Cobalt Resources

Cobalt sulfate toxicity

            (2004) Download

Toxicological Profile For Cobalt

             ((ATSDR) 2004) Download  Download

Nickel, chromium and cobalt in consumer products: revisiting safe levels in the new millennium

            (Basketter, Angelini et al. 2003) Download

Panels in Therapy: V. The Use of Cobalt and Cobalt-Iron Preparations in the Therapy of Anemia

            (Berman, Cartwright et al. 1955) Download

Inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of cobalt sulfate

            (Bucher, Hailey et al. 1999) Download

Cobalt chloride-induced estrogen receptor alpha down-regulation involves hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

            (Cho, Kim et al. 2005) Download

The Influence of Cobalt on Pine Disease in Sheep

            (Corner and Smith 1938) Download

Metalloestrogens: an emerging class of inorganic xenoestrogens with potential to add to the oestrogenic burden of the human breast

            (Darbre 2006) Download

Xenoestrogens may be the cause of high and increasing rates of hormone receptor positive breast cancer in the world

            (Dey, Soliman et al. 2009) Download

A quest for erythropoietin over nine decades

            (Fisher 1998) Download

Intravenous nutrient therapy: the "Myers' cocktail"

            (Gaby 2002) Download

Cobalt and secondary poisoning in the terrestrial food chain: data review and research gaps to support risk assessment

            (Gal, Hursthouse et al. 2008) Download

Glutamine is highly effective in preventing in vivo cobalt-induced oxidative stress in rat liver

            (Gonzales, Polizio et al. 2005) Download

The bioidentical hormone debate: are bioidentical hormones (estradiol, estriol, and progesterone) safer or more efficacious than commonly used synthetic versions in hormone replacement therapy?

            (Holtorf 2009) Download

Cobalt chloride decreases EC-SOD expression through intracellular ROS generation and p38-MAPK pathways in COS7 cells

            (Kamiya, Hara et al. 2008) Download

An enquiry into the role of cobalt in the heart disease of chronic beer drinkers

            (Kesteloot, Roelandt et al. 1968) Download

Cobaltous chloride and hypoxia inhibit aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses in breast cancer cells

            (Khan, Liu et al. 2007) Download

The Hemopoietic Effect of Cobalt in Rabbits

            (Kleinberg 1934) Download

Exposure to cobalt in the production of cobalt and cobalt compounds and its effect on the heart

            (Linna, Oksa et al. 2004) Download


Cobalt chloride administration in athletes: a new perspective in blood doping?

            (Lippi, Franchini et al. 2005) Download

Cobalt inhibition of synthesis and induction of delta-aminolevulinate synthase in liver

            (Maines, Janousek et al. 1976) Download

Cobalt induction of hepatic heme oxygenase; with evidence that cytochrome P-450 is not essential for this enzyme activity

            (Maines and Kappas 1974) Download

Metals as regulators of heme metabolism

            (Maines and Kappas 1977) Download Download2

Estrogen-like activity of metals in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

            (Martin, Reiter et al. 2003) Download

A comprehensive review of the safety and efficacy of bioidentical hormones for the management of menopause and related health risks

            (Moskowitz 2006) Download

Schilling test: physiologic basis for and use as a diagnostic test

            (Nickoloff 1988) Download

The mechanisms of cobalt chloride-induced protection against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

            (Roberts, Price et al. 1986) Download

Copper And Cobalt Related Hemoglobin Production In Experimental Anemia

            (Robscheit-Robbins and Whipple 1942) Download

Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial

            (Rossouw, Anderson et al. 2002) Download

Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide: from basic science to therapeutic applications

            (Ryter, Alam et al. 2006) Download

Endocrine disruptors and human health: is there a problem

            (Safe 2004) Download

Cobalt protoporphyrin as a potential therapeutic agent?

