Blueberries Abstracts 1

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Blueberry phytochemicals inhibit growth and metastatic potential of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells through modulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway.
            (Adams et al., 2010) Download
Dietary phytochemicals are known to exhibit a variety of anticarcinogenic properties. This study investigated the chemopreventive activity of blueberry extract in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Blueberry decreased cell proliferation in HCC38, HCC1937, and MDA-MB-231 cells with no effect on the nontumorigenic MCF-10A cell line. Decreased metastatic potential of MDA-MB-231 cells by blueberry was shown through inhibition of cell motility using wound-healing assays and migration through a polyethylene terephthalate membrane. Blueberry treatment decreased the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and the secretion of urokinase-type plasminogen activator while increasing tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 secretion in MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium as shown by Western blotting. Cell signaling pathways that control the expression/activation of these processes were investigated via Western blotting and reporter gene assay. Treatment with blueberry decreased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and NFkappaB activation in MDA-MB-231 cells, where protein kinase C and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were not affected. In vivo, the efficacy of blueberry to inhibit triple-negative breast tumor growth was evaluated using the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. Tumor weight and proliferation (Ki-67 expression) were decreased in blueberry-treated mice, where apoptosis (caspase-3 expression) was increased compared with controls. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumors from blueberry-fed mice showed decreased activation of AKT and p65 NFkappaB signaling proteins with no effect on the phosphorylation of ERK. These data illustrate the inhibitory effect of blueberry phytochemicals on the growth and metastatic potential of MDA-MB-231 cells through modulation of the PI3K/AKT/NFkappaB pathway.


 

Whole blueberry powder modulates the growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast tumors in nude mice.
            (Adams et al., 2011) Download
Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that blueberry (BB) extract exhibited antitumor activity against MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and decreased metastatic potential in vitro. The current study tested 2 doses of whole BB powder, 5 and 10% (wt:wt) in the diet, against MDA-MB-231 tumor growth in female nude mice. In this study, tumor volume was 75% lower in mice fed the 5% BB diet and 60% lower in mice fed the 10% BB diet than in control mice (P ≤ 0.05). Tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67) was lower in the 5 and 10% BB-fed mice and cell death (Caspase 3) was greater in the 10% BB-fed mice compared to control mice (P ≤ 0.05). Gene analysis of tumor tissues from the 5% BB-fed mice revealed significantly altered expression of genes important to inflammation, cancer, and metastasis, specifically, Wnt signaling, thrombospondin-2, IL-13, and IFNγ. To confirm effects on Wnt signaling, analysis of tumor tissues from 5% BB-fed mice revealed lower β-catenin expression and glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation with greater expression of the β-catenin inhibitory protein adenomatous polyposis coli compared to controls. A second study tested the ability of the 5% BB diet to inhibit MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN metastasis in vivo. In this study, 5% BB-fed mice developed 70% fewer liver metastases (P = 0.04) and 25% fewer lymph node metastases (P = 0.09) compared to control mice. This study demonstrates the oral antitumor and metastasis activity of whole BB powder against TNBC in mice.

Potentiation of dietary restriction-induced lifespan extension by polyphenols.
            (Aires et al., 2012) Download
Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan across multiple species including mouse. Antioxidant plant extracts rich in polyphenols have also been shown to increase lifespan. We hypothesized that polyphenols might potentiate DR-induced lifespan extension. Twenty week old C57BL/6 mice were placed on one of three diets: continuous feeding (control), alternate day chow (Intermittent fed, IF), or IF supplemented with polyphenol antioxidants (PAO) from blueberry, pomegranate, and green tea extracts (IF+PAO). Both IF and IF+PAO groups outlived the control group and the IF+PAO group outlived the IF group (all p<0.001). In the brain, IF induced the expression of inflammatory genes and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, while the addition of PAO reduced brain inflammatory gene expression and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Our data indicate that while IF overall promotes longevity, some aspects of IF-induced stress may paradoxically lessen this effect. Polyphenol compounds, in turn, may potentiate IF-induced longevity by minimizing specific components of IF-induced cell stress.


