Colchicine Abstracts 3 – Cardiac

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Usefulness of colchicine in preventing recurrences of pericarditis.
            (Adler et al., 1994) Download
We report our experience with 8 patients with recurrent pericarditis who were successfully treated with colchicine.

Colchicine treatment for recurrent pericarditis. A decade of experience.
            (Adler et al., 1998) Download
BACKGROUND: The most troublesome complication of acute pericarditis is recurrent episodes of pericardial inflammation, occurring in 15% to 32% of cases. The cause of the recurrence is usually unknown, although in some cases it may be traced to viral infection or may be a consequence of coronary artery bypass grafting. The optimal method for prevention has not been fully established; accepted modalities include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, and pericardiectomy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on the proven efficacy of colchicine therapy for familial Mediterranean fever (recurrent polyserositis), several small studies have used colchicine successfully to prevent recurrence of acute pericarditis after failure of conventional treatment. Recently, we reported the results from the largest multicenter international study on 51 patients who were treated with colchicine to prevent further relapses and who were followed up for < or = 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: In light of new trial data that have accumulated in the past decade, we review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of colchicine for the prevention of recurrent episodes of pericarditis. Clinical and personal experience shows that colchicine may be an extremely promising adjunct to conventional treatment and may ultimately serve as the initial mode of treatment, especially in idiopathic cases.

Colchicine for pericarditis.
            (Alabed et al., 2014) Download
BACKGROUND:  Pericarditis is the inflammation of the pericardium, the membranous sac surrounding the heart. Recurrent pericarditis is the most common complication of acute pericarditis, causing severe and disabling chest pains. Recurrent pericarditis affects one in three patients with acute pericarditis within the first 18 months. Colchicine has been suggested to be beneficial in preventing recurrent pericarditis. OBJECTIVES:  To review all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assess the effects of colchicine alone or combined, compared to any other intervention to prevent further recurrences of pericarditis, in people with acute or recurrent pericarditis. SEARCH METHODS:  We searched the following bibliographic databases on 4 August 2014: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 7 of 12, 2014 on The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OVID, 1946 to July week 4, 2014), EMBASE (OVID, 1947 to 2014 week 31), and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science on Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) 1990 to 1 Aug 2014. We did not apply any language or time restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA:  RCTs of people with acute or recurrent pericarditis who are receiving colchicine compared to any other treatment, in order to prevent recurrences. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:  Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The first primary outcome was the time to recurrence, measured by calculating the hazard ratios (HRs). The second primary outcome was the adverse effects of colchicine. Secondary outcomes were the rate of recurrences at 6, 12 and 18 months, and symptom relief. MAIN RESULTS:  We included four RCTs, involving 564 participants in this review. We compared the effects of colchicine in addition to a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as ibuprofen, aspirin or indomethacin to the effects of the NSAID alone. Two comparable trials studied the effects of colchicine in 204 participants with recurrent pericarditis and two trials studied 360 people with acute pericarditis. All trials had a moderate quality for the primary outcomes. We identified two on-going trials; one of these trials examines acute pericarditis and the other assesses recurrent pericarditis.There was moderate quality evidence that colchicine reduces episodes of pericarditis in people with recurrent pericarditis over 18 months follow-up (HR 0.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24 to 0.58). It is expected that at 18 months, the number needed to treat (NNT) is 4. In people with acute pericarditis, there was moderate quality evidence that colchicine reduces recurrence (HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.61) at 18 months follow-up. Colchicine led to a greater chance of symptom relief at 72 hours (risk ratio (RR) 1.4; 95% CI 1.26 to 1.56; low quality evidence). Adverse effects were mainly gastrointestinal and included abdominal pain and diarrhoea. The pooled RR for adverse events was 1.26 (95% CI 0.75 to 2.12). While the number of people experiencing adverse effects was higher in the colchicine than the control groups (9% versus 7%), the quality of evidence was low owing to imprecision, and there was no statistically significant difference between the treatment groups (P = 0.42). There was moderate quality evidence that treatment with colchicine led to more people stopping treatment due to adverse events (RR 1.87; 95% CI 1.02 to 3.41). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:  Colchicine, as adjunctive therapy to NSAIDs, is effective in reducing the number of pericarditis recurrences in patients with recurrent pericarditis or acute pericarditis. However, evidence is based on a limited number of small trials. Patients with multiple resistant recurrences were not represented in any published or on-going trials, and it is these patients that are in the most need for treatment.

