuria, hematuria, and systolic blood pressure in patients suffering from relapsing or refractory lupus nephritis: a randomized and placebo-controlled study.
            (Khajehdehi et al., 2012)  Download
OBJECTIVE:  Despite highly expensive treatments, lupus nephritis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with relapsing or refractory lupus nephritis. Meanwhile, experimental studies indicate that curcumin attenuates both the binding of autoantibodies from systemic lupus erythematosus patients to their cognate antigens and also the inflammatory responses of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated human endothelial cells. Therefore, in this study we investigated effect(s) of oral curcumin supplementation on patients suffering from relapsing or refractory lupus nephritis. DESIGN:  A randomized and placebo-controlled study was carried out. SETTING:  The present study was conducted in Lupus clinic of Hafez Hospital, Out-Patient Department of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. PATIENTS:  A total of 24 patients with relapsing or refractory biopsy-proven lupus nephritis, who were randomized in 2 groups (trial [n = 12] and control [n = 12] groups) were included in this study. INTERVENTION:  With each meal, each patient in the trial group received 1 capsule for 3 months, which contained 500 mg turmeric, of which 22.1 mg was the active ingredient curcumin (3 capsules daily). The control group received 3 capsules (1 with each meal) for the same period, which contained starch and were identical in color and size to capsules given to patients in the trial group. MAIN AUTOMATIC MEASURE: Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 15.0. RESULTS:  A significant decrease in proteinuria was found when comparing pre- (954.2 ± 836.6) and 1, 2, and 3 months supplementation values (448.8 ± 633.5, 235.9 ± 290.1, and 260.9 ± 106.2, respectively) in the trial group. Also, systolic blood pressure and hematuria were found to decrease significantly when pre- and post-turmeric supplementation values were compared in the trial group. However, placebo capsules did not exert any statistically significant effect on measured variables in the control group over 3 months of the study. No adverse effect related to turmeric supplementation was observed during the trial. CONCLUSION:  Short-term turmeric supplementation can decrease proteinuria, hematuria, and systolic blood pressure in patients suffering from relapsing or refractory lupus nephritis and can be used as an adjuvant safe therapy for such patients.


 

Efficacy of curcumin in the management of chronic anterior uveitis.
            (Lal et al., 1999)  Download
Curcumin, obtained from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, was administered orally to patients suffering from chronic anterior uveitis (CAU) at a dose of 375 mg three times a day for 12 weeks. Of 53 patients enrolled, 32 completed the 12-week study. They were divided into two groups: one group of 18 patients received curcumin alone, whereas the other group of 14 patients, who had a strong PPD reaction, in addition received antitubercular treatment. The patients in both the groups started improving after 2 weeks of treatment. All the patients who received curcumin alone improved, whereas the group receiving antitubercular therapy along with curcumin had a response rate of 86%. Follow up of all the patients for the next 3 years indicated a recurrence rate of 55% in the first group and of 36% in the second group. Four of 18 (22%) patients in the first group and 3 of 14 patients (21%) in the second group lost their vision in the follow up period due to various complications in the eyes, e.g. vitritis, macular oedema, central venous block, cataract formation, glaucomatous optic nerve damage etc. None of the patients reported any side effect of the drug. The efficacy of curcumin and recurrences following treatment are comparable to corticosteroid therapy which is presently the only available standard treatment for this disease. The lack of side effects with curcumin is its greatest advantage compared with corticosteroids. A double blind multi-centric clinical trial with this drug in CAU is highly desirable to further validate the results of the present study.

Effects of Curcumin on Serum Vitamin E Concentrations in Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome.
            (Mohammadi et al., 2017) Download
Vitamin E is an important lipid-soluble antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of curcumin on serum vitamin E levels in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 120 subjects aged 18-65 years old with MetS were recruited in this study according to the International Diabetic Federation Criteria. Included subjects were randomized into three groups: subjects receiving lecithinized curcumin (1 g/day equivalent to 200-mg pure curcumin per day) for a period of 6 weeks )n = 40), patients receiving unformulated curcumin (1 g/day) for a period of 6 weeks )n = 40) and a control group receiving placebo for the same period (n = 40). Vitamin E was determined in all patients before and after the intervention using high-performance liquid chromatography method. Results showed that curcumin has no improving effect on serum levels of vitamin E (p > 0.05). There were significant differences between pre-trial and post-trial levels of vitamin E/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (p < 0.05), vitamin E/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (p < 0.05), vitamin E/total cholesterol ratio (p < 0.01) and vitamin E/triglyceride ratio (p < 0.05) between the three groups of the study. Results of the present study did not suggest any improving effect of curcumin supplementation on serum vitamin E concentrations in subjects with MetS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Curcuminoids exert glucose-lowering effect in type 2 diabetes by decreasing serum free fatty acids: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
            (Na et al., 2013)  Download
SCOPE:  We previously found that curcuminoids decreased blood glucose and improved insulin resistance by reducing serum free fatty acids (FFAs) and increasing fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats. This study was to investigate whether curcuminoids have beneficial effects on type 2 diabetic patients, and its possible mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS:  Overweight/obese type 2 diabetic patients (BMI ≥ 24.0; fasting blood glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or postprandial blood glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L) were randomly assigned to curcuminoids (300 mg/day) or placebo for 3 months. Bodyweight, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ,% ), serum fasting glucose, FFAs, lipids, and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were determined. A total of 100 patients (curcuminoids, n = 50; placebo, n = 50) completed the trial. Curcuminoids supplementation significantly decreased fasting blood glucose (p < 0.01), HbA1c (p = 0.031), and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.01) in type 2 diabetic patients. Curcuminoids also led to a significant decrease in serum total FFAs (p < 0.01), triglycerides (P = 0.018), an increase in LPL activity (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION:  These findings suggest a glucose-lowering effect of curcuminoids in type 2 diabetes, which is partially due to decrease in serum FFAs, which may result from promoting fatty acid oxidation and utilization.

