Curcumin Abstracts 4

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Curcumin and its promise as an anticancer drug: An analysis of its anticancer and antifungal effects in cancer and associated complications from invasive fungal infections.
            (Chen et al., 2016) Download
Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are important complications of cancer, and they have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Effective anti-infection therapy is necessary to inhibit significant deterioration from these infections. However, they are difficult to treat, and increasing antifungal drug resistance often leads to a relapse. Curcumin, a natural component that is isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa plants, has attracted great interest among many scientists studying solid cancers over the last half century. Interestingly, curcumin provides an ideal alternative to current therapies because of its relatively safe profile, even at high doses. To date, curcumin's potent antifungal activity against different strains of Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, Trichosporon and Paracoccidioides have been reported, indicating that curcumin anticancer drugs may also possess an antifungal role, helping cancer patients to resist IFI complications. The aim of this review is to discuss curcumin's dual pharmacological activities regarding its applications as a natural anticancer and antifungal agent. These dual pharmacological activities are expected to lead to clinical trials and to improve infection survival among cancer patients.

Combination of α-Tomatine and Curcumin Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells.
            (Huang et al., 2015) Download
α-Tomatine is a glycoalkaloid found in tomatoes and curcumin is a major yellow pigment of turmeric. In the present study, the combined effect of these two compounds on prostate cancer cells was studied. Treatment of different prostate cancer cells with curcumin or α-tomatine alone resulted in growth inhibition and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Combinations of α-tomatine and curcumin synergistically inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Effects of the α-tomatine and curcumin combination were associated with synergistic inhibition of NF-κB activity and a potent decrease in the expression of its downstream gene Bcl-2 in the cells. Moreover, strong decreases in the levels of phospho-Akt and phosphor-ERK1/2 were found in PC-3 cells treated with α-tomatine and curcumin in combination. In animal experiment, SCID mice with PC-3 xenograft tumors were treated with α-tomatine and curcumin. Combination of α-tomatine and curcumin more potently inhibited the growth of PC-3 tumors than either agent alone. Results from the present study indicate that α-tomatine in combination with curcumin may be an effective strategy for inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer.

Aromatic-turmerone induces neural stem cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.
            (Hucklenbroich et al., 2014) Download
INTRODUCTION:  Aromatic (ar-) turmerone is a major bioactive compound of the herb Curcuma longa. It has been suggested that ar-turmerone inhibits microglia activation, a property that may be useful in treating neurodegenerative disease. Furthermore, the effects of ar-turmerone on neural stem cells (NSCs) remain to be investigated. METHODS:  We exposed primary fetal rat NSCs to various concentrations of ar-turmerone. Thereafter, cell proliferation and differentiation potential were assessed. In vivo, naïve rats were treated with a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of ar-turmerone. Proliferative activity of endogenous NSCs was assessed in vivo, by using noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and the tracer [(18)F]-fluoro-L-thymidine ([(18)F]FLT), as well as ex vivo. RESULTS:  In vitro, ar-turmerone increased dose-dependently the number of cultured NSCs, because of an increase in NSC proliferation (P < 0.01). Proliferation data were supported by qPCR-data for Ki-67 mRNA. In vitro as well as in vivo, ar-turmerone promoted neuronal differentiation of NSCs. In vivo, after i.c.v. injection of ar-turmerone, proliferating NSCs were mobilized from the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the hippocampus of adult rats, as demonstrated by both [(18)F]FLT-PET and histology (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:  Both in vitro and in vivo data suggest that ar-turmerone induces NSC proliferation. Ar-turmerone thus constitutes a promising candidate to support regeneration in neurologic disease.

Comparative absorption of curcumin formulations.
            (Jäger et al., 2014) Download
BACKGROUND:  The potential health benefits of curcumin are limited by its poor solubility, low absorption from the gut, rapid metabolism and rapid systemic elimination. The purpose of this study was the comparative measurement of the increases in levels of curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin) and the metabolite tetrahydrocurcumin after oral administration of three different curcumin formulations in comparison to unformulated standard. METHODS:  The relative absorption of a curcumin phytosome formulation (CP), a formulation with volatile oils of turmeric rhizome (CTR) and a formulation of curcumin with a combination of hydrophilic carrier, cellulosic derivatives and natural antioxidants (CHC) in comparison to a standardized curcumin mixture (CS) was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover human study in healthy volunteers. Samples were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. RESULTS:  Total curcuminoids appearance in the blood was 1.3-fold higher for CTR and 7.9-fold higher for CP in comparison to unformulated CS. CHC showed a 45.9-fold higher absorption over CS and significantly improved absorption over CP (5.8-fold) and CTR (34.9-fold, all p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:  A formulation of curcumin with a combination of hydrophilic carrier, cellulosic derivatives and natural antioxidants significantly increases curcuminoid appearance in the blood in comparison to unformulated standard curcumin CS, CTR and CP.