Colchicine use is associated with decreased prevalence of myocardial infarction in patients with gout.
            (Crittenden et al., 2012) Download
OBJECTIVE: The ability of antiinflammatory strategies to alter cardiovascular risk has not been rigorously examined. Colchicine is an antiinflammatory agent that affects macrophages, neutrophils, and endothelial cells, all of which are implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. We examined whether colchicine use was associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with gout. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of all patients with an International Classification of Diseases, 9th ed, code for gout in the electronic medical record (EMR) of the New York Harbor Healthcare System Veterans Affairs network and >/= 1 hospital visit between August 2007 and August 2008. Hospital pharmacy data were used to identify patients who had filled at least 1 colchicine prescription versus those who had not. Demographics and CV comorbidities were collected by EMR review. The primary outcome was diagnosis of MI. Secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality and C-reactive protein (CRP) level. RESULTS: In total, 1288 gout patients were identified. Colchicine (n = 576) and no colchicine (n = 712) groups had similar baseline demographics and serum urate levels. Prevalence of MI was 1.2% in the colchicine versus 2.6% in the no-colchicine group (p = 0.03). Colchicine users also had fewer deaths and lower CRP levels, although these did not achieve statistical significance. Colchicine effects persisted when allopurinol users were excluded from the analysis. CONCLUSION: In this hypothesis-generating study, gout patients who took colchicine had a significantly lower prevalence of MI and exhibited trends toward reduced all-cause mortality and lower CRP level versus those who did not take colchicine.

Recurrent pericarditis. Relief with colchicine.
            (Guindo et al., 1990) Download
Recurrence is one of the major complications of pericarditis. Treatment of recurrence is often difficult, and immunosuppressive drugs or surgery may be necessary. We conducted an open-label prospective study of nine patients (seven men and two women; age, 18-64 years; mean age, 41.7 +/- 13.7 years). Patients were treated with colchicine (1 mg/day) to prevent recurrences. All patients had suffered at least three relapses despite treatment with acetylsalicylic acid, indomethacin, prednisone, or a combination. Pericarditis was classified as idiopathic in five patients, postpericardiotomy in two, post-myocardial infarction in one, and associated with disseminated lupus erythematosus in one. For statistical analysis, we conducted a paired comparison design (Student's t test). All patients treated with colchicine responded favorably to therapy. Prednisone was discontinued in all patients after 2-6 weeks (mean, 26.33 +/- 10.9 days), and colchicine alone was continued. After a mean follow-up of 24.3 months (minimum, 10 months; maximum, 54 months), no recurrences were observed in any patient; there was a significant difference between the symptom-free periods before and after treatment with colchicine (p less than 0.002). Our study suggests that colchicine may be useful in avoiding recurrence of pericarditis, although these results need to be confirmed in a larger, double-blind study.