Efficacy and Safety of Phytosomal Curcumin in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
            (Panahi et al., 2017) Download
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease characterized by excess lipid deposition in the hepatic tissue and subsequent oxidative and inflammatory damage. Curcumin is a dietary polyphenol with lipid-modifying, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of supplementation with phytosomal curcumin in subjects with NAFLD.Patients diagnosed with NAFLD (grades 1-3 according to liver ultrasonography) were randomly assigned to the curcumin (phytosomal form; 1 000 mg/day in 2 divided doses) (n=50) or placebo group (n=52) for a period of 8 weeks. All patients received dietary and lifestyle advises before the start of trial. Anthropometric measurements, hepatic enzymes, and liver ultrasonography were assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks of follow-up.87 subjects (n=44 and 43 in the curcumin and control group, respectively) completed the trial. Supplementation with curcumin was associated with a reduction in body mass index (-0.99±1.25 (Panahi et al., 2017)


 

Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial.
            (Sanmukhani et al., 2014)  Download
Curcumin, an active ingredient of Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae), has shown potential antidepressant-like activity in animal studies. The objectives of this trial were to compare the efficacy and safety of curcumin with fluoxetine in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Herein, 60 patients diagnosed with MDD were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio for six weeks observer-masked treatment with fluoxetine (20 mg) and curcumin (1000 mg) individually or their combination. The primary efficacy variable was response rates according to Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, 17-item version (HAM-D17 ). The secondary efficacy variable was the mean change in HAM-D17 score after six weeks. We observed that curcumin was well tolerated by all the patients. The proportion of responders as measured by the HAM-D17 scale was higher in the combination group (77.8%) than in the fluoxetine (64.7%) and the curcumin (62.5%) groups; however, these data were not statistically significant (P = 0.58). Interestingly, the mean change in HAM-D17 score at the end of six weeks was comparable in all three groups (P = 0.77). This study provides first clinical evidence that curcumin may be used as an effective and safe modality for treatment in patients with MDD without concurrent suicidal ideation or other psychotic disorders. .

Curcumin improves treatment outcome of Takayasu arteritis patients by reducing TNF-α: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial.
            (Shao et al., 2017)  Download
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors have been found to exhibit certain efficacy in treating refractory Takayasu arteritis (TA) in clinic despite severe adverse effects. The aim of this study is to investigate a natural anti-TNF compound, curcumin, its function, and its potential as treatment against TA. In total, 246 patients who were diagnosed of acute TA participated have completed this clinical trial. They were randomly assigned in either treatment group or control group, in which they were daily administered with curcumin or placebo accordingly for 4 weeks with weekly revisits for data collection. The treatment outcome consisted of a primary one defined using Birmingham Vascular Activity Score (BVAS) and a secondary one defined by laboratory results, e.g., C-reactive protein (CRP), TNF-α, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). In this study, the primary and secondary treatment outcomes were found to be steadily attenuated in patients who received curcumin treatment, while showed no significant change in patients in placebo group. TNF-α was found to be significantly correlated with BVAS scores (γ


 

Telomerase: a target for therapeutic effects of curcumin and a curcumin derivative in Aβ1-42 insult in vitro.
            (Xiao et al., 2014)  Download
This study was designed to investigate whether telomerase was involved in the neuroprotective effect of curcumin and Cur1. Alzheimer's disease is a consequence of an imbalance between the generation and clearance of amyloid-beta peptide in the brain. In this study, we used Aβ1-42 (10 µg/ml) to establish a damaged cell model, and curcumin and Cur1 were used in treatment groups. We measured cell survival and cell growth, intracellular oxidative stress and hTERT expression. After RNA interference, the effects of curcumin and Cur1 on cells were verified. Exposure to Aβ1-42 resulted in significant oxidative stress and cell toxicity, and the expression of hTERT was significantly decreased. Curcumin and Cur1 both protected SK-N-SH cells from Aβ1-42 and up-regulated the expression of hTERT. Furthermore, Cur1 demonstrated stronger protective effects than curcumin. However, when telomerase was inhibited by TERT siRNA, the neuroprotection by curcumin and Cur1 were ceased. Our study indicated that the neuroprotective effects of curcumin and Cur1 depend on telomerase, and thus telomerase may be a target for therapeutic effects of curcumin and Cur1.

