Collagen Abstracts 1

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Effect of collagen hydrolysate in articular pain: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

         (Bruyere, Zegels et al. 2012) Download

OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a food supplement made of collagen hydrolysate 1200 mg/day versus placebo during 6 months, in subjects with joint pain at the lower or upper limbs or at the lumbar spine. DESIGN: Comparative double-blind randomized multicenter study in parallel groups. SETTING: 200 patients of both genders of at least 50 years old with joint pain assessed as >/=30 mm on a visual analogical scale (VAS). INTERVENTION: Collagen hydrolysate 1200 mg/day or placebo during 6 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Comparison of the percentage of clinical responder between the active collagen hydrolysate group and the placebo group after 6 months of study. A responder subject was defined as a subject experiencing a clinically significant improvement (i.e. by 20% or more) in the most painful joint using the VAS score. All analyses were performed using an intent-to-treat procedure. RESULTS: At 6 months, the proportion of clinical responders to the treatment, according to VAS scores, was significantly higher in the collagen hydrolysate (CH) group 51.6%, compared to the placebo group 36.5% (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between groups at 3 months (44.1% vs. 39.6%, p=0.53). No significant difference in terms of security and tolerability was observed between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that collagen hydrolysate 1200 mg/day could increase the number of clinical responders (i.e. improvement of at least 20% on the VAS) compared to placebo. More studies are needed to confirm the clinical interest of this food supplement.


Effect of anti-inflammatory medication on the running-induced rise in patella tendon collagen synthesis in humans

         (Christensen, Dandanell et al. 2011) Download

NSAIDs are widely used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases as well as of tendon diseases associated with pain in sports and labor. However, the effect of NSAID intake, and thus blockade of PGE(2) production, on the tendon tissue adaptation is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the possible effects of NSAID intake on healthy tendon collagen turnover in relation to a strenuous bout of endurance exercise. Fifteen healthy young men were randomly assigned into two experimental groups, with one group receiving indomethacin (oral 2 x 100 mg Confortid daily for 7 days; NSAID; n = 7) and a placebo group (n = 8). Both groups were exposed to a prolonged bout of running (36 km). The collagen synthesis NH(2)-terminal propeptide of type I (PINP) and PGE(2) concentrations were measured before and 72 h following the run in the patella tendon by microdialysis. The peritendinous concentrations of PINP increased significantly in the placebo group as a result of the run, as shown previously. PGE(2) levels were significantly decreased 72 h after the run compared with basal levels in the subjects treated with NSAID and unchanged in the placebo group. The NSAID intake abolished the adaptive increase in collagen synthesis in the patella tendon found in the placebo group in response to the prolonged exercise (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrates that intake of NSAID decreased interstitial PGE(2) and abolished the exercise-induced adaptive increase in collagen synthesis in human tendons.

24-Week study on the use of collagen hydrolysate as a dietary supplement in athletes with activity-related joint pain