Colchicine in addition to conventional therapy for acute pericarditis: results of the COlchicine for acute PEricarditis (COPE) trial.
            (Imazio et al., 2005) Download
BACKGROUND: Colchicine is effective and safe for the treatment and prevention of recurrent pericarditis and might ultimately serve as the initial mode of treatment, especially in idiopathic cases. The aim of this work was to verify the safety and efficacy of colchicine as an adjunct to conventional therapy for the treatment of the first episode of acute pericarditis. METHODS AND RESULTS: A prospective, randomized, open-label design was used. A total of 120 patients (mean age 56.9+/-18.8 years, 54 males) with a first episode of acute pericarditis (idiopathic, viral, postpericardiotomy syndromes, and connective tissue diseases) were randomly assigned to conventional treatment with aspirin (group I) or conventional treatment plus colchicine 1.0 to 2.0 mg for the first day and then 0.5 to 1.0 mg/d for 3 months (group II). Corticosteroid therapy was restricted to patients with aspirin contraindications or intolerance. The primary end point was recurrence rate. During the 2873 patient-month follow-up, colchicine significantly reduced the recurrence rate (recurrence rates at 18 months were, respectively, 10.7% versus 32.3%; P=0.004; number needed to treat=5) and symptom persistence at 72 hours (respectively, 11.7% versus 36.7%; P=0.003). After multivariate analysis, corticosteroid use (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.21 to 15.25; P=0.024) was an independent risk factor for recurrences. Colchicine was discontinued in 5 cases (8.3%) because of diarrhea. No serious adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Colchicine plus conventional therapy led to a clinically important and statistically significant benefit over conventional treatment, decreasing the recurrence rate in patients with a first episode of acute pericarditis. Corticosteroid therapy given in the index attack can favor the occurrence of recurrences.


 

Colchicine reduces postoperative atrial fibrillation: results of the Colchicine for the Prevention of the Postpericardiotomy Syndrome (COPPS) atrial fibrillation substudy.
            (Imazio et al., 2011) Download
BACKGROUND: Inflammation and pericarditis may be contributing factors for postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF), and both are potentially affected by antiinflammatory drugs and colchicine, which has been shown to be safe and efficacious for the prevention of pericarditis and the postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS). The aim of the Colchicine for the Prevention of the Post-Pericardiotomy Syndrome (COPPS) POAF substudy was to test the efficacy and safety of colchicine for the prevention of POAF after cardiac surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: The COPPS POAF substudy included 336 patients (mean age, 65.7+/-12.3 years; 69% male) of the COPPS trial, a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial. Substudy patients were in sinus rhythm before starting the intervention (placebo/colchicine 1.0 mg twice daily starting on postoperative day 3 followed by a maintenance dose of 0.5 mg twice daily for 1 month in patients >/=70 kg, halved doses for patients <70 kg or intolerant to the highest dose). The substudy primary end point was the incidence of POAF on intervention at 1 month. Despite well-balanced baseline characteristics, patients on colchicine had a reduced incidence of POAF (12.0% versus 22.0%, respectively; P=0.021; relative risk reduction, 45%; number needed to treat, 11) with a shorter in-hospital stay (9.4+/-3.7 versus 10.3+/-4.3 days; P=0.040) and rehabilitation stay (12.1+/-6.1 versus 13.9+/-6.5 days; P=0.009). Side effects were similar in the study groups. CONCLUSION: Colchicine seems safe and efficacious in the reduction of POAF with the potentiality of halving the complication and reducing the hospital stay.

A randomized trial of colchicine for acute pericarditis.
            (Imazio et al., 2013) Download
BACKGROUND: Colchicine is effective for the treatment of recurrent pericarditis. However, conclusive data are lacking regarding the use of colchicine during a first attack of acute pericarditis and in the prevention of recurrent symptoms. METHODS: In a multicenter, double-blind trial, eligible adults with acute pericarditis were randomly assigned to receive either colchicine (at a dose of 0.5 mg twice daily for 3 months for patients weighing >70 kg or 0.5 mg once daily for patients weighing </=70 kg) or placebo in addition to conventional antiinflammatory therapy with aspirin or ibuprofen. The primary study outcome was incessant or recurrent pericarditis. RESULTS: A total of 240 patients were enrolled, and 120 were randomly assigned to each of the two study groups. The primary outcome occurred in 20 patients (16.7%) in the colchicine group and 45 patients (37.5%) in the placebo group (relative risk reduction in the colchicine group, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.72; number needed to treat, 4; P<0.001). Colchicine reduced the rate of symptom persistence at 72 hours (19.2% vs. 40.0%, P=0.001), the number of recurrences per patient (0.21 vs. 0.52, P=0.001), and the hospitalization rate (5.0% vs. 14.2%, P=0.02). Colchicine also improved the remission rate at 1 week (85.0% vs. 58.3%, P<0.001). Overall adverse effects and rates of study-drug discontinuation were similar in the two study groups. No serious adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute pericarditis, colchicine, when added to conventional antiinflammatory therapy, significantly reduced the rate of incessant or recurrent pericarditis. (Funded by former Azienda Sanitaria Locale 3 of Turin [now Azienda Sanitaria Locale 2] and Acarpia; ICAP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00128453.).

