Centella Asiatica Abstracts 2

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A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Centella asiatica for Improvement of the Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Venous Insufficiency.
            (Chong and Aziz, 2013) Download
We aimed to assess the efficacy of Centella asiatica for improvement of the signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). We searched 13 electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomised controlled trials assessing the efficacy of Centella asiatica for CVI. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed the risks of bias of included studies and extracted data. The treatment effects of similar studies were pooled whenever appropriate. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooling of data of similar studies showed that Centella asiatica significantly improved microcirculatory parameters such as transcutaneous partial pressure of CO2 and O2, rate of ankle swelling and venoarteriolar response. Three out of the eight studies did not provide quantitative data. However, these studies reported that patients treated with Centella asiatica showed significant improvement in CVI signs such as leg heaviness, pain and oedema. Our results show that Centella asiatica may be beneficial for improving signs and symptoms of CVI but this conclusion needs to be interpreted with caution as most of the studies were characterised by inadequate reporting and thus had unclear risks of bias, which may threaten the validity of the conclusions.

Centella asiatica extract selectively decreases amyloid beta levels in hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease animal model.
            (Dhanasekaran et al., 2009) Download
PSAPP mice expressing the 'Swedish' amyloid precursor protein and the M146L presenilin 1 mutations are a well-characterized model for spontaneous amyloid beta plaque formation. Centella asiatica has a long history of use in India as a memory enhancing drug in Ayurvedic literature. The study investigated whether Centella asiatica extract (CaE) can alter the amyloid pathology in PSAPP mice by administering CaE (2.5 or 5.0 g/kg/day) starting at 2 months of age prior to the onset of detectable amyloid deposition and continued for either 2 months or 8 months. A significant decrease in amyloid beta 1-40 and 1-42 was detectable by ELISA following an 8 month treatment with 2.5 mg/kg of CaE. A reduction in Congo Red stained fibrillar amyloid plaques was detected with the 5.0 mg/kg CaE dose and long-term treatment regimen. It was also confirmed that CaE functions as an antioxidant in vitro, scavenging free radicals, reducing lipid peroxidation and protecting against DNA damage. The data indicate that CaE can impact the amyloid cascade altering amyloid beta pathology in the brains of PSAPP mice and modulating components of the oxidative stress response that has been implicated in the neurodegenerative changes that occur with Alzheimer's disease.

Treatment with Centalla asiatica (Linn) fresh leaf extract enhances learning ability and memory retention power in rats.
            (Rao et al., 2007) Download
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Centella asiatica (CeA) fresh leaf extract treatment on the behavior, especially learning and memory, of adult rats. METHODS: Adult rats (2.5 months old) were fed with 2, 4, and 6 ml/kg body of fresh leaf extract of CeA for 2, 4, and 6 weeks. After the treatment period the rats were subjected to spatial learning (T-Maze) and passive avoidance tests along with age matched normal and saline control rats. The data were compared with those of age matched control rats. The study was conducted at the Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India between December 2001 and February 2005. RESULTS: The rats treated with a higher dose (6 ml) of CeA showed improvement in spatial learning performance, namely, increased (p<0.001) number of alternations and decreased (p<0.001) percentage bias during spontaneous alternation test and increased (p<0.001) percentage bias during rewarded alternation test. They also showed enhanced memory retention power, namely, less (p<0.001) time spent in the small compartment during the retention period of passive avoidance test. CONCLUSION: This indicates that treatment with higher doses of CeA fresh leaf extract enhances learning ability and memory retention power in adult rats.

Effect of Centella asiatica on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and other common age-related clinical problems
            (Tiwari et al., 2008) Download
In recent years, the term 'Mild Cognitive Impairment'(MCI) is commonly being used to refer a stage of cognitive impairment prior to attaining clinical dementia in Alzheimer disease (AD) and related disorders [1]. The recent formulation of MCI follows previous attempts to ...