Curcumin attenuates severity of premenstrual syndrome symptoms: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
            (Khayat et al., 2015) Download
BACKGROUND:  Most women experience premenstrual syndrome (PMS) at their reproductive age. PMS is a combination of psychological, physical and behavioral changes that interfere with familial communication and social activities. OBJECTIVES:  Different methods have been suggested for treating PMS and one of them is herbal medicine. This study was done to evaluate the effects of curcumin on severity of PMS symptoms. METHODS:  This research was a clinical trial, double-blinded study. After having identified persons suffering from PMS, participants were randomly allocated to placebo (n=35) and curcumin (n=35) groups. Then each participant received two capsules daily for seven days before menstruation and for three days after menstruation for three successive cycles and they recorded severity of the symptoms by daily record questionnaire. RESULTS:  The baseline level of PMS symptoms of before intervention did not differ between groups. While after three consecutive cycles treatment with curcumin, total severity of PMS score had reduced from 102.06±39.64 to 42.47±16.37 (mean change: 59.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 46.19-72.99) and in Placebo, total severity of PMS score changed from 106.06±44.12 to 91.60±43.56 (mean change: 14.45; 95% CI: 2.69 to 26.22). Furthermore, difference between mean changes was significant (mean difference: 45.14; 95% CI: 6.10-14.98). CONCLUSIONS:  Our results for the first time showed a potential advantageous effect of curcumin in attenuating severity of PMS symptoms, which were probably mediated by modulation of neurotransmitters and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin.

A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Phase IIB Trial of Curcumin in Oral Leukoplakia.
            (Kuriakose et al., 2016) Download
Oral leukoplakia is a potentially malignant lesion of the oral cavity, for which no effective treatment is available. We investigated the effectiveness of curcumin, a potent inhibitor of NF-κB/COX-2, molecules perturbed in oral carcinogenesis, to treat leukoplakia. Subjects with oral leukoplakia (n = 223) were randomized (1:1 ratio) to receive orally, either 3.6 g/day of curcumin (n = 111) or placebo (n = 112), for 6 months. The primary endpoint was clinical response obtained by bi-dimensional measurement of leukoplakia size at recruitment and 6 months. Histologic response, combined clinical and histologic response, durability and effect of long-term therapy for an additional six months in partial responders, safety and compliance were the secondary endpoints. Clinical response was observed in 75 (67.5%) subjects [95% confidence interval (CI), 58.4-75.6] in the curcumin and 62 (55.3%; 95% CI, 46.1-64.2) in placebo arm (P = 0.03). This response was durable, with 16 of the 18 (88.9%; 95% CI, 67.2-96.9) subjects with complete response in curcumin and 7 of 8 subjects (87.5%) in placebo arm, demonstrating no relapse after 6 months follow-up. Difference in histologic response between curcumin and placebo was not significant (HR, 0.88, 95% CI, 0.45-1.71; P = 0.71). Combined clinical and histologic response assessment indicated a significantly better response with curcumin (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.27-0.92; P = 0.02). Continued therapy, in subjects with partial response at 6 months, did not yield additional benefit. The treatment did not raise any safety concerns. Treatment of oral leukoplakia with curcumin (3.6 g for six months), thus was well tolerated and demonstrated significant and durable clinical response for 6 months. Cancer Prev Res; 9(8); 683-91. ©2016 AACR.

