Coconut Abstracts 1

© 2010

The control of hypertension by use of coconut water and mauby: two tropical food drinks

            (Alleyne, Roache et al. 2005) Download

In this study, the authors investigated the effect of regular consumption of two tropical food drinks, coconut (Cocos nucifera) water and mauby (Colubrina arborescens), on the control of hypertension. Twenty-eight hypertensive subjects were assigned to four equal groups and their systolic and diastolic blood pressures recorded for two weeks before and then for another two weeks while receiving one of four interventions. One group (the control) received bottled drinking water, the second group received coconut water, the third received mauby and the fourth group, a mixture of coconut water and mauby. Significant decreases in the mean systolic blood pressure were observed for 71%, 40% and 43% respectively of the groups receiving the coconut water, mauby and the mixture (p < or = 0.05). For these groups, the respective proportions showing significant decreases in the mean diastolic pressure were 29%, 40% and 57%. For the group receiving the mixture, the largest decreases in mean systolic and mean diastolic pressure were 24 mmHg and 15 mmHg respectively; these were approximately double the largest values seen with the single interventions.

Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity

            (Assuncao, Ferreira et al. 2009) Download

The effects of dietary supplementation with coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting waist circumferences (WC) >88 cm (abdominal obesity) were investigated. The randomised, double-blind, clinical trial involved 40 women aged 20-40 years. Groups received daily dietary supplements comprising 30 mL of either soy bean oil (group S; n = 20) or coconut oil (group C; n = 20) over a 12-week period, during which all subjects were instructed to follow a balanced hypocaloric diet and to walk for 50 min per day. Data were collected 1 week before (T1) and 1 week after (T2) dietary intervention. Energy intake and amount of carbohydrate ingested by both groups diminished over the trial, whereas the consumption of protein and fibre increased and lipid ingestion remained unchanged. At T1 there were no differences in biochemical or anthropometric characteristics between the groups, whereas at T2 group C presented a higher level of HDL (48.7 +/- 2.4 vs. 45.00 +/- 5.6; P = 0.01) and a lower LDL:HDL ratio (2.41 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.8; P = 0.04). Reductions in BMI were observed in both groups at T2 (P < 0.05), but only group C exhibited a reduction in WC (P = 0.005). Group S presented an increase (P < 0.05) in total cholesterol, LDL and LDL:HDL ratio, whilst HDL diminished (P = 0.03). Such alterations were not observed in group C. It appears that dietetic supplementation with coconut oil does not cause dyslipidemia and seems to promote a reduction in abdominal obesity.

Control of head lice with a coconut-derived emulsion shampoo

            (Connolly, Stafford et al. 2009) Download

Effects of coconut oil on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats

            (de Lourdes Arruzazabala, Molina et al. 2007) Download

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the benign uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland, leading to difficulty with urination. Saw palmetto lipid extracts (SPLE), used to treat BPH, have been shown to inhibit prostate 5a-reductase, and some major components, such as lauric, myristic and oleic acids also inhibit this enzyme. Coconut oil (CO) is also rich in fatty acids, mainly lauric and myristic acids. We investigated whether CO prevents testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia (PH) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were distributed into seven groups (10 rats each). A negative control group were injected with soya oil; six groups were injected with testosterone (3 mg kg(-1)) to induce PH: a positive control group, and five groups treated orally with SPLE (400 mg kg(-1)), CO or sunflower oil (SO) (400 and 800 mg kg(-1)). Treatments were given for 14 days. Rats were weighed before treatment and weekly thereafter. Rats were then killed and the prostates were removed and weighed. CO (400 and 800 mg kg(-1)), SPLE (400 mg kg(-1)) and SO at 800 mg kg(-1), but not at 400 mg kg(-1), significantly reduced the increase in prostate weight (PW) and PW:body weight (BW) ratio induced by testosterone (% inhibition 61.5%, 82.0%, 43.8% and 28.2%, respectively). Since CO and SPLE, but not SO, contain appreciable concentrations of lauric and myristic acids, these results could be attributed to this fact. In conclusion, this study shows that CO reduced the increase of both PW and PW:BW ratio, markers of testosterone-induced PH in rats.