         (Clark, Sebastianelli et al. 2008) Download

BACKGROUND: Collagen hydrolysate is a nutritional supplement that has been shown to exert an anabolic effect on cartilage tissue. Its administration appears beneficial in patients with osteoarthritis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of collagen hydrolysate on activity-related joint pain in athletes who are physically active and have no evidence of joint disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted at Penn State University in University Park, Pennsylvania. Parameters including joint pain, mobility, and inflammation were evaluated with the use of a visual analogue scale during a 24-week study phase. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: Between September 2005 and June 2006, 147 subjects who competed on a varsity team or a club sport were recruited. Data from 97 of 147 subjects could be statistically evaluated. INTERVENTION: One hundred and forty-seven subjects (72 male, 75 female) were randomly assigned to two groups: a group (n = 73) receiving 25 mL of a liquid formulation that contained 10 g of collagen hydrolysate (CH-Alpha) and a group (n = 74) receiving a placebo, which consisted of 25 mL of liquid that contained xanthan. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary efficacy parameter was the change in the visual analogue scales from baseline during the study phase in relation to the parameters referring to pain, mobility, and inflammation. RESULTS: When data from all subjects (n = 97) were evaluated, six parameters showed statistically significant changes with the dietary supplement collagen hydrolysate (CH) compared with placebo: joint pain at rest, assessed by the physician (CH vs. placebo (-1.37 +/- 1.78 vs. -0.90 +/- 1.74 (p = 0.025)) and five parameters assessed by study participants: joint pain when walking (-1.11 +/- 1.98 vs. -0.46 +/- 1.63, p = 0.007), joint pain when standing (-0.97 +/- 1.92 vs. -0.43 +/- 1.74, p = 0.011), joint pain at rest (-0.81 +/- 1.77 vs. -0.39 +/- 1.56, p = 0.039), joint pain when carrying objects (-1.45 +/- 2.11 vs. -0.83 +/- 1.71, p = 0.014) and joint pain when lifting (-1.79 +/- 2.11 vs. -1.26 +/- 2.09, p = 0.018). When a subgroup analysis of subjects with knee arthralgia (n = 63) was performed, the difference between the effect of collagen hydrolysate vs. placebo was more pronounced. The parameter joint pain at rest, assessed by the physician, had a statistical significance level of p = 0.001 (-1.67 +/- 1.89 vs. -0.86 +/- 1.77), while the other five parameters based on the participants' assessments were also statistically significant: joint pain when walking (p = 0.003 (-1.38 +/- 2.12 vs. -0.54 +/- 1.65)), joint pain when standing (p = 0.015 (-1.17 +/- 2.06 vs. -0.50 +/- 1.68)), joint pain at rest with (p = 0.021 (-1.01 +/-1.92 vs. -0.47 +/- 1.63)), joint pain when running a straight line (p = 0.027 (-1.50 +/- 1.97 vs. -0.80 +/- 1.66)) and joint pain when changing direction (p = 0.026 (-1.87 +/- 2.18 vs. -1.20 +/- 2.10)). CONCLUSION: This was the first clinical trial of 24-weeks duration to show improvement of joint pain in athletes who were treated with the dietary supplement collagen hydrolysate. The results of this study have implications for the use of collagen hydrolysate to support joint health and possibly reduce the risk of joint deterioration in a high-risk group. Despite the study's size and limitations, the results suggest that athletes consuming collagen hydrolysate can reduce parameters (such as pain) that have a negative impact on athletic performance. Future studies are needed to support these findings.


Safety and efficacy of undenatured type II collagen in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a clinical trial

         (Crowley, Lau et al. 2009) Download

Previous studies have shown that undenatured type II collagen (UC-II) is effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and preliminary human and animal trials have shown it to be effective in treating osteoarthritis (OA). The present clinical trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of UC-II as compared to a combination of glucosamine and chondroitin (G+C) in the treatment of OA of the knee. The results indicate that UC-II treatment was more efficacious resulting in a significant reduction in all assessments from the baseline at 90 days; whereas, this effect was not observed in G+C treatment group. Specifically, although both treatments reduced the Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score, treatment with UC-II reduced the WOMAC score by 33% as compared to 14% in G+C treated group after 90 days. Similar results were obtained for visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Although both the treatments reduced the VAS score, UC-II treatment decreased VAS score by 40% after 90 days as compared to 15.4% in G+C treated group. The Lequesne's functional index was used to determine the effect of different treatments on pain during daily activities. Treatment with UC-II reduced Lequesne's functional index score by 20% as compared to 6% in G+C treated group at the end of 90-day treatment. Thus, UC-II treated subjects showed significant enhancement in daily activities suggesting an improvement in their quality of life.

Endothelial extracellular matrix: biosynthesis, remodeling, and functions during vascular morphogenesis and neovessel stabilization

         (Davis and Senger 2005) Download

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical for all aspects of vascular biology. In concert with supporting cells, endothelial cells (ECs) assemble a laminin-rich basement membrane matrix that provides structural and organizational stability. During the onset of angiogenesis, this basement membrane matrix is degraded by proteinases, among which membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) are particularly significant. As angiogenesis proceeds, ECM serves essential functions in supporting key signaling events involved in regulating EC migration, invasion, proliferation, and survival. Moreover, the provisional ECM serves as a pliable scaffold wherein mechanical guidance forces are established among distal ECs, thereby providing organizational cues in the absence of cell-cell contact. Finally, through specific integrin-dependent signal transduction pathways, ECM controls the EC cytoskeleton to orchestrate the complex process of vascular morphogenesis by which proliferating ECs organize into multicellular tubes with functional lumens. Thus, the composition of ECM and therefore the regulation of ECM degradation and remodeling serves pivotally in the control of lumen and tube formation and, finally, neovessel stability and maturation.