 

Dietary berries and ellagic acid prevent oxidative DNA damage and modulate expression of DNA repair genes.
            (Aiyer et al., 2008) Download
DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on >95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG) and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17ss-estradiol and CuCl(2) in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 microM) than that for 8-oxodG (100 microM). In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6) were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm) and dehydrated berries (5% w/w) with varying ellagic acid contents - blueberry (low), strawberry (medium) and red raspberry (high), for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%). However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001) and 48% (p < 0.01), respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA), DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5) and DNA ligase III (DNL3). These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

Blueberries decrease cardiovascular risk factors in obese men and women with metabolic syndrome.
            (Basu et al., 2010) Download
Among all fruits, berries have shown substantial cardio-protective benefits due to their high polyphenol content. However, investigation of their efficacy in improving features of metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors in obesity is limited. We examined the effects of blueberry supplementation on features of metabolic syndrome, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation in obese men and women. Forty-eight participants with metabolic syndrome [4 males and 44 females; BMI: 37.8 +/- 2.3 kg/m(2); age: 50.0 +/- 3.0 y (mean +/- SE)] consumed freeze-dried blueberry beverage (50 g freeze-dried blueberries, approximately 350 g fresh blueberries) or equivalent amounts of fluids (controls, 960 mL water) daily for 8 wk in a randomized controlled trial. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, assessment of dietary intakes, and fasting blood draws were conducted at screening and at wk 4 and 8 of the study. The decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures were greater in the blueberry-supplemented group (- 6 and - 4%, respectively) than in controls (- 1.5 and - 1.2%) (P lt 0.05), whereas the serum glucose concentration and lipid profiles were not affected. The decreases in plasma oxidized LDL and serum malondialdehyde and hydroxynonenal concentrations were greater in the blueberry group (- 28 and - 17%, respectively) than in the control group (- 9 and - 9%) (P lt 0.01). Our study shows blueberries may improve selected features of metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors at dietary achievable doses.

A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers.
            (Del Bó et al., 2013) Download
It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. Blueberries are rich sources of anthocyanins and we hypothesized that their intake could improve cell protection against oxidative stress and affect endothelial function in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of one portion (300 g) of blueberries on selected markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant protection (endogenous and oxidatively induced DNA damage) and of vascular function (changes in peripheral arterial tone and plasma nitric oxide levels) in male subjects. In a randomized cross-over design, separated by a wash out period ten young volunteers received one portion of blueberries ground by blender or one portion of a control jelly. Before and after consumption (at 1, 2, and 24 hours), blood samples were collected and used to evaluate anthocyanin absorption (through mass spectrometry), endogenous and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage in blood mononuclear cells (through the comet assay), and plasma nitric oxide concentrations (through a fluorometric assay). Peripheral arterial function was assessed by means of Endo-PAT 2000. Blueberries significantly reduced (P < .01) H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage (-18%) 1 hour after blueberry consumption compared to control. No significant differences were observed for endogenous DNA damage, peripheral arterial function and nitric oxide levels after blueberry intake. In conclusion, one portion of blueberries seems sufficient to improve cell antioxidant defense against DNA damage, but further studies are necessary to understand their role on vascular function.

Whole blueberry powder inhibits metastasis of triple negative breast cancer in a xenograft mouse model through modulation of inflammatory cytokines.
            (Kanaya et al., 2014) Download
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) comprises approximately 15% of breast cancers and is associated with a poor prognosis. Many patients with TNBC relapse quickly and commonly develop metastases. There are no individualized targeted adjuvant or induction treatments for TNBC, and the current treatments are highly toxic. Development of chemoprevention methods using natural products would be beneficial to patients at risk of TNBC. To investigate the inhibitory effect of blueberries on inflammation-induced TNBC and identify the mechanism underlying modulation of inflammatory proteins by blueberries, we induced a proinflammatory microenvironment by feeding female MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice a high fat western diet (W) with 5% whole blueberry powder (BB) and studied the effect on tumor formation and metastasis. We showed that mice fed a BB diet had significantly smaller tumors, less ulceration, and significantly less metastasis to the inguinal lymph nodes than mice fed a W diet. In BB-fed mice, serum levels of specific antiinflammatory cytokines were increased and specific cytokine expression was also altered. Together, these results suggest that blueberries may inhibit TNBC and TNBC-related metastasis by reducing inflammation via specific cytokine-driven pathways and thus reduce tumor growth and metastasis.

