Carnosine Articles 4

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A preliminary, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of L-carnosine to improve cognition in schizophrenia.
(Chengappa et al., 2012) Download
BACKGROUND:  Targeting glutamatergic dysfunction provides an exciting opportunity to improve cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. One treatment approach has targeted inadequate antioxidant defenses at glutamatergic synapses. Animal and human data suggest NMDA antagonists worsen executive cognitive controls--e.g. increase perseverative responses and impair set-shifting. We conducted a preliminary study to test the hypothesis that L-carnosine, an antioxidant and anti-glycation agent which is co-localized and released with glutamate would improve executive dysfunction, a cognitive domain associated with glutamate. METHODS:  Seventy-five symptomatically stable adults with chronic schizophrenia were randomly assigned to L-carnosine as adjunctive treatment (2 g/day) or a matched placebo in a double-blind manner for 3 months. Cognitive domains (executive dysfunction, memory, attention and motor speed) were assessed using a computerized battery at baseline, 4 and 12 weeks, along with psychopathology ratings and safety parameters. RESULTS:  The L-carnosine group performed significantly faster on non-reversal condition trials of the set-shifting test compared with placebo but reversal reaction times and errors were not significantly different between treatments. On the strategic target detection test, the L-carnosine group displayed significantly improved strategic efficiency and made fewer perseverative errors compared with placebo. Other cognitive tests showed no significant differences between treatments. Psychopathology scores remained stable. The carnosine group reported more adverse events (30%) compared with the placebo group (14%). Laboratory indices remained within acceptable ranges. CONCLUSIONS:  These preliminary findings suggest that L-carnosine merits further consideration as adjunctive treatment to improve executive dysfunction in persons with schizophrenia.


 

Carnosine and the processes of ageing.
            (Hipkiss et al., 2016) Download
The causes of ageing are usually regarded as multifactorial; thus effective regulation might be achieved by intervention at multiple sites. It has been suggested that the endogenous dipeptide carnosine, also available as a food supplement, possesses anti-ageing activity and may achieve its reported age-alleviating effects via a number of mechanisms. Carnosine's possible anti-ageing mechanisms are therefore discussed; the evidence suggests that inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin and carbonyl scavenging may be involved.

Effect of Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation on Verbal Episodic Memory in Elderly People.
            (Hisatsune et al., 2016) Download
Our goal in this study was to determine whether or not anserine/carnosine supplementation (ACS) is capable of preserving cognitive function of elderly people. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, volunteers were randomly assigned to an ACS or placebo group at a 1:1 ratio. The ACS group took 1.0 g of an anserine/carnosine (3:1) formula daily for 3 months. Participants were evaluated by psychological tests before and after the 3-month supplementation period. Thirty-nine healthy elderly volunteers (60-78 years old) completed the follow-up tests. Among the tests, delayed recall verbal memory assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Logical Memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0128). Blood analysis revealed a decreased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including CCL-2 and IL-8, in the ACS group. MRI analysis using arterial spin labeling showed a suppression in the age-related decline in brain blood flow in the posterior cingulate cortex area in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0248). In another randomized controlled trial, delayed recall verbal memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0202). These results collectively suggest that ACS may preserve verbal episodic memory and brain perfusion in elderly people, although further study is needed.


 