Growth hormone stimulates the collagen synthesis in human tendon and skeletal muscle without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis

         (Doessing, Heinemeier et al. 2010) Download

In skeletal muscle and tendon the extracellular matrix confers important tensile properties and is crucially important for tissue regeneration after injury. Musculoskeletal tissue adaptation is influenced by mechanical loading, which modulates the availability of growth factors, including growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), which may be of key importance. To test the hypothesis that GH promotes matrix collagen synthesis in musculotendinous tissue, we investigated the effects of 14 day administration of 33-50 microg kg(-1) day(-1) recombinant human GH (rhGH) in healthy young individuals. rhGH administration caused an increase in serum GH, serum IGF-I, and IGF-I mRNA expression in tendon and muscle. Tendon collagen I mRNA expression and tendon collagen protein synthesis increased by 3.9-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively (P < 0.01 and P = 0.02), and muscle collagen I mRNA expression and muscle collagen protein synthesis increased by 2.3-fold and 5.8-fold, respectively (P < 0.01 and P = 0.06). Myofibrillar protein synthesis was unaffected by elevation of GH and IGF-I. Moderate exercise did not enhance the effects of GH manipulation. Thus, increased GH availability stimulates matrix collagen synthesis in skeletal muscle and tendon, but without any effect upon myofibrillar protein synthesis. The results suggest that GH is more important in strengthening the matrix tissue than for muscle cell hypertrophy in adult human musculotendinous tissue.


Type II collagen induces peripheral tolerance in BALB/c mice via the generation of CD8+ T regulatory cells

         (Farooq and Ashour 2012) Download

Antigens introduced into the anterior chamber (AC) of the eye induce a potent form of antigen-specific peripheral immune tolerance termed AC-associated immune deviation (ACAID), which prevents inflammatory immune responses and is characterized by impaired delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses. Type-II collagen (CII) is a fibrillar protein expressed exclusively in cartilage tissues. Although of its clinical relevance to Rheumatoid arthritis, aging, and osteoarthritis, there have been no studies to date to test if CII has the ability to induce ACAID. We hypothesized that ACAID could be generated via AC injection of CII in BALB/c mice. Using a DTH assay, the hypothesis was supported and led to another hypothesis that CII is capable of inducing specific immune tolerance via CD8(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs). Thus, we performed functional local adoptive transfer (LAT) assays to examine the regulatory roles of spleen cells, T cells, and CD8(+) T cells in the specific immune regulation induced by CII injection into the AC. Results indicated that CII induced ACAID when injected into the AC. Spleen cells of mice injected with CII in the AC significantly suppressed DTH responses. The T cell compartment of the spleen was capable of expressing this suppression. CD8(+) Tregs could solely express this CII-driven suppression and even exerted more noticeable suppression than spleen cells or splenic T cells. This study suggests a crucial role for CD8(+) Tregs in mediating CII-driven ACAID-mediated immune tolerance. This could have therapeutic implications in Rheumatoid arthritis, aging, osteoarthritis, and other diseases in which CII is involved.


Polymerized-type I collagen downregulates inflammation and improves clinical outcomes in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis following arthroscopic lavage: a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial

         (Furuzawa-Carballeda, Lima et al. 2012) Download

OBJECTIVES: Polymerized-type I collagen (polymerized collagen) is a downmodulator of inflammation and cartilage regenerator biodrug. AIM: To evaluate the effect of intraarticular injections of polymerized collagen after arthroscopic lavage on inflammation and clinical improvement in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Patients (n = 19) were treated with 6 intraarticular injections of 2 mL of polymerized collagen (n = 10) or 2 mL of placebo (n = 9) during 3 months. Followup was 3 months. The primary endpoints included Lequesne index, pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS), WOMAC, analgesic usage, the number of Tregs and proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine-expressing peripheral cells. Secondary outcomes were Likert score and drug evaluation. Clinical and immunological improvement was determined if the decrease in pain exceeds 20 mm on a VAS, 20% of clinical outcomes, and inflammatory parameters from baseline. Urinary levels of C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of collagen type II (CTXII) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were determined. RESULTS: Polymerized collagen was safe and well tolerated. Patients had a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05) from baseline versus polymerized collagen and versus placebo at 6 months on Lequesne index, VAS, ESR, Tregs IL-1beta, and IL-10 peripheral-expressing cells. Urinary levels of CTXII were decreased 44% in polymerized collagen versus placebo. No differences were found on incidence of adverse events between groups. CONCLUSION: Polymerized collagen is safe and effective on downregulation of inflammation in patients with knee OA.