Anti-diabetic properties of the Canadian lowbush blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.
            (Martineau et al., 2006) Download
Incidence of type II diabetes is rapidly increasing worldwide. In order to identify complementary or alternative approaches to existing medications, we studied anti-diabetic properties of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait., a natural health product recommended for diabetes treatment in Canada. Ethanol extracts of root, stem, leaf, and fruit were tested at 12.5 microg/ml for anti-diabetic activity in peripheral tissues and pancreatic beta cells using a variety of cell-based bioassays. Specifically, we assessed: (1) deoxyglucose uptake in differentiated C2C12 muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes; (2) glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in beta TC-tet pancreatic beta cells; (3) beta cell proliferation in beta TC-tet cells; (4) lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells; (5) protection against glucose toxicity in PC12 cells. Root, stem, and leaf extracts significantly enhanced glucose transport in C2C12 cells by 15-25% in presence and absence of insulin after 20 h of incubation; no enhancement resulted from a 1 h exposure. In 3T3 cells, only the root and stem extracts enhanced uptake, and this effect was greater after 1 h than after 20 h; uptake was increased by up to 75% in absence of insulin. GSIS was potentiated by a small amount in growth-arrested beta TC-tet cells incubated overnight with leaf or stem extract. However, fruit extracts were found to increase 3H-thymidine incorporation in replicating beta TC-tet cells by 2.8-fold. Lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells was accelerated by root, stem, and leaf extracts by as much as 6.5-fold by the end of a 6-day period. Stem, leaf, and fruit extracts reduced apoptosis by 20-33% in PC12 cells exposed to elevated glucose for 96 h. These results demonstrate that V. angustifolium contains active principles with insulin-like and glitazone-like properties, while conferring protection against glucose toxicity. Enhancement of proliferation in beta cells may represent another potential anti-diabetic property. Extracts of the Canadian blueberry thus show promise for use as a complementary anti-diabetic therapy.


 