Colchicine for prevention of postpericardiotomy syndrome and postoperative atrial fibrillation: the COPPS-2 randomized clinical trial.
            (Imazio et al., 2014) Download
IMPORTANCE:  Postpericardiotomy syndrome, postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF), and postoperative effusions may be responsible for increased morbidity and health care costs after cardiac surgery. Postoperative use of colchicine prevented these complications in a single trial. OBJECTIVE:  To determine the efficacy and safety of perioperative use of oral colchicine in reducing postpericardiotomy syndrome, postoperative AF, and postoperative pericardial or pleural effusions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:  Investigator-initiated, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial among 360 consecutive candidates for cardiac surgery enrolled in 11 Italian centers between March 2012 and March 2014. At enrollment, mean age of the trial participants was 67.5 years (SD, 10.6 years), 69% were men, and 36% had planned valvular surgery. Main exclusion criteria were absence of sinus rhythm at enrollment, cardiac transplantation, and contraindications to colchicine. INTERVENTIONS:  Patients were randomized to receive placebo (n=180) or colchicine (0.5 mg twice daily in patients ≥70 kg or 0.5 mg once daily in patients <70 kg; n=180) starting between 48 and 72 hours before surgery and continued for 1 month after surgery. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:  Occurrence of postpericardiotomy syndrome within 3 months; main secondary study end points were postoperative AF and pericardial or pleural effusion. RESULTS:  The primary end point of postpericardiotomy syndrome occurred in 35 patients (19.4%) assigned to colchicine and in 53 (29.4%) assigned to placebo (absolute difference, 10.0%; 95% CI, 1.1%-18.7%; number needed to treat = 10). There were no significant differences between the colchicine and placebo groups for the secondary end points of postoperative AF (colchicine, 61 patients [33.9%]; placebo, 75 patients [41.7%]; absolute difference, 7.8%; 95% CI, -2.2% to 17.6%) or postoperative pericardial/pleural effusion (colchicine, 103 patients [57.2%]; placebo, 106 patients [58.9%]; absolute difference, 1.7%; 95% CI, -8.5% to 11.7%), although there was a reduction in postoperative AF in the prespecified on-treatment analysis (placebo, 61/148 patients [41.2%]; colchicine, 38/141 patients [27.0%]; absolute difference, 14.2%; 95% CI, 3.3%-24.7%). Adverse events occurred in 21 patients (11.7%) in the placebo group vs 36 (20.0%) in the colchicine group (absolute difference, 8.3%; 95% CI; 0.76%-15.9%; number needed to harm = 12), but discontinuation rates were similar. No serious adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:  Among patients undergoing cardiac surgery, perioperative use of colchicine compared with placebo reduced the incidence of postpericardiotomy syndrome but not of postoperative AF or postoperative pericardial/pleural effusion. The increased risk of gastrointestinal adverse effects reduced the potential benefits of colchicine in this setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION:  clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01552187.