Randomized controlled trial on collagen/oxidized regenerated cellulose/silver treatment

         (Gottrup, Cullen et al. 2013) Download

Collagen/oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC)/silver therapy has been designed to facilitate wound healing by normalizing the microenvironment and correcting biochemical imbalances in chronic wounds. The aim of this study was to compare collagen/ORC/silver therapy to control (standard treatment). Patients with diabetic foot ulcers were randomized to either collagen/ORC/silver (24) or control treatment (15). Wound area measurements and wound fluid samples were taken weekly. Protease levels were measured in wound fluid samples to investigate differences between responders (>/=50% reduction in wound area by week 4) and nonresponders (<50% reduction in wound area by week 4). There were significantly more responders in the collagen/ORC/silver group compared with the control group (79% vs. 43%, p = 0.035). There were significantly fewer withdrawals from the study because of infection in the collagen/ORC/silver group compared with the control group (0% vs. 31%, p = 0.012). The sum of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and elastase concentration was higher in nonresponders compared with responders at baseline (p = 0.0705) and week 4 (p = 0.012). The results suggest that collagen/ORC/silver normalizes the wound microenvironment and protects against infection, resulting in improved wound healing. It was also demonstrated that measuring a combination of proteases may be a more relevant prognostic healing marker than any individual protease alone.

Current concepts of basement-membrane structure and function

         (Grant, Heathcote et al. 1981) Download


Arginine L-alpha-ketoglutarate, methylsulfonylmethane, hydrolyzed type I collagen and bromelain in rotator cuff tear repair: a prospective randomized study

         (Gumina, Passaretti et al. 2012) Download

OBJECTIVE: Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair generally provides satisfactory result, in terms of decreasing shoulder pain, resulting in improvement in range of motion. Unfortunately, imaging studies have shown that after surgical repair re-rupture rate is potentially high. Literature data indicate that each of the components present in a commercial supplement sold in Italy as Tenosan * (arginine L-alpha-ketoglutarate, methylsulfonylmethane, hydrolyzed type I collagen and bromelain) have a potential role in tendon healing and mitigating the pain due to tendonitis. We evaluated the clinical and MRI results of rotator cuff repair with and without the employment of this oral supplement in patients with a large, postero-superior rotator cuff tear (RCT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We enrolled 90 consecutive patients who had a large, postero-superior RCT. All the lesions were managed with an arthroscopic repair. Patients were randomized and treated either with (Group I) or without (Group II) the supplement. The primary outcomes were the difference between the pre- and post-operative Constant score and repair integrity assessed by MRI according to Sugaya's classification. The secondary outcome was the pre- and post-operative Simple Shoulder Test. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were identified between the two groups for each considered variable, except for shoulder pain (follow-up: 6 months) and repair integrity (final follow-up). Intensity of shoulder pain was lower in the Group I patients (p < 0.001). Analogously, in Group I, the percentage of patients with a better repair integrity result was significantly higher than Group II. CONCLUSION: The use of the supplement for 3 months after cuff repair decreases shoulder post-operative pain and leads to a slight improvement in repair integrity. This improvement does not seem to correlate with an better objective functional outcome. However, these effects could facilitate and abbreviate the post-operative rehabilitation program and reduce re-rupture rate. The main limitations of this study are the relative short follow-up period and small number of patients studied.


Type-I Diabetes: Prevention of the Disease And Its Complications

         (Head 1997) Download

Type-I diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a chronic degenerative disease with complications which can be devastating. There is an increasing body of research suggesting that prevention of IDDM by the avoidance of cow’s milk and by the supplementation of niacinamide may be possible. This article will explore this research. The course the disease takes also may not be inevitable. Modification of diet and lifestyle factors as well as a comprehensive program of nutritional and botanical supplementation may help prevent the complications often encountered, such as neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, micro- and macroangiopathy, and cataracts. This article will review the research on specific nutrients, botanicals, dietary and lifestyle factors, and their application in type-I diabetes.

