Aromatase Abstracts 12

©

Immune and Autoimmune

 

Sex differences in Sjögren's syndrome: a comprehensive review of immune mechanisms.
(Brandt et al., 2015) Download
Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are estimated to affect between 5 and 8 % of the US population, and approximately 80 % of these patients are women. Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an AD that occurs predominately in women over men (16:1). The hallmark characteristic of SS is diminished secretory production from the primary exocrine gland and the lacrimal or salivary glands resulting in symptoms of dry eye and mouth. The disease is believed to be mediated by an inflammatory and autoantibody response directed against salivary and lacrimal gland tissues. This review will examine the literature on sex differences in the immune response of patients and animal models of Sjögren's syndrome in order to gain a better understanding of disease pathogenesis.

Estrogen metabolism and autoimmunity.
            (Cutolo et al., 2012) Download
Epidemiological and experimental immunological evidence suggest that estrogens enhance the humoral immune response, and at the same time, seem to play important roles in pathophysiology of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Estrogens in human subjects are generally considered as enhancers of cell proliferation (anti-apoptotic), however, rather than through their serum levels (that may exert opposite dose-related effects), they play important roles through their peripheral metabolites especially in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Several investigations strongly support an accelerated aromatase-mediated peripheral metabolic conversion of upstream androgen precursors to estrogen metabolites in peripheral tissues affected by immune/inflammatory reactions, both, in male and female patients. In RA synovial tissue, biological effects of these metabolites as a consequence of altered peripheral sex hormone synthesis (intracrine, e.g., at the level of macrophages and fibroblasts) mainly results in stimulation of cell proliferation and cytokine production (i.e. TNF). It was shown that RA synovial cells mainly produce the cell proproliferative 16alpha-hydroxyestrone which, in addition to 16alpha-hydroxy-17beta-estradiol, is the downstream estrogen metabolite that interferes with monocyte proliferation. Therefore, a preponderance of 16alpha-hydroxylated estrogens is an unfavorable sign, at least, in synovial inflammation and possibly related synovial tissue hyperplasia. Interestingly, urinary concentration and total urinary loss of 2-hydroxyestrogens was found 10 times higher in healthy subjects compared to RA or SLE patients irrespective of prior prednisolone treatment or sex. The intracrine synthesis of active estrogen metabolites at the level of cells involved in the immune response (e.g. macrophages and fibroblasts) represents a common pathway that characterizes a similar final immune reactivity in both male and female patients.

Estrogens and autoimmune diseases
            (Cutolo et al., 2006) Download
Sex hormones are implicated in the immune response, with estrogens as enhancers at least of the humoral immunity and androgens and progesterone (and glucocorticoids) as natural immune-suppressors . Several physiological, pathological, and therapeutic conditions may change the serum estrogen milieu and/or peripheral conversion rate, including the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, postpartum period, menopause, being elderly, chronic stress, altered circadian rhythms, inflammatory cytokines, and use of corticosteroids, oral contraceptives, and steroid hormonal replacements, inducing altered androgen/estrogen ratios and related effects. In particular, cortisol and melatonin circadian rhythms are altered, at least in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and partially involve sex hormone circadian synthesis and levels as well. Abnormal regulation of aromatase activity (i.e., increased activity) by inflammatory cytokine production (i.e., TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6) may partially explain the abnormalities of peripheral estrogen synthesis in RA (i.e., increased availability of 17-beta estradiol and possible metabolites in synovial fluids) and in systemic lupus erythematosus, as well as the altered serum sex-hormone levels and ratio (i.e., decreased androgens and DHEAS). In the synovial fluids of RA patients, the increased estrogen concentration is observed in both sexes and is more specifically characterized by the hydroxylated forms, in particular 16alpha-hydroxyestrone, which is a mitogenic and cell proliferative endogenous hormone. Local effects of sex hormones in autoimmune rheumatic diseases seems to consist mainly in modulation of cell proliferation and cytokine production (i.e., TNF-alpha, Il-1, IL-12). In this respect, it is interesting that male patients with RA seem to profit more from anti-TNFalpha strategies than do female patients.