Colchicine for the prevention of recurrent pericarditis.
            (Markel et al., 2008) Download
The most troublesome complication of acute pericarditis is recurrent episodes of pericardial inflammation, which occur in 15-32% of cases. It was recently found that viral infection has a major role, but in many cases the cause is unknown. The optimal method for prevention has not been fully established; accepted modalities include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, and pericardiectomy. Based on the proven efficacy of colchicine in familial Mediterranean fever, several small and large-scale international clinical trials have shown the beneficial effect of colchicine therapy in preventing recurrent pericarditis. Indeed, colchicine-treated patients consistently display significantly fewer recurrences, longer symptom-free periods, and even when attacks occur they are weaker and shorter in nature. It was also found that pretreatment with corticosteroids substantially attenuates the efficacy of colchicine, as evidenced by significantly more recurrence episodes and longer therapy periods. Colchicine is a safe and effective modality for the treatment and prevention of recurrent pericarditis, especially as an adjunct to other modalities, since it provides a sustained benefit superior to all current modalities. The safety profile seems superior to other drugs such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs.

Treatment of recurrent pericarditis with colchicine before using corticosteroids.
            (Millaire and Ducloux, 1993) Download
Our series of patients has now reached 19, who had a mean follow-up of 36 months. Except for one patient, recurrent pericarditis was successfully treated with colchicine without requiring corticosteroids.


 

Colchicine for recurrent pericarditis.
            (Rodriguez de la Serna et al., 1987) Download
Three patients with recurrent pericarditis due to systemic lupus erythematosis were in a trial of colchicine 1 mg/day. The response was spectacular: the patients have been recurrence free for 15, 24 and 36 months, and steroid treatment was withdrawn 2 months after colchicine was started. The maintenance dose was reduced to 0.5 mg daily. No side effects have been observed.

 


 

References

Adler, Y, et al. (1994), ‘Usefulness of colchicine in preventing recurrences of pericarditis.’, Am J Cardiol, 73 (12), 916-17. PubMedID: 8184826
Adler, Y, et al. (1998), ‘Colchicine treatment for recurrent pericarditis. A decade of experience.’, Circulation, 97 (21), 2183-85. PubMedID: 9626180
Alabed, S, et al. (2014), ‘Colchicine for pericarditis.’, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 8 CD010652. PubMedID: 25164988
Crittenden, DB, et al. (2012), ‘Colchicine use is associated with decreased prevalence of myocardial infarction in patients with gout.’, J Rheumatol, 39 (7), 1458-64. PubMedID: 22660810
Guindo, J, et al. (1990), ‘Recurrent pericarditis. Relief with colchicine.’, Circulation, 82 (4), 1117-20. PubMedID: 2205414
Imazio, M, et al. (2005), ‘Colchicine in addition to conventional therapy for acute pericarditis: results of the COlchicine for acute PEricarditis (COPE) trial.’, Circulation, 112 (13), 2012-16. PubMedID: 16186437
Imazio, M, et al. (2011), ‘Colchicine reduces postoperative atrial fibrillation: results of the Colchicine for the Prevention of the Postpericardiotomy Syndrome (COPPS) atrial fibrillation substudy.’, Circulation, 124 (21), 2290-95. PubMedID: 22090167
Imazio, M, et al. (2013), ‘A randomized trial of colchicine for acute pericarditis.’, N Engl J Med, 369 (16), 1522-28. PubMedID: 23992557
Imazio, M, et al. (2014), ‘Colchicine for prevention of postpericardiotomy syndrome and postoperative atrial fibrillation: the COPPS-2 randomized clinical trial.’, JAMA, 312 (10), 1016-23. PubMedID: 25172965
Markel, G, et al. (2008), ‘Colchicine for the prevention of recurrent pericarditis.’, Isr Med Assoc J, 10 (1), 69-72. PubMedID: 18300579
Millaire, A and G Ducloux (1993), ‘Treatment of recurrent pericarditis with colchicine before using corticosteroids.’, Eur Heart J, 14 (10), 1438. PubMedID: 8262096
Rodriguez de la Serna, A, et al. (1987), ‘Colchicine for recurrent pericarditis.’, Lancet, 2 (8574), 1517. PubMedID: 2892065