Effect of blueberry ingestion on natural killer cell counts, oxidative stress, and inflammation prior to and after 2.5 h of running.
            (McAnulty et al., 2011) Download
Blueberries are rich in antioxidants known as anthocyanins, which may exhibit significant health benefits. Strenous exercise is known to acutely generate oxidative stress and an inflammatory state, and serves as an on-demand model to test antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds. The purpose of this study was to examine whether 250 g of blueberries per day for 6 weeks and 375 g given 1 h prior to 2.5 h of running at ∼72% maximal oxygen consumption counters oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune changes. Twenty-five well-trained subjects were recruited and randomized into blueberry (BB) (N = 13) or control (CON) (N = 12) groups. Blood, muscle, and urine samples were obtained pre-exercise and immediately postexercise, and blood and urine 1 h postexercise. Blood was examined for F₂-isoprostanes for oxidative stress, cortisol, cytokines, homocysteine, leukocytes, T-cell function, natural killer (NK), and lymphocyte cell counts for inflammation and immune system activation, and ferric reducing ability of plasma for antioxidant capacity. Muscle biopsies were examined for glycogen and NFkB expression to evaluate stress and inflammation. Urine was tested for modification of DNA (8-OHDG) and RNA (5-OHMU) as markers of nucleic acid oxidation. A 2 (treatment) × 3 (time) repeated measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Increases in F₂-isoprostanes and 5-OHMU were significantly less in BB and plasma IL-10 and NK cell counts were significantly greater in BB vs. CON. Changes in all other markers did not differ. This study indicates that daily blueberry consumption for 6 weeks increases NK cell counts, and acute ingestion reduces oxidative stress and increases anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Six weeks daily ingestion of whole blueberry powder increases natural killer cell counts and reduces arterial stiffness in sedentary males and females.
            (McAnulty et al., 2014) Download
Evidence suggests that berries contain bioactive compounds, which reduce certain cancers and hypertension. Our hypothesis was that daily blueberry (BB) consumption would increase natural killer (NK) cells and plasma redox capacity and reduce blood pressure, augmentation index (AIx), central pulse wave velocity, and aortic systolic pressures (ASPs). Twenty-five men and postmenopausal women aged 18 to 50 years were recruited and randomized to BB (n, 13) or placebo groups (n, 12). Participants were provided with BB (equivalent to 250 g berries) or placebo powders each day for 6 weeks. Blood pressure, vascular performance testing, and blood samples were taken at baseline (presupplementation). Participants returned after 6 weeks and repeated all procedures. Presupplementation to postsupplementation comparisons for the main effects of treatment, time, and treatment-time interaction were made using a 2 (treatment) × 2 (times) repeated-measures analysis of variance for all vascular measures, redox status, and NK cell counts. Anthropometric measures were compared using t tests. Body mass, composition, and overall blood pressures were not affected in either group. Overall, AIx and ASPs were decreased in BB (treatment effect, P = .024 and P = .046, respectively). Plasma redox was not affected. Absolute NK cells were increased in BB (time, P = .001 and interaction, P = .012). Subjects (n, 9) with prehypertensive pressures (≥120/80 mm Hg, respectively) were examined as a subset using t tests and exhibited significant reductions in diastolic pressure (P = .038) from presupplementation to postsupplementation in BB. We conclude that BB ingestion for 6 weeks increases NK cells and reduces AIx, ASP, and diastolic pressures in sedentary males and females.

Pterostilbene and cancer: current review.
            (McCormack and McFadden, 2012) Download
Pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystilbene) is an antioxidant that is primarily found in blueberries. Studies suggest that pterostilbene exhibits the hallmark characteristics of an effective anticancer agent based on its antineoplastic properties in several common malignancies. In vitro models have shown that pterostilbene inhibits cancer growth through alteration of the cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of metastasis. In vivo, pterostilbene inhibits tumorigenesis and metastasis with negligible toxicity. Pterostilbene has also been shown to be effective as an inducer of antioxidant capacity in multiple cancer cell lines that may facilitate its function as an anticarcinogenic compound. Additionally, preliminary studies show that pterostilbene exhibits much greater bioavailability compared with other stilbene compounds; however the exact pharmacologic mechanism of pterostilbene and its effects in humans are still under investigation. In this review, we present a comprehensive summary of the antineoplastic mechanisms of pterostilbene based on the results of preclinical studies and highlight recent advances in the study of this dietary compound.

Blueberry peel extracts inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and reduce high-fat diet-induced obesity.
            (Song et al., 2013) Download
This study examined the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of action of blueberry peel extracts (BPE) in 3T3-L1 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. The levels of lipid accumulation were measured, along with the changes in the expression of genes and proteins associated with adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Evidenced by Oil-red O staining and triglyceride assay, BPE dose-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation at concentrations of 0, 50, and 200 µg/ml. BPE decreased the expression of the key adipocyte differentiation regulator C/EBPβ, as well as the C/EBPα and PPARγ genes, during the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Moreover, BPE down-regulated adipocyte-specific genes such as aP2 and FAS compared with control adipocytes. The specific mechanism mediating the effects of BP revealed that insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt was strongly decreased, and its downstream substrate, phospho-GSK3β, was downregulated by BPE treatment in 3T3-L1 cells. Together, these data indicated that BP exerted anti-adipogenic activity by inhibiting the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPβ and the Akt signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Next, we investigated whether BP extracts attenuated HFD-induced obesity in rats. Oral administration of BPE reduced HFD-induced body weight gain significantly without affecting food intake. The epididymal or perirenal adipose tissue weights were lower in rats on an HFD plus BPE compared with the tissue weights of HFD-induced obese rats. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the rats fed BPE were modestly reduced, and the HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased in HFD plus BP-fed rats compared with those of HFD-fed rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated an inhibitory effect of BP on adipogenesis through the down-regulation of C/EBPβ, C/EBPα, and PPARγ and the reduction of the phospho-Akt adipogenic factor in 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, BPE reduced body weight gain and inhibited fat accumulation in an HFD-induced animal model of obesity.