 

Effect of different extracts of Centella asiatica on cognition and markers of oxidative stress in rats.
            (Veerendra Kumar and Gupta, 2002) Download
Centella asiatica, a plant mentioned in Indian literature has been described to possess CNS effects such as stimulatory-nervine tonic, rejuvenant, sedative, tranquilizer and intelligence promoting property. In the present study aqueous, methanolic and chloroform extracts of C. asiatica were investigated for their effect on cognitive functions in rats. Male Wistar rats of 200-250 g were used to study the effect on learning and memory by using shuttle box, step through, step down and elevated plus maze paradigms. Only the aqueous extract of whole plant (200 mg/kg for 14 days) showed an improvement in learning and memory in both shuttle box and step through paradigms. Therefore, further experiments were conducted with aqueous extract using 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg doses in different paradigms of learning and memory. All doses of aqueous extract increased the number of avoidances in shuttle box and prolonged the step through latency in step through apparatus in a dose dependent manner, while only two doses 200 and 300 mg/kg of aqueous extract showed significant increase in the step down latency in step down apparatus and transfer latency (TL) in elevated plus maze. Among doses of aqueous extract tested on oxidative stress parameters, only 200 and 300 mg/kg showed a significant decrease in the brain levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) with simultaneous significant increase in levels of glutathione. There was a significant increase in the levels of catalase at the 300 mg/kg but no significant change in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were observed. The present findings indicate that the aqueous extract of C. asiatica has cognitive enhancing effect and an antioxidant mechanism is involved.

Asiatic acid protects primary neurons against C2-ceramide-induced apoptosis.
            (Zhang et al., 2012) Download
Ceramides derived from sphingosine contribute to the apoptotic processes of neuronal cells in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. This study investigates the potential neuroprotective effects of Asiatic acid, a triterpenoid derived from Centella asiatica, against C(2)-ceramides-induced cell death in primary cultured rat cortical neuronal cells. In primary neurons, Asiatic acid (0.01 to 1.0 mumol/l) reduced C(2)-ceramide-induced cell death and mitochondria membrane potential loss in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, Asiatic acid decreased cellular production of reactive oxygen species following C(2)-ceramide treatment. At a maximal concentration of 1.0 mumol/l, Asiatic acid partly counteracted the pro-apoptotic effects of the C(2)-ceramide by reducing the cytosolic release of HtrA2/Omi, the upregulation of Bax and caspase 3, as well as the dephosphorlyation of ERK1/2. Taken together, these data suggest that Asiatic acid protects neurons from C(2)-ceramide-induced cell death by antagonizing mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.

 

References

Chong, NJ and Z Aziz (2013), ‘A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Centella asiatica for Improvement of the Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Venous Insufficiency.’, Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2013 627182. PubMedID: 23533507
Dhanasekaran, M, et al. (2009), ‘Centella asiatica extract selectively decreases amyloid beta levels in hippocampus of Alzheimer’s disease animal model.’, Phytother Res, 23 (1), 14-19. PubMedID: 19048607
Rao, MK, MS Rao, and GS Rao (2007), ‘Treatment with Centalla asiatica (Linn) fresh leaf extract enhances learning ability and memory retention power in rats.’, Neurosciences (Riyadh), 12 (3), 236-41. PubMedID: 21857576
Tiwari, Sushma, et al. (2008), ‘Effect of Centella asiatica on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and other common age-related clinical problems’, Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, 3 (4), 215-20. PubMedID:
Veerendra Kumar, MH and YK Gupta (2002), ‘Effect of different extracts of Centella asiatica on cognition and markers of oxidative stress in rats.’, J Ethnopharmacol, 79 (2), 253-60. PubMedID: 11801389
Zhang, X, et al. (2012), ‘Asiatic acid protects primary neurons against C2-ceramide-induced apoptosis.’, Eur J Pharmacol, 679 (1-3), 51-59. PubMedID: 22296759