Efficacy of a novel water-soluble curcumin derivative versus sildenafil citrate in mediating erectile function.
            (Zaahkouk et al., 2015)  Download
The present study was conducted to assess the efficacy of a novel curcumin derivative (NCD) versus sildenafil citrate in erectile signaling. The study was conducted on 10 control male rats and 50 diabetic male rats divided into the following groups: diabetic, curcumin, NCD, sildenafil and NCD combined with sildenafil. Cavernous tissue (CC) gene expression levels of heme oxygenase (HO)-1, Nrf2, NF-κβ and p38, enzyme activities of HO and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and intracavernosal pressure (ICP) were assessed. Results showed that 12 weeks after induction of diabetes, erectile dysfunction was confirmed by the significant decrease in ICP, a significant decrease in cGMP, NOS, HO enzyme activities, a significant decrease in HO-1 gene and a significant elevation of NF-κβ, p38 genes. Administration of all therapeutic interventions led to a significant elevation in ICP, cGMP levels, a significant increase in HO-1 and NOS enzymes, a significant increase in HO-1 and Nrf2 gene expression, and a significant decrease in NF-κβ, p38 gene expression. NCD or its combination with sildenafil showed significant efficacy and more prolonged duration of action. In conclusion, NCD could enhance erectile function with more efficacy and more prolonged duration of action.

 


References

Alizadeh, F, et al. (2018), ‘Curcumin nanomicelle improves semen parameters, oxidative stress, inflammatory biomarkers, and reproductive hormones in infertile men: A randomized clinical trial.’, Phytother Res, 32 (3), 514-21. PubMed: 29193350
Abdolahi, M, et al. (2017), ‘The synergistic effects of ω-3 fatty acids and nano-curcumin supplementation on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene expression and serum level in migraine patients.’, Immunogenetics, 69 (6), 371-78. PubMed: 28478481
Amalraj, A, et al. (2017), ‘A Novel Highly Bioavailable Curcumin Formulation Improves Symptoms and Diagnostic Indicators in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Dose, Three-Arm, and Parallel-Group Study.’, J Med Food, 20 (10), 1022-30. PubMed: 28850308
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Haroyan, A, et al. (2018), ‘Efficacy and safety of curcumin and its combination with boswellic acid in osteoarthritis: a comparative, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.’, BMC Complement Altern Med, 18 (1), 7. PubMed: 29316908
Judaki, A, et al. (2017), ‘Curcumin In Combination With Triple Therapy Regimes Ameliorates Oxidative Stress And Histopathologic Changes In Chronic Gastritis-Associated Helicobacter Pylori Infection.’, Arq Gastroenterol, 54 (3), 177-82. PubMed: 28492711
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Lal, B, et al. (1999), ‘Efficacy of curcumin in the management of chronic anterior uveitis.’, Phytother Res, 13 (4), 318-22. PubMed: 10404539
Mohammadi, A, et al. (2017), ‘Effects of Curcumin on Serum Vitamin E Concentrations in Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome.’, Phytother Res, 31 (4), 657-62. PubMed: 28198120
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Panahi, Y, et al. (2017), ‘Efficacy and Safety of Phytosomal Curcumin in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.’, Drug Res (Stuttg), 67 (4), 244-51. PubMed: 28158893
Sanmukhani, J, et al. (2014), ‘Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial.’, Phytother Res, 28 (4), 579-85. PubMed: 23832433
Shao, N, et al. (2017), ‘Curcumin improves treatment outcome of Takayasu arteritis patients by reducing TNF-α: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial.’, Immunol Res, 65 (4), 969-74. PubMed: 28349250
Xiao, Z, et al. (2014), ‘Telomerase: a target for therapeutic effects of curcumin and a curcumin derivative in Aβ1-42 insult in vitro.’, PLoS One, 9 (7), e101251. PubMed: 24983737
Zaahkouk, AM, et al. (2015), ‘Efficacy of a novel water-soluble curcumin derivative versus sildenafil citrate in mediating erectile function.’, Int J Impot Res, 27 (1), 9-15. PubMed: 25099638