            (Schmidt 2007) Download

Essential trace metals in man: cobalt

            (Schroeder, Nason et al. 1967) Download

The effects of hormone replacement therapy on postmenopausal breast cancer biology and survival

            (Sener, Winchester et al. 2009) Download

Paradoxical effects of cobaltous chloride and salts of other divalent metals on tissue levels of reduced glutathione and microsomal mixed-function oxidase components

            (Sasame and Boyd 1978) Download

Role of Bach1 and Nrf2 in up-regulation of the heme oxygenase-1 gene by cobalt protoporphyrin

            (Shan, Lambrecht et al. 2006) Download

Neuroprotective effect of cobalt chloride on hypobaric hypoxia-induced oxidative stress

            (Shrivastava, Shukla et al. 2008) Download

Hypoxic preconditioning with cobalt attenuates hypobaric hypoxia-induced oxidative damage in rat lungs

            (Shukla, Saxena et al. 2009) Download

Decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 by cobalt. Evidence for a role of cobalt protoporphyrin

            (Sinclair, Sinclair et al. 1982) Download

Cobalt-protoporphyrin suppresses thyroid and testicular hormone concentrations in rat serum: a novel action of this synthetic heme analogue

            (Smith, Drummond et al. 1987)  Download

Effect of cobalt protoporphyrin on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. Specificity for cytochrome P-450

            (Spaethe and Jollow 1989) Download

The relationship of cobaltous chloride-induced alterations of hepatic microsomal enzymes to altered carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity

            (Suarez and Bhonsle 1976) Download

The effect of cobalt chloride administration on the synthesis of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450

            (Tephly and Hibbeln 1971) Download

Trace elements in human tissue. II. Adult subjects from the United States

            (Tipton and Cook 1963) Download

Trace elements in human tissue. I. Methods

            (Tipton, Cook et al. 1963) Download

Trace Elements in Human Tissue. 3. Subjects from Africa, the near and Far East and Europe

            (Tipton, Schroeder et al. 1965) Download

Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress

            (Valko, Morris et al. 2005) Download

Xenoestrogens are potent activators of nongenomic estrogenic responses

            (Watson, Bulayeva et al. 2007) Download


The Anemia Of Infection, VI. The Influence Of Cobalt On The Anemia Associated With Inflammation

            (Wintrobe, Grinstein et al. 1947) Download

Cobalt chloride induces delayed cardiac preconditioning in mice through selective activation of HIF-1alpha and AP-1 and iNOS signaling

            (Xi, Taher et al. 2004) Download

Menstrual cycle effects on urinary estrogen metabolites

            (Xu, Duncan et al. 1999) Download

The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor cobalt chloride prevents inhibition of renal Na,K-ATPase and redistribution of apical NHE-3 during acute hypertension

            (Zhang, Magyar et al. 1998) Download


References

(2004). "Cobalt Sulfate CAS No. 10124-43-3." Eleventh Report on Carcinogens(11).

(ATSDR), A. f. T. S. a. D. R. (2004). Toxicological Profile For Cobalt. U. S. D. o. H. a. H. Services.

Basketter, D. A., G. Angelini, et al. (2003). "Nickel, chromium and cobalt in consumer products: revisiting safe levels in the new millennium." Contact Dermatitis 49(1): 1-7.

Berman, L., G. E. Cartwright, et al. (1955). "Panels in Therapy: V. The Use of Cobalt and Cobalt-Iron Preparations in the Therapy of Anemia." Blood 10: 852-861.

Bucher, J. R., J. R. Hailey, et al. (1999). "Inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of cobalt sulfate." Toxicol Sci 49(1): 56-67.

Cho, J., D. Kim, et al. (2005). "Cobalt chloride-induced estrogen receptor alpha down-regulation involves hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells." Mol Endocrinol 19(5): 1191-9.

Corner, H. H. and A. M. Smith (1938). "The Influence of Cobalt on Pine Disease in Sheep."