Bioactives in blueberries improve insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant men and women.
            (Stull et al., 2010) Download
Dietary supplementation with whole blueberries in a preclinical study resulted in a reduction in glucose concentrations over time. We sought to evaluate the effect of daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from blueberries on whole-body insulin sensitivity in men and women. A double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical study design was used. After screening to resolve study eligibility, baseline (wk 0) insulin sensitivity was measured on 32 obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant subjects using a high-dose hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (insulin infusion of 120 mU(861 pmol)⋅m(-2)⋅min(-1)). Serum inflammatory biomarkers and adiposity were measured at baseline. At the end of the study, insulin sensitivity, inflammatory biomarkers, and adiposity were reassessed. Participants were randomized to consume either a smoothie containing 22.5 g blueberry bioactives (blueberry group, n = 15) or a smoothie of equal nutritional value without added blueberry bioactives (placebo group, n = 17) twice daily for 6 wk. Both groups were instructed to maintain their body weight by reducing ad libitum intake by an amount equal to the energy intake of the smoothies. Participants' body weights were evaluated weekly and 3-d food records were collected at baseline, the middle, and end of the study. The mean change in insulin sensitivity improved more in the blueberry group (1.7 ± 0.5 mg⋅kg FFM(-1)⋅min(-1)) than in the placebo group (0.4 ± 0.4 mg⋅kg FFM(-1)⋅min(-1)) (P = 0.04). Insulin sensitivity was enhanced in the blueberry group at the end of the study without significant changes in adiposity, energy intake, and inflammatory biomarkers. In conclusion, daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from whole blueberries improved insulin sensitivity in obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant participants.

Blueberry polyphenols increase lifespan and thermotolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans.
            (Wilson et al., 2006) Download
The beneficial effects of polyphenol compounds in fruits and vegetables are mainly extrapolated from in vitro studies or short-term dietary supplementation studies. Due to cost and duration, relatively little is known about whether dietary polyphenols are beneficial in whole animals, particularly with respect to aging. To address this question, we examined the effects of blueberry polyphenols on lifespan and aging of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, a useful organism for such a study. We report that a complex mixture of blueberry polyphenols increased lifespan and slowed aging-related declines in C. elegans. We also found that these benefits did not just reflect antioxidant activity in these compounds. For instance, blueberry treatment increased survival during acute heat stress, but was not protective against acute oxidative stress. The blueberry extract consists of three major fractions that all contain antioxidant activity. However, only one fraction, enriched in proanthocyanidin compounds, increased C. elegans lifespan and thermotolerance. To further determine how polyphenols prolonged C. elegans lifespan, we analyzed the genetic requirements for these effects. Prolonged lifespan from this treatment required the presence of a CaMKII pathway that mediates osmotic stress resistance, though not other pathways that affect stress resistance and longevity. In conclusion, polyphenolic compounds in blueberries had robust and reproducible benefits during aging that were separable from antioxidant effects.