Dietary coconut oil increases conjugated linoleic acid-induced body fat loss in mice independent of essential fatty acid deficiency

            (Hargrave, Azain et al. 2005) Download

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induces a body fat loss that is enhanced in mice fed coconut oil (CO), which lacks essential fatty acids (EFA). Our objective was to determine if CO enhancement of CLA-induced body fat loss is due to the lack of EFA. The CLA-EFA interaction was tested by feeding CO and fat free (FF) diets for varying times with and without replenishment of individual EFA. Mice fed CO during only the 2-week CLA-feeding period did not differ from control mice in their adipose EFA content but still tended (P=0.06) to be leaner than mice fed soy oil (SO). Mice raised on CO or FF diets and fed CLA were leaner than the SO+CLA-fed mice (P<0.01). Mice raised on CO and then replenished with linoleic, linolenic, or arachidonic acid were leaner when fed CLA than mice raised on SO (P<0.001). Body fat of CO+CLA-fed mice was not affected by EFA addition. In summary, CO-fed mice not lacking in tissue EFA responded more to CLA than SO-fed mice. Also, EFA addition to CO diets did not alter the enhanced response to CLA. Therefore, the increased response to CLA in mice raised on CO or FF diets appears to be independent of a dietary EFA deficiency.

Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil

         (Marina, Man et al. 2009) Download

The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

The anti-inflammatory properties of safflower oil and coconut oil may be mediated by their respective concentrations of vitamin E

            (Masterjohn 2007) Download

Wet and dry extraction of coconut oil: impact on lipid metabolic and antioxidant status in cholesterol coadministered rats

            (Nevin and Rajamohan 2009) Download

Because coconut oil extracted by wet process (virgin coconut oil, VCO) is gaining popularity among consumers, this study was conducted to evaluate VCO compared with coconut oil extracted by dry process (copra oil, CO) for their influence on lipid parameters, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant status in rats coadministered with cholesterol. VCO, CO, and cholesterol were fed in a semi-synthetic diet to 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats for 45 days. After the experimental period, lipid and lipid peroxide levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were observed. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the polyphenolic fraction from VCO and CO were also analyzed. The results showed that lipid and lipid peroxide levels were lower in VCO-fed animals than in animals fed either CO or cholesterol alone. Antioxidant enzyme activities in VCO-fed animals were comparable with those in control animals. Although the fatty acid profiles of both oils were similar, a significantly higher level of unsaponifiable components was observed in VCO. Polyphenols from VCO also showed significant radical-scavenging activity compared with those from CO. This study clearly indicates the potential benefits of VCO over CO in maintaining lipid metabolism and antioxidant status. These effects may be attributed in part to the presence of biologically active minor unsaponifiable components.

Consumption of saturated fat impairs the anti-inflammatory properties of high-density lipoproteins and endothelial function

            (Nicholls, Lundman et al. 2006) Download

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary fatty acids on the anti-inflammatory properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and vascular function. BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fatty acids on atherogenesis remains uncertain. METHODS: Fourteen adults consumed an isocaloric meal containing either a polyunsaturated or a saturated fat on 2 occasions. The effects of post-prandial HDL on endothelial cell expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and microvascular reactivity were assessed before and 3 and 6 h after the meal. RESULTS: Plasma triglycerides, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids rose after the meals. The HDL collected 6 h after the saturated meal were less effective than HDL isolated from fasting plasma in terms of their ability to inhibit expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, whereas HDL collected 6 h after the polyunsaturated meal had an inhibitory activity that was greater than that of HDL collected from fasting plasma (p < 0.004 and p = 0.01 for comparison of effect of meals on ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, respectively). Post-hyperemic microvascular flow significantly increased at 3 h after the polyunsaturated meal by 45 +/- 14% and by 21 +/- 11% after the saturated meal. The FMD decreased 3 h after the saturated meal by 2.2 +/- 0.9% (p< 0.05 compared with baseline) and by 0.9 +/- 1% after the polyunsaturated meal. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of a saturated fat reduces the anti-inflammatory potential of HDL and impairs arterial endothelial function. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory activity of HDL improves after consumption of polyunsaturated fat. These findings highlight novel mechanisms by which different dietary fatty acids may influence key atherogenic processes.

Antiulcerogenic effects of coconut (Cocos nucifera) extract in rats

            (Nneli and Woyike 2008) Download

A warm water crude extract of coconut milk and a coconut water dispersion were investigated for their antiulcerogenic effects in male Wistar albino rats. Ulcers were induced in the male rats by subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (40 mg/kg) using standard procedures. The ulcer inhibition rate (UIR) was taken as a measure of the cytoprotection offered by test substances. Coconut milk (2 mL daily oral feeding) produced a stronger percentage (54%) reduction in the mean ulcer area than coconut water (39%). The effect of coconut milk was similar to the effect of sucralfate that reduced the mean ulcer area by 56% in this study. Sucralfate is a conventional cytoprotective agent. The results showed that coconut milk and water via macroscopic observation had protective effects on the ulcerated gastric mucosa. It is concluded that coconut milk offered stronger protection on indomethacin-induced ulceration than coconut water in rats.

Dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG has long-lasting cognition-enhancing effects in aged dogs

            (Pan, Larson et al. 2010) Download

The present study focused on the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG (MCT) will improve cognitive function in aged dogs by providing the brain with energy in the form of ketones. Aged Beagle dogs were subjected to a baseline battery of cognitive tests, which were used to establish cognitively equivalent control or treatment groups. The dogs in the treatment group were maintained on a diet supplemented with 5.5 % MCT. After an initial wash-in period, all the dogs were tested with a battery of cognitive test protocols, which assessed sequentially landmark discrimination learning ability, egocentric visuospatial function and attention. The groups were maintained on the diets for 8 months. The MCT-supplemented group showed significantly better performance in most of the test protocols than the control group. The group differences also varied as a function of task difficulty, with the more difficult task showing greater supplementation effects than the easier tasks. The group given the MCT supplement showed significantly elevated levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate, a ketone body. These results indicate, first, that long-term supplementation with MCT can have cognition-improving effects, and second, that MCT supplementation increases circulating levels of ketones. The results support the hypothesis that brain function of aged dogs can be improved by MCT supplementation, which provides the brain with an alternative energy source.

Young coconut juice significantly reduces histopathological changes in the brain that are induced by hormonal imbalance: a possible implication to postmenopausal women

            (Radenahmad, Saleh et al. 2009) Download

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Some degenerative diseases of the nervous system have been linked to hormonal imbalance in postmenopausal women. It is argued that young coconut juice (YCJ) could have some estrogen-like characteristics, but this is still debatable. Our aim was to investigate this argument, and to examine whether YCJ has any neuroprotective effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four groups of female rats (10 in each group) were included in this study. These included sham-operated, overiectomized (ovx), ovx and receiving estradiol benzoate (EB) injections intraperitoneally, and ovx and receiving YCJ orally. At the end of the five-week study, the rats were sacrificed, and their serum estradiol (E2) level was measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Moreover, the rat brains were excised, and the cortical pyramidal neurons were examined using markers of neuronal cell death, namely anti-neurofilament (NF200) and anti-parvalbumin (PV) antibodies. RESULTS: Our results showed that the rat group which received YCJ had its serum E2 level significantly (P<0.05) higher than the ovx group which did not receive any treatment, and the sham-operated group. A similar trend was observed with the group which received EB injections, but no significant difference was present when the latter was compared with the sham-operated group. In addition, a significant reduction in neuronal cell death was observed in the YCJ-treated group, as compared to the ovx group which did not receive any treatment. This was indicated by the significantly (P<0.05) higher number of neurons which were immunopositive for NF200 and PV. Interestingly, the number of these neurons was also significantly (P<0.05) higher in the YCJ group, as compared to the EB group. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the argument that YCJ has estrogen-like characteristics, and it also adds more evidence to the observation that hormonal imbalance could induce some brain pathologies in females.

Young coconut juice, a potential therapeutic agent that could significantly reduce some pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease: novel findings

            (Radenahmad, Saleh et al. 2010) Download

Brains from ovariectomised (ovx) rats can display features similar to those observed in menopausal women with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and oestrogen seems to play a key role. Preliminary studies on young coconut juice (YCJ) have reported the presence of oestrogen-like components in it. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of YCJ on the AD pathological changes in the brains of ovx rats. Rat groups included sham-operated, ovx, ovx+oestradiol benzoate (EB) and ovx+YCJ. Brain sections (4 mum) were taken and were immunostained with beta-amyloid (Abeta) 1-42, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (an intermediate neurofilament of astrocytes) and Tau-1 antibodies. Abeta 1-42, GFAP and Tau-1 are considered as reliable biomarkers of amyloidosis, astrogliosis and tauopathy (neurofibrillary tangles), respectively, which in turn are characteristic features associated with AD. The serum oestradiol (E2) level was measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay technique. YCJ restored the serum E2 to levels significantly (P < 0.001) higher than that of the ovx group, and even that of the sham group. Abeta deposition was significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced in the cerebral cortex of the YCJ group, as compared with the ovx group and with the sham and ovx+EB groups (P < 0.01). A similar trend was observed in relation to GFAP expression in the cerebral cortex and to Tau-1 expression in the hippocampus. This is a novel study demonstrating that YCJ could have positive future implications in the prevention and treatment of AD in menopausal women.