Cell-matrix interactions in aging: role of receptors and matricryptins

         (Labat-Robert 2004) Download

Extracellular matrix (ECM) has been a central topic in aging research for several years. Cell-matrix interactions extend the interest in this topic both for normal tissue homeostatic regulation as well as for its dysregulation in age-related diseases. A relatively new extension of this ever-increasing field of aging research concerns the recognition of the original biological activities exhibited by proteolytic fragments of matrix macromolecules. A number of such matricryptins were recently identified, some of them endowed with harmful effects for tissue function. Some of the breakdown products exert a positive feedback effect by upregulating the biosynthesis of the original macromolecule synthesis and/or the expression of degrading enzymes. This results in vicious circles which might well be involved in tissue aging. The examples detailed in this review concern fibronectin (FN) and elastin. A number of fibronectin fragments (Fn-fr) were shown to exhibit diverse activities including increasing tissue degradation, inflammation and tumor progression. Elastin degradation products acting as agonists on the elastin-laminin receptor can trigger harmful effects such as up-regulation of proteases and free radical production. Both macromolecules are at the center of autoamplifying vicious circles of potential importance for age-dependent modification of tissue function.


Pathology of the microcirculation in diabetes and alterations on intercellular matrix

         (Lagrue, Robert et al. 1979) Download

Proanthocyanidins rapidly stabilize the demineralized dentin layer

         (Liu, Dusevich et al. 2013) Download

While proanthocyanidins (PA) are effective in improving collagen's resistance to collagenolytic degradation, the direct incorporation of PA into an adhesive system is detrimental to the light-curing thereof. Conversely, the use of PA as a primer could circumvent this issue, but little is known about the efficacy of PA in stabilizing collagen when applied in a clinically relevant manner. This study investigated the pre- and post-digestion morphology of an acid-etched dentin collagen layer that underwent PA treatment for time periods on a scale of seconds. The null hypothesis, that there is no difference between the PA-treated and untreated control group, had to be rejected, since it was revealed that the untreated control could not survive 1 hr of exogenous collagenase digestion, while the PA-treated collagen could sustain at least 16 hrs of digestion with no perceptible changes in collagen structure. In addition, the stabilizing effect of the gold-standard cross-linker glutaraldehyde at comparable experimental conditions was found to be almost non-existent within the 5, 15, or 30 sec of cross-linking permitted. Therefore, PA have been proven to be extraordinarily efficient in stabilizing demineralized dentin collagen against enzymatic challenges in a clinically relevant setting, likely due to the non-covalent nature of their interaction with collagen molecules.

Effects of transdermal estrogen on collagen turnover at rest and in response to exercise in postmenopausal women

         (Pingel, Langberg et al. 2012) Download

Menopause is associated with loss of collagen content in the skin and tendon as well as accumulation of noncontractile tissue in skeletal muscle. The relative role of hormones and physical activity on these changes is not known. Accordingly, in a randomized, controlled, crossover study we investigated effects of transdermal estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on type I collagen synthesis in tendon and skeletal muscle in 11 postmenopausal women. Patches with estrogen (Evorel) were placed on the skin above the patellar tendons and compared with no patch (control period). On day 2 all subjects performed one-legged exercise, and thereafter the exercised leg (EX leg) was compared with the nonexercised leg (Rest leg). Microdialysis catheters were placed in front of the patellar tendons and in the vastus lateralis muscle of both legs at days 3 and 5. The collected dialysate was analyzed for procollagen type I NH(2)-terminal propeptide (PINP), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Neither loading (Rest leg vs. EX leg) nor treatment (control vs. ERT) influenced peritendinous PINP, whereas combined exercise and ERT enhanced muscle PINP after 72 h (interaction between loading and treatment P = 0.008). In neither skeletal muscle nor peritendinous fluid were IGF-I and IL-6 influenced by treatment or exercise. In conclusion, ERT was associated with enhanced synthesis of type I collagen in the skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. In perspective, this indicates that the availability of estrogen in postmenopausal women is important for repair of muscle damage or remodeling of the connective tissue within the skeletal muscle after exercise.