Curcumin in Combination With Mesalamine Induces Remission in Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Ulcerative Colitis in a Randomized Controlled Trial.
            (Lang et al., 2015)  Download
BACKGROUND & AIMS:  The phytochemical compound curcumin was reported to be effective in maintaining remission in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We investigated curcumin's efficacy in inducing remission in patients with active mild-to-moderate UC. METHODS:  We performed a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of 50 mesalamine-treated patients with active mild-to-moderate UC (defined by the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index [SCCAI]) who did not respond to an additional 2 weeks of the maximum dose of mesalamine oral and topical therapy. Patients were randomly assigned to groups who were given curcumin capsules (3 g/day, n = 26) or an identical placebo (n = 24) for 1 month, with continued mesalamine. The primary outcome was the rate of clinical remission (SCCAI ≤2) at week 4. Clinical and endoscopic responses were also recorded. RESULTS:  In the intention-to-treat analysis, 14 patients (53.8%) receiving curcumin achieved clinical remission at week 4, compared with none of the patients receiving placebo (P = .01; odds ratio [OR], 42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-760). Clinical response (reduction of ≥3 points in SCCAI) was achieved by 17 patients (65.3%) in the curcumin group vs. 3 patients (12.5%) in the placebo group (P < .001; OR, 13.2; 95% CI, 3.1-56.6). Endoscopic remission (partial Mayo score ≤1) was observed in 8 of the 22 patients evaluated in the curcumin group (38%), compared with none of 16 patients evaluated in the placebo group (P = .043; OR, 20.7; 95% CI, 1.1-393). Adverse events were rare and comparable between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS:  Addition of curcumin to mesalamine therapy was superior to the combination of placebo and mesalamine in inducing clinical and endoscopic remission in patients with mild-to-moderate active UC, producing no apparent adverse effects. Curcumin may be a safe and promising agent for treatment of UC. Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT01320436.

Curcumin and major depression: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the potential of peripheral biomarkers to predict treatment response and antidepressant mechanisms of change.
            (Lopresti et al., 2015)  Download
A recent randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study conducted by our research group, provided partial support for the efficacy of supplementation with a patented curcumin extract (500 mg, twice daily) for 8 weeks in reducing depressive symptoms in people with major depressive disorder. In the present paper, a secondary, exploratory analysis of salivary, urinary and blood biomarkers collected during this study was conducted to identify potential antidepressant mechanisms of action of curcumin. Pre and post-intervention samples were provided by 50 participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder, and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology self-rated version (IDS-SR30) was used as the primary depression outcome measure. Compared to placebo, 8 weeks of curcumin supplementation was associated with elevations in urinary thromboxane B2 (p<0.05), and substance P (p<0.001); while placebo supplementation was associated with reductions in aldosterone (p<0.05) and cortisol (p<0.05). Higher baseline plasma endothelin-1 (rs=-0.587; p<0.01) and leptin (rs=-0.470; p<0.05) in curcumin-treated individuals was associated with greater reductions in IDS-SR30 score after 8 weeks of treatment. Our findings demonstrate that curcumin supplementation influences several biomarkers that may be associated with its antidepressant mechanisms of action. Plasma concentrations of leptin and endothelin-1 seem to have particular relevance to treatment outcome. Further investigations using larger samples sizes are required to elucidate these findings, as the multiple statistical comparisons completed in this study increased the risk of type I errors.

Curcumin as a promising antifungal of clinical interest.
            (Martins et al., 2009) Download
OBJECTIVES:  The antifungal activity of curcumin was evaluated against 23 fungi strains and its in vitro inhibitory effect on the adhesion of Candida species to human buccal epithelial cells (BEC) was also investigated. METHODS:  The antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by broth microdilution assay following the CLSI (formerly the NCCLS) guidelines. The inhibitory effect of curcumin on the cell adhesion was performed with Candida species and BEC. RESULTS:  Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates were the most susceptible to curcumin while the growth of Aspergillus isolates was not affected. Curcumin was much more efficient than fluconazole in inhibiting the adhesion of Candida species to BEC, particularly those strains isolated from the buccal mucosa of AIDS patients. CONCLUSIONS:  The lack of antifungal compounds with reduced side effects highlights the importance of studying natural products for this purpose. Curcumin was a more potent antifungal than fluconazole against P. brasiliensis, the causal agent of the neglected disease paracoccidioidomycosis. Curcumin dramatically inhibited the adhesion of Candida species isolated from AIDS patients to BEC, demonstrating that curcumin is a promising lead compound that warrants further investigation into its therapeutical use in immunocompromised patients.