Hypolipidemic effect of oils with balanced amounts of fatty acids obtained by blending and interesterification of coconut oil with rice bran oil or sesame oil

            (Reena and Lokesh 2007) Download

Blended oils comprising coconut oil (CNO) and rice bran oil (RBO) or sesame oil (SESO) with saturated fatty acid/monounsaturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid at a ratio of 1:1:1 and polyunsaturated/saturated ratio of 0.8-1 enriched with nutraceuticals were prepared. Blended oils (B) were subjected to interesterification reaction using sn-1,3 specific Lipase from Rhizomucor miehei. Fatty acid composition and nutraceutical contents of the blended oil were not affected by interesterification reaction. Male Wistar rats were fed with AIN-76 diet containing 10% fat from CNO, RBO, SESO, CNO+RBO blend (B), CNO+SESO(B), CNO+RBO interesterified (I), or CNO+SESO(I) for 60 days. Serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols (TAGs) were reduced by 23.8, 32.4, and 13.9%, respectively, in rats fed CNO+RBO(B) and by 20.5, 34.1, and 12.9%, respectively, in rats fed CNO+SESO(B) compared to rats given CNO. Rats fed interesterified oils showed a decrease in serum TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and TAGs in CNO+RBO(I) by 35, 49.1, and 23.2 and by 33.3, 47, and 19.8% in CNO+SESO(I), respectively, compared to rats given CNO. Compared to rats fed CNO+RBO blended oils, rats on CNO+RBO interesterified oil showed a further decrease of 14.6, 24.7, and 10% in TC, LDL-C, and TAG. Rats fed CNO+SESO interesterified oils showed a decrease in serum TC, LDL-C, and TAG by 16.2, 19.6, and 7.8%, respectively, compared to rats given blended oils of CNO+SESO (B). Liver lipid analysis also showed significant change in the TC and TAG concentration in rats fed blended and interesterified oils of CNO+RBO and CNO+SESO compared to the rats given CNO. The present study suggests that feeding fats containing blended oils with balanced fatty acids lowers serum and liver lipids. Interesterified oils prepared using Lipase have a further lowering effect on serum and liver lipids even though the fatty acid composition of blended and interesterified oils remained same. These studies indicated that the atherogenic potentials of a saturated fatty acid containing CNO can be significantly decreased by blending with an oil rich in unsaturated lipids in appropriate amounts and interesterification of blended oil.

Lowering of platelet aggregation and serum eicosanoid levels in rats fed with a diet containing coconut oil blends with rice bran oil or sesame oil

            (Reena, Krishnakantha et al. 2010) Download

The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of feeding a diet containing blended and interesterified fat to rats on thrombotic parameters such as platelet aggregation and eicosanoid levels in blood serum. Male Wistar rats were fed with a diet containing 10% fat from native; coconut oil (CNO), rice bran oil (RBO), sesame oil (SESO), blended; (CNO+RBO blend (B), CNO+SESO(B), or interesterified oils; CNO+RBO interesterified (I), CNO+SESO(I) for a period of 60 days. Rats given a diet containing blended oil of CNO+RBO(B) or CNO+SESO(B) showed a decrease in rate of ADP induced aggregation of platelets by 34% and 30%, respectively, compared to those fed with CNO. Aggregation induced by collagen was also reduced similarly in rats given blended or interesterified oils of CNO with RBO or SESO. Feeding interesterified oil CNO+RBO(I), and CNO+SESO(I) to rats also resulted in decrease in rate of ADP induced platelet aggregation by 37% and 34%, respectively, compared to rats fed with CNO. The prostacyclin/thromboxane ratio in serum was increased in rats fed with blended and interesterified oil compared to those fed with CNO. These results indicated that CNO when blended or interesterified with RBO or SESO exhibit antithrombotic effects as compared to the effect observed by feeding rats with CNO.

Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on cognition in memory-impaired adults

            (Reger, Henderson et al. 2004) Download

Glucose is the brain's principal energy substrate. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), there appears to be a pathological decrease in the brain's ability to use glucose. Neurobiological evidence suggests that ketone bodies are an effective alternative energy substrate for the brain. Elevation of plasma ketone body levels through an oral dose of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) may improve cognitive functioning in older adults with memory disorders. On separate days, 20 subjects with AD or mild cognitive impairment consumed a drink containing emulsified MCTs or placebo. Significant increases in levels of the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) were observed 90 min after treatment (P=0.007) when cognitive tests were administered. beta-OHB elevations were moderated by apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype (P=0.036). For 4+ subjects, beta-OHB levels continued to rise between the 90 and 120 min blood draws in the treatment condition, while the beta-OHB levels of 4- subjects held constant (P<0.009). On cognitive testing, MCT treatment facilitated performance on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog) for 4- subjects, but not for 4+ subjects (P=0.04). Higher ketone values were associated with greater improvement in paragraph recall with MCT treatment relative to placebo across all subjects (P=0.02). Additional research is warranted to determine the therapeutic benefits of MCTs for patients with AD and how APOE-4 status may mediate beta-OHB efficacy.

Beneficial effects of coconut water feeding on lipid metabolism in cholesterol-fed rats

            (Sandhya and Rajamohan 2006) Download

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of coconut water feeding in cholesterol-fed rats. Male albino rats were fed tender coconut water and mature coconut water at a dose level of 4 mL/100 g of body weight. Cholesterol feeding caused a marked increase in total cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) + low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides in serum. Administration of coconut water counteracts the increase in total cholesterol, VLDL + LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was higher. Lipid levels in the tissues viz. liver, heart, kidney, and aorta were markedly decreased in cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with coconut water. Feeding coconut water resulted in increased activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in liver, lipoprotein lipase in heart and adipose tissue, and plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase, while lipogenic enzymes showed decreased activities. An increased rate of cholesterol conversion to bile acid and an increased excretion of bile acids and neutral sterols were observed in rats fed coconut water. Histopathological studies of liver and aorta revealed much less fatty accumulation in these tissues in cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with coconut water. Feeding coconut water resulted in increased plasma L-arginine content, urinary nitrite level, and nitric oxide synthase activity. These results indicate that both tender and mature coconut water has beneficial effects on serum and tissue lipid parameters in rats fed cholesterol-containing diet.

Comparative evaluation of the hypolipidemic effects of coconut water and lovastatin in rats fed fat-cholesterol enriched diet

            (Sandhya and Rajamohan 2008) Download

The coconut water presents a series of nutritional and therapeutic properties, being a natural, acid and sterile solution, which contains several biologically active components, l-arginine, ascorbic acid, minerals such as calcium, magnesium and potassium, which have beneficial effects on lipid levels. Recent studies in our laboratory showed that both tender and mature coconut water feeding significantly (P<0.05) reduced hyperlipidemia in cholesterol fed rats [Sandhya, V.G., Rajamohan, T., 2006. Beneficial effects of coconut water feeding on lipid metabolism in cholesterol fed rats. J. Med. Food 9, 400-407]. The current study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of coconut water (4ml/100g body weight) with a lipid lowering drug, lovastatin (0.1/100g diet) in rats fed fat-cholesterol enriched diet ad libitum for 45 days. Coconut water or lovastatin supplementation lowered the levels of serum total cholesterol, VLDL+LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and increased HDL cholesterol in experimental rats (P<0.05). Coconut water feeding decreased activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes and increased HMG CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase activity (P<0.05). Incorporation of radioactive acetate into free and ester cholesterol in the liver were higher in coconut water treated rats. Coconut water supplementation increased hepatic bile acid and fecal bile acids and neutral sterols (P<0.05). Coconut water has lipid lowering effect similar to the drug lovastatin in rats fed fat-cholesterol enriched diet.

Successful treatment of acute aluminium phosphide poisoning: possible benefit of coconut oil

            (Shadnia, Rahimi et al. 2005) Download

Aluminium phosphide is used to control rodents and pests in grain storage facilities. It produces phosphine gas, which is a mitochondrial poison. Unfortunately, there is no known antidote for aluminium phosphide intoxication, but our recent experience with a case showed that rapid prevention of absorption by coconut oil might be helpful. In the present case, we used the same protocol in a 28-year-old man who had ingested a lethal amount (12 g) of aluminium phosphide with suicidal intent and was admitted to hospital approximately 6 hours postingestion. The patient had signs and symptoms of severe toxicity, and his clinical course included metabolic acidosis and liver dysfunction. Treatment consisted of gastric lavage with potassium permanganate solution, oral administration of charcoal and sorbitol suspension, intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, magnesium sulphate and calcium gluconate, and oral administration of sodium bicarbonate and coconut oil. Conservative and supportive therapy in the Intensive Care Unit was also provided. The patient survived following rapid treatment and supportive care. It is concluded that coconut oil has a positive clinical significance and can be added to the treatment protocol of acute aluminium phosphide poisoning in humans.