Aromatase-deficient mice spontaneously develop a lymphoproliferative autoimmune disease resembling Sjogren's syndrome.
            (Shim et al., 2004) Download
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an incurable, autoimmune exocrinopathy that predominantly affects females and whose pathogenesis remains unknown. Like rheumatoid arthritis, its severity increases after menopause, and estrogen deficiency has been implicated. We have reported that estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta-knockout mice develop autoimmune nephritis and myeloid leukemia, respectively, but neither develops SS. One model of estrogen deficiency in rodents is the aromatase-knockout (ArKO) mouse. In these animals, there is elevated B lymphopoiesis in bone marrow. We now report that ArKO mice develop severe autoimmune exocrinopathy resembling SS. By 1 year of age, there is B cell hyperplasia in the bone marrow, spleen, and blood of ArKO mice and spontaneous autoimmune manifestations such as proteinuria and severe leukocyte infiltration in the salivary glands and kidney. Also, as is typically found in human SS, there were proteolytic fragments of alpha-fodrin in the salivary glands and anti-alpha-fodrin antibodies in the serum of both female and male ArKO mice. When mice were raised on a phytoestrogen-free diet, there was a mild but significant incidence of infiltration of B lymphocytes in WT mice and severe destructive autoimmune lesions in ArKO mice. In age-matched WT mice fed a diet containing normal levels of phytoestrogen, there were no autoimmune lesions. These results reveal that estrogen deficiency results in a lymphoproliferative autoimmune disease resembling SS and suggest that estrogen might have clinical value in the prevention or treatment of this disease.

Aromatase inhibitors induced autoimmune disorders in patients with breast cancer: A review.
            (Zarkavelis et al., 2016) Download
Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) is characterized by particular cutaneous manifestations such as non-scaring plaques mainly in sunlight exposed parts of the body along with specific serum autoantibodies (i.e. antinuclear antibodies (ANA), Ro/SSa, La/SSb). It is considered either idiopathic or drug induced. The role of chemotherapeutic agents in causing SCLE has been investigated with the taxanes being the most common anticancer agents. However, recent data emerging point toward antiestrogen therapies as a causative factor not only for SCLE but also for a variety of autoimmune disorders. This is a report of a case of a 42 year old woman who developed clinical manifestations of SCLE after letrozole treatment in whom remission of the cutaneous manifestations was noticed upon discontinuation of the drug. In addition, an extensive review of the English literature has been performed regarding the association of antiestrogen therapy with autoimmune disorders. In conclusion, Oncologists should be aware of the potential development of autoimmune reactions in breast cancer patients treated with aromatase inhibitors.

 


Prostate

 

High aromatase activity in hypogonadal men is associated with higher spine bone mineral density, increased truncal fat and reduced lean mass.
            (Aguirre et al., 2015) Download
OBJECTIVE:  Because the aromatase enzyme catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to estradiol (E2), the activity of this enzyme could be important in the musculoskeletal health of men with low testosterone. The objective of the present study is to determine the influence of aromatase activity on the bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition of patients with hypogonadism. DESIGN:  Cross-sectional study. METHODS:  The baseline data of 90 patients between 40 and 74 years old who participated in a genetic study of response to testosterone therapy in men with low testosterone (i.e., <300 ng/dl) were analyzed. BMD and body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum testosterone was measured by automated immunoassay, E2 was measured by ultrasensitive enzyme immunoassay, and sex hormone-binding globulin was measured by enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS:  Men in the highest tertile of E2 to testosterone ratio (E2:T) had the highest spine BMD (P ≤ 0.037), highest truncal fat (P=0.046), and lowest truncal lean body mass (P=0.045). A similar pattern was observed in the upper extremities; that is, fat mass significantly increased (P=0.047), whereas lean mass significantly decreased (P=0.034) with increasing E2:T tertiles. CONCLUSION:  The present findings suggest that in men with hypogonadism, aromatase activity could be an important determinant of musculoskeletal health. Men with high aromatase activity are able to maintain a higher BMD despite low circulating testosterone, but they have lower lean and higher truncal fat mass as compared to those with lower aromatase activity.

Aromatase and regulating the estrogen:androgen ratio in the prostate gland.
            (Ellem and Risbridger, 2010) Download
Although androgens and estrogens both play significant roles in the prostate, it is their combined action--and specifically their balance--that is critically important in maintaining prostate health and tissue homeostasis in adulthood. In men, serum testosterone levels drop by about 35% between the ages of 21 and 85 while estradiol levels remain constant or increase. This changing androgen:estrogen (T:E) ratio has been implicated in the development of benign and malignant prostate disease. The production of estrogens from androgens is mediated by the aromatase enzyme, the aberrant expression of which plays a critical role in the development of malignancy in a number of tissues. The normal prostate expresses aromatase within the stroma, while there is an induction of epithelial expression in malignancy with altered promoter utilisation. This may ultimately lead to an altered T:E ratio that is associated with the development of disease. The role of estrogen and the T:E balance in the prostate is further complicated by the differential actions of both estrogen receptors, alpha and beta. Stimulation of ERalpha leads to aberrant proliferation, inflammation and pre-malignant pathology; whereas activation of ERbeta appears to have beneficial effects regarding cellular proliferation and a putative protective role against carcinogenesis. Overall, these data reveal that homeostasis in the normal prostate involves a finely tuned balance between androgens and estrogens. This has identified estrogen, in addition to androgens, as integral to maintaining normal prostate health, but also as an important mediator of prostate disease.