Effect of the novel low molecular weight hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage extract, BioCell Collagen, on improving osteoarthritis-related symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

         (Schauss, Stenehjem et al. 2012) Download

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a significant source of pain and disability. Current medical and surgical treatments can be costly and have serious side effects. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the tolerability and efficacy of BioCell Collagen (BCC), a low molecular weight dietary supplement consisting of hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage extract, in the treatment of OA symptoms. Patients (n = 80) in the study had physician-verified evidence of progressive OA in their hip and/or knee joint. Joint pain had been present for 3 months or longer at enrollment, and pain levels were 4 or higher at baseline as assessed by Physician Global Assessment scores. Subjects were divided into two groups and administered either 2 g of BCC or placebo for 70 days. Other outcome measurements included visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores taken on days 1, 35, and 70. The tolerability profile of the treatment group was comparable to that of the placebo. Intent-to-treat analysis showed that the treatment group, as compared to placebo, had a significant reduction of VAS pain on day 70 (p < 0.001) and of WOMAC scores on both days 35 (p = 0.017) and 70 (p < 0.001). The BCC group experienced a significant improvement in physical activities compared to the placebo group on days 35 (p = 0.007) and 70 (p < 0.001). BCC was well tolerated and found to be effective in managing OA-associated symptoms over the study period, thereby improving patient's activities of daily living. BCC can be considered a potential complement to current OA therapies.

Aging-related alterations in the extracellular matrix modulate the microenvironment and influence tumor progression

         (Sprenger, Plymate et al. 2010) Download

Age is the greatest risk factor for the development of epithelial cancers. In this minireview, we will examine key extracellular matrix and matricellular components, their changes with aging, and discuss how these alterations might influence the subsequent progression of cancer in the aged host. Because of the tight correlation between advanced age and the prevalence of prostate cancer, we will use prostate cancer as the model throughout this minireview.

Efficacy and tolerance of enzymatic hydrolysed collagen (EHC) vs. glucosamine sulphate (GS) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA)

         (Trc and Bohmova 2011) Download

This was a 13-week, multicentre, randomised, parallel, double-blind study. One hundred men and women volunteers aged >/= 40 years with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) were randomised to once daily enzymatic hydrolysed collagen (EHC) 10 g or glucosamine sulphate (GS) 1.5 g for 90 consecutive days. Follow-up took place after two weeks and after one, two and three months. Primary [visual analogue scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC Index)] and secondary outcomes variables, assessed at weeks two, four, eight and 12, were KOA pain intensity measured by quadruple visual analogue scales in the target knee, the WOMAC total score index, patient's and investigator's global assessments of disease activity, joint assessment, use of rescue medication (ibuprofen 400 mg tablets) and assessment of Quality of Life index (SF-36 Questionnaire). Safety and tolerability were also evaluated. Clear improvement was observed in both joint pain and symptoms in patients with KOA treated with EHC (Colatech(R)) and significant differences were observed. Mean reductions from baseline for EHC 10 g daily and GS 1.5 g, respectively, were KOA pain intensity reduction in the target knee for Colatech(R) (p < 0.05): WOMAC index decrease </= 15 points at the last visit (day 90) for Colatech(R) in 16 patients (34.04%) (p < 0.05) and for glucosamine in six patients (13.04%); total score index for painful joints: Colatech(R) 1.6 (p < 0.05) and glucosamine 1.8; total score index for swollen joints: Colatech(R) 0.5 (p < 0.05) and glucosamine 0.7; patient's global assessment of efficacy as the sum of improvement good + ideal: 80.8% for Colatech(R) and 46.6% for glucosamine (p < 0.05). EHC (Colatech(R)) showed superior improvement over GS in the SF-36 Questionnaire in the Physical Health Index (42.0 for Colatech and 40.0 for glucosamine). The incidence of adverse events was similar in both groups. Both EHC and GS were well tolerated.

The effects of two weeks of recombinant growth hormone administration on the response of IGF-I and N-terminal pro-peptide of collagen type III (P-III-NP) during a single bout of high resistance exercise in resistance trained young men

         (Velloso, Aperghis et al. 2013) Download

OBJECTIVE: Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is used by some athletes and body builders with the aim of enhancing performance, building muscle and improving physique. Detection of the misuse of rhGH has proved difficult for a number of reasons. One of these is the effect of preceding exercise. In this randomised, double blind placebo-controlled study, we determined the effects of rhGH administration in male amateur athletes on two candidate markers of rhGH abuse, IGF-I and N-terminal pro-peptide of collagen type III (P-III-NP), following a bout of weightlifting exercise. DESIGN: Sixteen men entered a four-week general weight training programme to homogenise their activity profile. They then undertook repeated bouts of standardised leg press weightlifting exercise (AHRET-acute heavy resistance exercise test). Blood samples were taken before and up to one hour after the AHRET. After the first laboratory visit (Test 1), the subjects were randomly assigned to receive daily injections of either rhGH (0.1 IU kg(-1) day(-1)) or placebo for two weeks. The AHRET was repeated after the two-week dosing period (Test 2) and a further test was undertaken following a one-week washout (Test 3). RESULTS: There was no effect of exercise on either IGF-I or P-III-NP in any test. Both markers were markedly elevated at Test 2 (p<0.001), with P-III-NP remaining elevated at Test 3 in the GH administration group (p<0.05). Application of the GH-2000 discriminant function positively identified GH administration in 17 of 40 blood samples taken at Test 2 from the rhGH group and none from the placebo group. CONCLUSION: The data show that rhGH results in elevated levels of IGF-I and P-III-NP in well-trained individuals and that leg press weightlifting exercise does not affect these markers. The GH-2000 discriminant function identified four of eight subjects taking rhGH with no false positive results.