Darbre, P. D. (2006). "Metalloestrogens: an emerging class of inorganic xenoestrogens with potential to add to the oestrogenic burden of the human breast." J Appl Toxicol 26(3): 191-7.

Dey, S., A. S. Soliman, et al. (2009). "Xenoestrogens may be the cause of high and increasing rates of hormone receptor positive breast cancer in the world." Med Hypotheses 72(6): 652-6.

Gaby, A. R. (2002). "Intravenous nutrient therapy: the "Myers' cocktail"." Altern Med Rev 7(5): 389-403.

Gal, J., A. Hursthouse, et al. (2008). "Cobalt and secondary poisoning in the terrestrial food chain: data review and research gaps to support risk assessment." Environ Int 34(6): 821-38.

Gonzales, S., A. H. Polizio, et al. (2005). "Glutamine is highly effective in preventing in vivo cobalt-induced oxidative stress in rat liver." World J Gastroenterol 11(23): 3533-8.

Holtorf, K. (2009). "The bioidentical hormone debate: are bioidentical hormones (estradiol, estriol, and progesterone) safer or more efficacious than commonly used synthetic versions in hormone replacement therapy?" Postgrad Med 121(1): 73-85.

Kamiya, T., H. Hara, et al. (2008). "Cobalt chloride decreases EC-SOD expression through intracellular ROS generation and p38-MAPK pathways in COS7 cells." Free Radic Res 42(11-12): 949-56.

Kesteloot, H., J. Roelandt, et al. (1968). "An enquiry into the role of cobalt in the heart disease of chronic beer drinkers." Circulation 37(5): 854-64.

Khan, S., S. Liu, et al. (2007). "Cobaltous chloride and hypoxia inhibit aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses in breast cancer cells." Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 223(1): 28-38.

Kleinberg, W. (1934). "The Hemopoietic Effect of Cobalt in Rabbits."

Linna, A., P. Oksa, et al. (2004). "Exposure to cobalt in the production of cobalt and cobalt compounds and its effect on the heart." Occup Environ Med 61(11): 877-85.

Lippi, G., M. Franchini, et al. (2005). "Cobalt chloride administration in athletes: a new perspective in blood doping?" Br J Sports Med 39(11): 872-3.

Maines, M. D., V. Janousek, et al. (1976). "Cobalt inhibition of synthesis and induction of delta-aminolevulinate synthase in liver." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 73(5): 1499-503.

Maines, M. D. and A. Kappas (1974). "Cobalt induction of hepatic heme oxygenase; with evidence that cytochrome P-450 is not essential for this enzyme activity." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 71(11): 4293-7.

Maines, M. D. and A. Kappas (1977). "Metals as regulators of heme metabolism." Science 198(4323): 1215-21.

Martin, M. B., R. Reiter, et al. (2003). "Estrogen-like activity of metals in MCF-7 breast cancer cells." Endocrinology 144(6): 2425-36.

Moskowitz, D. (2006). "A comprehensive review of the safety and efficacy of bioidentical hormones for the management of menopause and related health risks." Altern Med Rev 11(3): 208-23.

Nickoloff, E. (1988). "Schilling test: physiologic basis for and use as a diagnostic test." Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 26(4): 263-76.

Roberts, S. A., V. F. Price, et al. (1986). "The mechanisms of cobalt chloride-induced protection against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity." Drug Metab Dispos 14(1): 25-33.

Robscheit-Robbins, F. S. and G. H. Whipple (1942). "Copper And Cobalt Related Hemoglobin Production In Experimental Anemia." The Journal of Experimental Medicine 75: 481-487.

Rossouw, J. E., G. L. Anderson, et al. (2002). "Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial." Jama 288(3): 321-33.

Ryter, S. W., J. Alam, et al. (2006). "Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide: from basic science to therapeutic applications." Physiol Rev 86(2): 583-650.

Safe, S. (2004). "Endocrine disruptors and human health: is there a problem." Toxicology 205(1-2): 3-10.