A review on antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity of curcumin.
            (Moghadamtousi et al., 2014) Download
Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae family) and its polyphenolic compound curcumin have been subjected to a variety of antimicrobial investigations due to extensive traditional uses and low side effects. Antimicrobial activities for curcumin and rhizome extract of C. longa against different bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites have been reported. The promising results for antimicrobial activity of curcumin made it a good candidate to enhance the inhibitory effect of existing antimicrobial agents through synergism. Indeed, different investigations have been done to increase the antimicrobial activity of curcumin, including synthesis of different chemical derivatives to increase its water solubility as well ass cell up take of curcumin. This review aims to summarize previous antimicrobial studies of curcumin towards its application in the future studies as a natural antimicrobial agent.

Curcumin induces crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis mediated by calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomal destabilization and mitochondrial events.
            (Moustapha et al., 2015) Download
Curcumin, a major active component of turmeric (Curcuma longa, L.), has anticancer effects. In vitro studies suggest that curcumin inhibits cancer cell growth by activating apoptosis, but the mechanism underlying these effects is still unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms leading to apoptosis in curcumin-treated cells. Curcumin induced endoplasmic reticulum stress causing calcium release, with a destabilization of the mitochondrial compartment resulting in apoptosis. These events were also associated with lysosomal membrane permeabilization and of caspase-8 activation, mediated by cathepsins and calpains, leading to Bid cleavage. Truncated tBid disrupts mitochondrial homeostasis and enhance apoptosis. We followed the induction of autophagy, marked by the formation of autophagosomes, by staining with acridine orange in cells exposed curcumin. At this concentration, only the early events of apoptosis (initial mitochondrial destabilization with any other manifestations) were detectable. Western blotting demonstrated the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II (light chain 3), a marker of active autophagosome formation. We also found that the production of reactive oxygen species and formation of autophagosomes following curcumin treatment was almost completely blocked by N-acetylcystein, the mitochondrial specific antioxidants MitoQ10 and SKQ1, the calcium chelators, EGTA-AM or BAPTA-AM, and the mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor, ruthenium red. Curcumin-induced autophagy failed to rescue all cells and most cells underwent type II cell death following the initial autophagic processes. All together, these data imply a fail-secure mechanism regulated by autophagy in the action of curcumin, suggesting a therapeutic potential for curcumin. Offering a novel and effective strategy for the treatment of malignant cells.

Curcuminoids Target Decreasing Serum Adipocyte-fatty Acid Binding Protein Levels in Their Glucose-lowering Effect in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
            (Na et al., 2014)  Download
Whether supplementation of curcuminoids decreases serum adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) level and whether this decrease benefits glucose control is unclear. One-hundred participants (n=50 administered curcuminoids, n=50 administered placebo) from our previous report on the effect of curcuminoids on type 2 diabetes in a 3-month intervention were assessed for levels of serum A-FABP, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers. Curcuminoids supplementation led to significant decreases in serum A-FABP, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 levels. Curcuminoids supplementation also significantly increased serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The change in serum A-FABP levels showed positive correlations with changes in levels of glucose, free fatty acids (FFAs), and CRP in subjects supplemented with curcuminoids. Further stepwise regression analysis showed that A-FABP was an independent predictor for levels of FFAs, SOD, and CRP. These results suggest that curcuminoids may exert anti-diabetic effects, at least in part, by reductions in serum A-FABP level. A-FABP reduction is associated with improved metabolic parameters in human type 2 diabetes.

Curcumin as a promising anticandidal of clinical interest.
            (Neelofar et al., 2011) Download
Curcumin, an important Asian spice, is part of many Indian food preparations. This work evaluates the antifungal activity of curcumin against 14 strains of Candida (10 clinical and 4 standard). Curcumin displayed antifungal properties against all tested Candida strains, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) varying from 250 to 2000 µg·mL⁻¹. The in vitro effect of curcumin on growth, sterol content, proteinase secretion, and H+ extrusion by plasma membrane ATPase was investigated for 2 standard strains Candida albicans ATCC 10261 and Candida glabrata ATCC 90030 and compared with the effect of fluconazole. At MIC, curcumin inhibited H+ extrusion in 2 species of Candida by 42% and 32% in the absence of glucose and by 28% and 18% in the presence of glucose. Respective inhibition of H+ extrusion caused by the MIC of fluconazole was 85% and 89% in the absence of glucose and 61% and 66% in its presence. Ergosterol content decreased by 70% and 53% for the 2 strains following exposure to curcumin at MIC; comparative values for fluconazole at MIC were 93% and 98%. Curcumin and fluconazole decreased proteinase secretion by 49% and 53%, respectively, in C. albicans and by 39% and 46%, respectively, in C. glabrata. In conclusion, curcumin is found to be active against all tested clinical and standard strains but is less effective than fluconazole. Antifungal activity of curcumin might be originating from alteration of membrane-associated properties of ATPase activity, ergosterol biosynthesis, and proteinase secretion.