A Dietary Supplement Containing Cinnamon, Chromium and Carnosine Decreases Fasting Plasma Glucose and Increases Lean Mass in Overweight or Obese Pre-Diabetic Subjects: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
            (Liu et al., 2015) Download
BACKGROUND:  Preventing or slowing the progression of prediabetes to diabetes is a major therapeutic issue. OBJECTIVES:  Our aim was to evaluate the effects of 4-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine in moderately obese or overweight pre-diabetic subjects, the primary outcome being change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level. Other parameters of plasma glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, adiposity and inflammatory markers were also assessed. METHODS:  In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 62 subjects with a FPG level ranging from 5.55 to 7 mmol/L and a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), unwilling to change their dietary and physical activity habits, were allocated to receive a 4-month treatment with either 1.2 g/day of the dietary supplement or placebo. Patients were followed up until 6 months post-randomization. RESULTS:  Four-month treatment with the dietary supplement decreased FPG compared to placebo (-0.24 ± 0.50 vs +0.12 ± 0.59 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.02), without detectable significant changes in HbA1c. Insulin sensitivity markers, plasma insulin, plasma lipids and inflammatory markers did not differ between the treatment groups. Although there were no significant differences in changes in body weight and energy or macronutrient intakes between the two groups, fat-free mass (%) increased with the dietary supplement compared to placebo (p = 0.02). Subjects with a higher FPG level and a milder inflammatory state at baseline benefited most from the dietary supplement. CONCLUSIONS:  Four-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine decreased FPG and increased fat-free mass in overweight or obese pre-diabetic subjects. These beneficial effects might open up new avenues in the prevention of diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION:  ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530685.

Oral Administration of Forskolin, Homotaurine, Carnosine, and Folic Acid in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: Changes in Intraocular Pressure, Pattern Electroretinogram Amplitude, and Foveal Sensitivity.
            (Mutolo et al., 2016) Download
PURPOSE:  To evaluate the effects of a food supplement containing forskolin, homotaurine, carnosine, folic acid, vitamins B1, B2, B6, and magnesium in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) already in treatment and compensated by intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering drugs, during a period of 12 months. METHODS:  Twenty-two patients (44 eyes) with POAG, with their IOP compensated by topical drugs, were enrolled and randomly assigned to the food supplement or control treatment group. The additional food supplement treatment consisted of 2 tablets per day (1 in the morning, 1 in the evening) given for 1 year of a balanced association of homotaurine, Coleus forskohlii root extract, L-carnosine, folic acid, vitamins B1, B2, B6, and magnesium. Pattern Electroretinogram (PERG) amplitude, foveal sensitivity obtained with the visual field analyzer frequency doubling technology, and IOP were detected at enrollment (T0), 3 months (T1), 6 months (T2), 9 months (T3), and 12 months (T4). RESULTS:  We observed in treated patients a significant further decrease of IOP and an improvement of PERG amplitude at 6, 9, and 12 months, and foveal sensitivity at 12 months. All values remained substantially stable in control patients. CONCLUSIONS:  The results of the present pilot study indicate that the components of the food supplement reach the eye in a detectable manner, as evidenced by the effects on the IOP. Moreover, they suggest a short-term neuroactive effect, as indicated by the improvement of PERG amplitude and foveal sensitivity in treated, but not in control patients.

Nutraceutical intervention improves older adults' cognitive functioning.
            (Small et al., 2014) Download
Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65-85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains--episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults.

 


References

Chengappa, KN, et al. (2012), ‘A preliminary, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of L-carnosine to improve cognition in schizophrenia.’, Schizophr Res, 142 (1-3), 145-52. PubMed: 23099060
Hipkiss, AR, E Baye, and B de Courten (2016), ‘Carnosine and the processes of ageing.’, Maturitas, 93 28-33. PubMed: 27344459
Hisatsune, T, et al. (2016), ‘Effect of Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation on Verbal Episodic Memory in Elderly People.’, J Alzheimers Dis, 50 (1), 149-59. PubMed: 26682691
Liu, Y, et al. (2015), ‘A Dietary Supplement Containing Cinnamon, Chromium and Carnosine Decreases Fasting Plasma Glucose and Increases Lean Mass in Overweight or Obese Pre-Diabetic Subjects: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.’, PLoS One, 10 (9), e0138646. PubMed: 26406981
Mutolo, MG, et al. (2016), ‘Oral Administration of Forskolin, Homotaurine, Carnosine, and Folic Acid in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: Changes in Intraocular Pressure, Pattern Electroretinogram Amplitude, and Foveal Sensitivity.’, J Ocul Pharmacol Ther, 32 (3), 178-83. PubMed: 26771282
Small, BJ, et al. (2014), ‘Nutraceutical intervention improves older adults’ cognitive functioning.’, Rejuvenation Res, 17 (1), 27-32. PubMed: 24134194