Sasame, H. A. and M. R. Boyd (1978). "Paradoxical effects of cobaltous chloride and salts of other divalent metals on tissue levels of reduced glutathione and microsomal mixed-function oxidase components." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 205(3): 718-24.

Schmidt, R. (2007). "Cobalt protoporphyrin as a potential therapeutic agent?" Faseb J 21(11): 2639; author reply 2640.

Schroeder, H. A., A. P. Nason, et al. (1967). "Essential trace metals in man: cobalt." J Chronic Dis 20(11): 869-90.

Sener, S. F., D. J. Winchester, et al. (2009). "The effects of hormone replacement therapy on postmenopausal breast cancer biology and survival." Am J Surg 197(3): 403-7.

Shan, Y., R. W. Lambrecht, et al. (2006). "Role of Bach1 and Nrf2 in up-regulation of the heme oxygenase-1 gene by cobalt protoporphyrin." Faseb J 20(14): 2651-3.

Shrivastava, K., D. Shukla, et al. (2008). "Neuroprotective effect of cobalt chloride on hypobaric hypoxia-induced oxidative stress." Neurochem Int 52(3): 368-75.

Shukla, D., S. Saxena, et al. (2009). "Hypoxic preconditioning with cobalt attenuates hypobaric hypoxia-induced oxidative damage in rat lungs." High Alt Med Biol 10(1): 57-69.

Sinclair, J. F., P. R. Sinclair, et al. (1982). "Decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 by cobalt. Evidence for a role of cobalt protoporphyrin." Biochem J 204(1): 103-9.

Smith, T. J., G. S. Drummond, et al. (1987). "Cobalt-protoporphyrin suppresses thyroid and testicular hormone concentrations in rat serum: a novel action of this synthetic heme analogue." Pharmacology 34(1): 9-16.

Spaethe, S. M. and D. J. Jollow (1989). "Effect of cobalt protoporphyrin on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. Specificity for cytochrome P-450." Biochem Pharmacol 38(12): 2027-38.

Suarez, K. A. and P. Bhonsle (1976). "The relationship of cobaltous chloride-induced alterations of hepatic microsomal enzymes to altered carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity." Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 37(1): 23-7.

Tephly, T. R. and P. Hibbeln (1971). "The effect of cobalt chloride administration on the synthesis of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 42(4): 589-95.

Tipton, I. H. and M. J. Cook (1963). "Trace elements in human tissue. II. Adult subjects from the United States." Health Phys 9: 103-45.

Tipton, I. H., M. J. Cook, et al. (1963). "Trace elements in human tissue. I. Methods." Health Phys 9: 89-101.

Tipton, I. H., H. A. Schroeder, et al. (1965). "Trace Elements in Human Tissue. 3. Subjects from Africa, the near and Far East and Europe." Health Phys 11: 403-51.

Valko, M., H. Morris, et al. (2005). "Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress." Curr Med Chem 12(10): 1161-208.

Watson, C. S., N. N. Bulayeva, et al. (2007). "Xenoestrogens are potent activators of nongenomic estrogenic responses." Steroids 72(2): 124-34.

Wintrobe, M. M., M. Grinstein, et al. (1947). "The Anemia Of Infection, VI. The Influence Of Cobalt On The Anemia Associated With Inflammation." Blood 2(4): 323-331.

Xi, L., M. Taher, et al. (2004). "Cobalt chloride induces delayed cardiac preconditioning in mice through selective activation of HIF-1alpha and AP-1 and iNOS signaling." Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 287(6): H2369-75.

Xu, X., A. M. Duncan, et al. (1999). "Menstrual cycle effects on urinary estrogen metabolites." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84(11): 3914-8.

Zhang, Y. B., C. E. Magyar, et al. (1998). "The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor cobalt chloride prevents inhibition of renal Na,K-ATPase and redistribution of apical NHE-3 during acute hypertension." J Am Soc Nephrol 9(4): 531-7.