The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water

(Yong, Ge et al. 2009) Download

Coconut water (coconut liquid endosperm), with its many applications, is one of the world's most versatile natural product. This refreshing beverage is consumed worldwide as it is nutritious and beneficial for health. There is increasing scientific evidence that supports the role of coconut water in health and medicinal applications. Coconut water is traditionally used as a growth supplement in plant tissue culture/micropropagation. The wide applications of coconut water can be justified by its unique chemical composition of sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and phytohormones. This review attempts to summarise and evaluate the chemical composition and biological properties of coconut water.


References

Alleyne, T., S. Roache, et al. (2005). "The control of hypertension by use of coconut water and mauby: two tropical food drinks." West Indian Med J 54(1): 3-8.

Assuncao, M. L., H. S. Ferreira, et al. (2009). "Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity." Lipids 44(7): 593-601.

Connolly, M., K. A. Stafford, et al. (2009). "Control of head lice with a coconut-derived emulsion shampoo." J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 23(1): 67-9.

de Lourdes Arruzazabala, M., V. Molina, et al. (2007). "Effects of coconut oil on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats." J Pharm Pharmacol 59(7): 995-9.

Hargrave, K. M., M. J. Azain, et al. (2005). "Dietary coconut oil increases conjugated linoleic acid-induced body fat loss in mice independent of essential fatty acid deficiency." Biochim Biophys Acta 1737(1): 52-60.

Marina, A. M., Y. B. Man, et al. (2009). "Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil." Int J Food Sci Nutr 60 Suppl 2: 114-23.

Masterjohn, C. (2007). "The anti-inflammatory properties of safflower oil and coconut oil may be mediated by their respective concentrations of vitamin E." J Am Coll Cardiol 49(17): 1825-6.

Nevin, K. G. and T. Rajamohan (2009). "Wet and dry extraction of coconut oil: impact on lipid metabolic and antioxidant status in cholesterol coadministered rats." Can J Physiol Pharmacol 87(8): 610-6.

Nicholls, S. J., P. Lundman, et al. (2006). "Consumption of saturated fat impairs the anti-inflammatory properties of high-density lipoproteins and endothelial function." J Am Coll Cardiol 48(4): 715-20.

Nneli, R. O. and O. A. Woyike (2008). "Antiulcerogenic effects of coconut (Cocos nucifera) extract in rats." Phytother Res 22(7): 970-2.

Pan, Y., B. Larson, et al. (2010). "Dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG has long-lasting cognition-enhancing effects in aged dogs." Br J Nutr 103(12): 1746-54.

Radenahmad, N., F. Saleh, et al. (2009). "Young coconut juice significantly reduces histopathological changes in the brain that are induced by hormonal imbalance: a possible implication to postmenopausal women." Histol Histopathol 24(6): 667-74.

Radenahmad, N., F. Saleh, et al. (2010). "Young coconut juice, a potential therapeutic agent that could significantly reduce some pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease: novel findings." Br J Nutr: 1-8.

Reena, M. B., T. P. Krishnakantha, et al. (2010). "Lowering of platelet aggregation and serum eicosanoid levels in rats fed with a diet containing coconut oil blends with rice bran oil or sesame oil." Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 83(3): 151-60.

Reena, M. B. and B. R. Lokesh (2007). "Hypolipidemic effect of oils with balanced amounts of fatty acids obtained by blending and interesterification of coconut oil with rice bran oil or sesame oil." J Agric Food Chem 55(25): 10461-9.

Reger, M. A., S. T. Henderson, et al. (2004). "Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on cognition in memory-impaired adults." Neurobiol Aging 25(3): 311-4.

Sandhya, V. G. and T. Rajamohan (2006). "Beneficial effects of coconut water feeding on lipid metabolism in cholesterol-fed rats." J Med Food 9(3): 400-7.

Sandhya, V. G. and T. Rajamohan (2008). "Comparative evaluation of the hypolipidemic effects of coconut water and lovastatin in rats fed fat-cholesterol enriched diet." Food Chem Toxicol 46(12): 3586-92.

Shadnia, S., M. Rahimi, et al. (2005). "Successful treatment of acute aluminium phosphide poisoning: possible benefit of coconut oil." Hum Exp Toxicol 24(4): 215-8.

Yong, J. W., L. Ge, et al. (2009). "The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water." Molecules 14(12): 5144-64.