Evaluation of the effect of curcumin capsules on glyburide therapy in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.
            (Neerati et al., 2014)  Download
This study aimed to assess the possible beneficial effects of curcumin capsules as lipid-lowering effects and as a permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glyburide and as a P-gp substrate with glyburide in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Open-label, randomized control trial was carried out for 11 days on eight type-2 diabetic patients on glyburide therapy. On the first day of the study, following the administration of 5 mg of glyburide, blood samples were collected from the patients at various time intervals ranging from 0.5 to 24 h. Blood sampling was repeated on the 11th day of the study, after treating the patients with curcumin for ten consecutive days. Glyburide concentrations changed at the second hour, Cmax was unchanged, the glucose levels were decreased, Area Under first Movement Curre (AUMC) was increased, and no patient has experienced the hypoglycaemia. The low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides were decreased significantly, and the high-density lipoprotein content increased. The co-administration of curcumin capsules with glyburide may be beneficial to the patients in better glycaemic control. The lipid lowering and antidiabetic properties of the curcumin show as a potential future drug molecule.

Spicing up endogenous neural stem cells: aromatic-turmerone offers new possibilities for tackling neurodegeneration.
            (Poser and Androutsellis-Theotokis, 2014) Download
There is a growing interest in the therapeutic utility of compounds derived from Curcuma longa, an herb of the Zingiberaceae family that has been part of traditional medicine for centuries. Recent reports suggest that bioactive compounds isolated from the rhizome of these plants can address two key aspects of brain injury following stroke that must be dealt with for functional recovery to occur: the moderation of neuroinflammation, and the mobilization of endogenous stem cells resident in the nervous system. Defining their mechanism of action remains a question, but emerging evidence may point towards one shared with more classic modulators of neural stem cell proliferation and survival.


 

Curcumin, a component of golden spice: from bedside to bench and back.
            (Prasad et al., 2014) Download
Although the history of the golden spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) goes back thousands of years, it is only within the past century that we learned about the chemistry of its active component, curcumin. More than 6000 articles published within the past two decades have discussed the molecular basis for the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and anticancer activities assigned to this nutraceutical. Over sixty five clinical trials conducted on this molecules, have shed light on the role of curcumin in various chronic conditions, including autoimmune, cardiovascular, neurological, and psychological diseases, as well as diabetes and cancer. The current review provides an overview of the history, chemistry, analogs, and mechanism of action of curcumin.

Curcumin: a potential candidate in prevention of cancer via modulation of molecular pathways.
            (Rahmani et al., 2014) Download
Cancer is the most dreadful disease worldwide in terms of morbidity and mortality. The exact cause of cancer development and progression is not fully known. But it is thought that cancer occurs due to the structural and functional changes in the genes. The current approach to cancer treatment based on allopathic is expensive, exhibits side effects; and may also alter the normal functioning of genes. Thus, a safe and effective mode of treatment is needed to control the cancer development and progression. Some medicinal plants provide a safe, effective and affordable remedy to control the progression of malignant cells. The importance of medicinal plants and their constituents has been documented in Ayurveda, Unani medicine, and various religious books. Curcumin, a vital constituent of the spice turmeric, is an alternative approach in the prevention of cancer. Earlier studies have shown the effect of curcumin as an antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumor and it also has a noteworthy role in the control of different diseases. In this review, we summarize the understanding of chemopreventive effects of curcumin in the prevention of cancer via the regulation of various cell signaling and genetic pathways.