How can food extracts consumed in the Mediterranean and East Asia suppress prostate cancer proliferation
            (Yao et al., 2012) Download
We have developed a blend of food extracts commonly consumed in the Mediterranean and East Asia, named blueberry punch (BBP), with the ultimate aim to formulate a chemoprevention strategy to inhibit prostate cancer progression in men on active surveillance protocol. We demonstrated previously that BBP inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism responsible for the suppression of prostate cancer cell proliferation by BBP. Treatment of lymph node-metastasised prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) and bone-metastasised prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and MDA-PCa-2b) with BBP (up to 0·8 %) for 72 h increased the percentage of cells at the G0/G1 phase and decreased those at the S and G2/M phases. The finding was supported by the reduction in the percentage of Ki-67-positive cells and of DNA synthesis measured by the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine. Concomitantly, BBP treatment decreased the protein levels of phosphorylated retinoblastoma, cyclin D1 and E, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 2, and pre-replication complex (CDC6 and MCM7) in LNCaP and PC-3 cells, whereas CDK inhibitor p27 was elevated in these cell lines. In conclusion, BBP exerts its anti-proliferative effect on prostate cancer cells by modulating the expression and phosphorylation of multiple regulatory proteins essential for cell proliferation.

 


References

Adams, LS, et al. (2010), ‘Blueberry phytochemicals inhibit growth and metastatic potential of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells through modulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway.’, Cancer Res, 70 (9), 3594-605. PubMed: 20388778
Adams, LS, et al. (2011), ‘Whole blueberry powder modulates the growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast tumors in nude mice.’, J Nutr, 141 (10), 1805-12. PubMed: 21880954
Aires, DJ, et al. (2012), ‘Potentiation of dietary restriction-induced lifespan extension by polyphenols.’, Biochim Biophys Acta, 1822 (4), 522-26. PubMed: 22265987
Aiyer, HS, et al. (2008), ‘Dietary berries and ellagic acid prevent oxidative DNA damage and modulate expression of DNA repair genes.’, Int J Mol Sci, 9 (3), 327-41. PubMed: 19325752
Basu, A, et al. (2010), ‘Blueberries decrease cardiovascular risk factors in obese men and women with metabolic syndrome.’, J Nutr, 140 (9), 1582-87. PubMed: 20660279
Del Bó, C, et al. (2013), ‘A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers.’, Nutr Res, 33 (3), 220-27. PubMed: 23507228
Kanaya, N, et al. (2014), ‘Whole blueberry powder inhibits metastasis of triple negative breast cancer in a xenograft mouse model through modulation of inflammatory cytokines.’, Nutr Cancer, 66 (2), 242-48. PubMed: 24364759
Martineau, LC, et al. (2006), ‘Anti-diabetic properties of the Canadian lowbush blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.’, Phytomedicine, 13 (9-10), 612-23. PubMed: 16979328
McAnulty, LS, et al. (2011), ‘Effect of blueberry ingestion on natural killer cell counts, oxidative stress, and inflammation prior to and after 2.5 h of running.’, Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 36 (6), 976-84. PubMed: 22111516
McAnulty, LS, et al. (2014), ‘Six weeks daily ingestion of whole blueberry powder increases natural killer cell counts and reduces arterial stiffness in sedentary males and females.’, Nutr Res, 34 (7), 577-84. PubMed: 25150116
McCormack, D and D McFadden (2012), ‘Pterostilbene and cancer: current review.’, J Surg Res, 173 (2), e53-61. PubMed: 22099605
Song, Y, et al. (2013), ‘Blueberry peel extracts inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and reduce high-fat diet-induced obesity.’, PLoS One, 8 (7), e69925. PubMed: 23936120
Stull, AJ, et al. (2010), ‘Bioactives in blueberries improve insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant men and women.’, J Nutr, 140 (10), 1764-68. PubMed: 20724487
Wilson, MA, et al. (2006), ‘Blueberry polyphenols increase lifespan and thermotolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans.’, Aging Cell, 5 (1), 59-68. PubMed: 16441844
Yao, M, et al. (2012), ‘How can food extracts consumed in the Mediterranean and East Asia suppress prostate cancer proliferation’, Br J Nutr, 108 (3), 424-30. PubMed: 22067725