Local administration of growth hormone stimulates tendon collagen synthesis in elderly men

         (Vestergaard, Jorgensen et al. 2012) Download

Tendon collagen content and circulating growth hormone (GH) are reduced in elderly. In a placebo-controlled, double-blinded study, we examined if local injections of rhGH enhance collagen synthesis in healthy elderly men (61 +/- 1 yr). Two injections of rhGH or saline (control) were injected into each of the patient's patellar tendons, respectively. Subsequently, tendon collagen fractional synthesis rate (FSR) and an indirect marker of type I collagen synthesis (PINP) were measured. Within the first 6 h after the last injections, a tendency towards a higher tendon collagen FSR was observed in 10 out of 12 subjects (P = 0.08). Similarly, PINP was higher 3-4 h after the last GH injection (P = 0.05). Serum IGF-I did not change from baseline, whereas peritendinous bioactive IGF-I was higher in the GH leg vs. control (P = 0.05). In conclusion, local injections of rhGH increase tendon collagen synthesis in humans, either directly or indirectly by increasing local bioactive IGF-I.

A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled phase III clinical trial of chicken type II collagen in rheumatoid arthritis

         (Wei, Zhang et al. 2009) Download

INTRODUCTION: Chicken type II collagen (CCII) is a protein extracted from the cartilage of chicken breast and exhibits intriguing possibilities for the treatment of autoimmune diseases by inducing oral tolerance. A 24-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, methotrexate (MTX)-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CCII in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Five hundred three RA patients were included in the study. Patients received either 0.1 mg daily of CCII (n = 326) or 10 mg once a week of MTX (n = 177) for 24 weeks. Each patient was evaluated for pain, morning stiffness, tender joint count, swollen joint count, health assessment questionnaire (HAQ), assessments by investigator and patient, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) by using the standard tools at baseline (week 0) and at weeks 12 and 24. Additionally, rheumatoid factor (RF) was evaluated at weeks 0 and 24. Measurement of a battery of biochemical parameters in serum, hematological parameters, and urine analysis was performed to evaluate the safety of CCII. RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-four patients (94.43%) completed the 24-week follow-up. In both groups, there were decreases in pain, morning stiffness, tender joint count, swollen joint count, HAQ, and assessments by investigator and patient, and all differences were statistically significant. In the MTX group, ESR and CRP decreased. RF did not change in either group. At 24 weeks, 41.55% of patients in the CCII group and 57.86% in the MTX group met the American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (ACR-20) and 16.89% and 30.82%, respectively, met the ACR 50% improvement criteria (ACR-50). Both response rates for ACR-20 and ACR-50 in the CCII group were lower than those of the MTX group, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The DAS28 (disease activity score using 28 joint counts) values of the two treatment groups were calculated, and there was a statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups (P < 0.05). Gastrointestinal complaints were common in both groups, but there were fewer and milder side effects in the CCII group than in the MTX group. The incidence of adverse events between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CCII is effective in the treatment of RA and is safe for human consumption. CCII exerts its beneficial effects by controlling inflammatory responses through inducing oral tolerance in RA patients. TRIALS REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registration number: ChiCTR-TRC-00000093.


References

Bruyere, O., B. Zegels, et al. (2012). "Effect of collagen hydrolysate in articular pain: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study." Complement Ther Med 20(3): 124-30. [PMID: 22500661]

Christensen, B., S. Dandanell, et al. (2011). "Effect of anti-inflammatory medication on the running-induced rise in patella tendon collagen synthesis in humans." J Appl Physiol (1985) 110(1): 137-41. [PMID: 21030675]

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