Curcumin hormesis mediates a cross-talk between autophagy and cell death.
            (Rainey et al., 2015) Download
In a recent article published in Cell Death Discovery, Moustapha et al.6 have depicted the molecular circuitries that link curcumin to cellular stress and death, and how these pathways can get uncoupled during hormetic responses. We report that curcumin at very low doses (≤1 μM) is indeed an excellent antioxidant but that medium doses of curcumin (in the range of 5–10 μM) operates primarily as an autophagy inducer, correlating with their described capacity to reduce the acetylation of cytoplasmic proteins7 and cell cycle blocker. Finally, at further higher doses (over 25μM), cell death is induced (all experiments run for 48h).


 

References

Chen, J, et al. (2016), ‘Curcumin and its promise as an anticancer drug: An analysis of its anticancer and antifungal effects in cancer and associated complications from invasive fungal infections.’, Eur J Pharmacol, 772 33-42. PubMed: 26723514
Huang, H, et al. (2015), ‘Combination of α-Tomatine and Curcumin Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells.’, PLoS One, 10 (12), e0144293. PubMed: 26630272
Hucklenbroich, J, et al. (2014), ‘Aromatic-turmerone induces neural stem cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.’, Stem Cell Res Ther, 5 (4), 100. PubMed: 25928248
Jäger, R, et al. (2014), ‘Comparative absorption of curcumin formulations.’, Nutr J, 13 11. PubMed: 24461029
Khayat, S, et al. (2015), ‘Curcumin attenuates severity of premenstrual syndrome symptoms: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.’, Complement Ther Med, 23 (3), 318-24. PubMed: 26051565
Kuriakose, MA, et al. (2016), ‘A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Phase IIB Trial of Curcumin in Oral Leukoplakia.’, Cancer Prev Res (Phila), 9 (8), 683-91. PubMed: 27267893
Lang, A, et al. (2015), ‘Curcumin in Combination With Mesalamine Induces Remission in Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Ulcerative Colitis in a Randomized Controlled Trial.’, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 13 (8), 1444-9.e1. PubMed: 25724700
Lopresti, AL, et al. (2015), ‘Curcumin and major depression: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the potential of peripheral biomarkers to predict treatment response and antidepressant mechanisms of change.’, Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, 25 (1), 38-50. PubMed: 25523883
Martins, CV, et al. (2009), ‘Curcumin as a promising antifungal of clinical interest.’, J Antimicrob Chemother, 63 (2), 337-39. PubMed: 19038979
Moghadamtousi, SZ, et al. (2014), ‘A review on antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity of curcumin.’, Biomed Res Int, 2014 186864. PubMed: 24877064
Moustapha, A, et al. (2015), ‘Curcumin induces crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis mediated by calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomal destabilization and mitochondrial events.’, Cell Death Discov, 1 15017. PubMed: 27551451
Na, LX, et al. (2014), ‘Curcuminoids Target Decreasing Serum Adipocyte-fatty Acid Binding Protein Levels in Their Glucose-lowering Effect in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.’, Biomed Environ Sci, 27 (11), 902-6. PubMed: 25374024
Neelofar, K, et al. (2011), ‘Curcumin as a promising anticandidal of clinical interest.’, Can J Microbiol, 57 (3), 204-10. PubMed: 21358761
Neerati, P, R Devde, and AK Gangi (2014), ‘Evaluation of the effect of curcumin capsules on glyburide therapy in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.’, Phytother Res, 28 (12), 1796-800. PubMed: 25044423
Poser, SW and A Androutsellis-Theotokis (2014), ‘Spicing up endogenous neural stem cells: aromatic-turmerone offers new possibilities for tackling neurodegeneration.’, Stem Cell Res Ther, 5 (6), 127. PubMed: 25688994
Prasad, S, et al. (2014), ‘Curcumin, a component of golden spice: from bedside to bench and back.’, Biotechnol Adv, 32 (6), 1053-64. PubMed: 24793420
Rahmani, AH, et al. (2014), ‘Curcumin: a potential candidate in prevention of cancer via modulation of molecular pathways.’, Biomed Res Int, 2014 761608. PubMed: 25295272
Rainey, N, et al. (2015), ‘Curcumin hormesis mediates a cross-talk between autophagy and cell death.’, Cell Death Dis, 6 e2003. PubMed: 26633709