Estrogen action and prostate cancer.
            (Nelles et al., 2011) Download
Early work on the hormonal basis of prostate cancer focused on the role of androgens, but more recently estrogens have been implicated as potential agents in the development and progression of prostate cancer. In this article, we review the epidemiological, laboratory and clinical evidence that estrogen may play a causative role in human prostate cancer, as well as rodent and grafted in vivo models. We then review recent literature highlighting potential mechanisms by which estrogen may contribute to prostate cancer, including estrogenic imprinting and epigenetic modifications, direct genotoxicity, hyperprolactinemia, inflammation and immunologic changes, and receptor-mediated actions. We discuss the work performed so far separating the actions of the different known estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ, as well as G-protein-coupled receptor 30 and their specific roles in prostate disease. Finally, we predict that future work in this field will involve more investigations into epigenetic changes, experiments using new models of hormonal dysregulation in developing human prostate tissue, and continued delineation of the roles of the different ER subtypes, as well as their downstream signaling pathways that may serve as therapeutic targets.

Clinical Use of Aromatase Inhibitors in Adult Males.
            (Tan et al., 2014) Download
INTRODUCTION:  There is a growing interest in the treatment of late-onset hypogonadism, another name for the study of testosterone deficiency in an older age group. Initial attempts at testosterone replacement have also brought attention to the possible adverse effects on the patients' cardiovascular risk factors and their prostate health. The "female" hormone estradiol is no longer considered as the feminizing hormone, as it has been identified to have an effect on the sexual and general well-being of adult males. Urologists and endocrinologists alike have started to pay attention to the serum T/E2 (testosterone : estradiol) ratio that appears to be more important than the respective individual hormonal levels. Therein lies the possible role of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in restoring the normal balance of serum testosterone and estradiol levels for the adequate treatment of late-onset hypogonadism, while limiting the potential adverse effects. Currently, other established clinical indications of AIs include the treatment of breast cancer in female patients and developmental growth problems in pediatric patients. AIM:  This review evaluates the role of AIs as a treatment option for late-onset hypogonadism and the evidence for its other clinical uses in men, including its possible adverse effects. METHODS:  A literature review was performed with regards to the use of aromatase inhibitors in adult males, the role of estrogens in adult males, as well as adverse effect of AIs on bone health in adult males. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:  To evaluate the evidence for the use of AIs in adult males to treat late-onset hypogonadism, obesity-related hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, gynecomastia, and male subfertility. To evaluate the evidence for the possible adverse effects on the bone health of adult males with the use of AIs. RESULTS:  Currently there is no literature to recommend the use of AIs in adult males to treat late-onset hypogonadism, obesity-related hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, gynecomastia, or male subfertility, although some positive effects have been reported. The adverse effects on bone health seen in females treated with AIs are not seen in males. CONCLUSIONS:  With the better understanding of the T/E2 ratio in adult males, the lack of scientific data to show that bone health is adversely affected by AI usage in adult males, the positive effects of AIs on the treatment of conditions like late-onset hypogonadism and male subfertility encourages conducting large-scale, multicenter, randomized controlled trials for the clinical use of AIs in adult males. Tan RBW, Guay AT, and Hellstrom WJG. Clinical use of aromatase inhibitors in adult males. Sex Med Rev 2014;2:79-90.

 

Misc

Metformin inhibits aromatase expression in human breast adipose stromal cells via stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase.
            (Brown et al., 2010) Download
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is recognized as a master regulator of energy homeostasis. In concert with the AMPK-kinase LKB1, it has been shown to provide a molecular link between obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer via its actions to inhibit aromatase expression, hence estrogen production, within the breast. The anti-diabetic drug metformin is known to increase the activity of AMPK and was therefore hypothesized to inhibit aromatase expression in primary human breast adipose stromal cells. Results demonstrate that metformin significantly decreases the forskolin/phorbol ester (FSK/PMA)-induced expression of aromatase at concentrations of 10 and 50 muM. Consistent with the hypothesized actions of metformin to increase AMPK activity, treatment with 50 muM metformin results in a significant increase in phosphorylation of AMPK at Thr172. Interestingly, metformin also causes a significant increase in LKB1 protein expression and promoter activity, thereby providing for the first time an additional mechanism by which metformin activates AMPK. Furthermore, metformin inhibits the nuclear translocation of CRTC2, a CREB-coactivator known to increase aromatase expression which is also a direct downstream target of AMPK. Overall, these results suggest that metformin would reduce the local production of estrogens within the breast thereby providing a new key therapeutic tool that could be used in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings and conceivably also as a preventative measure in obese women.

Mechanisms of aromatase inhibitor resistance.
            (Ma et al., 2015) Download
Oestrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer is a major cause of cancer death in women. Although aromatase inhibitors suppress the function of ER and reduce the risk of recurrence, therapeutic resistance is common and essentially inevitable in advanced disease. This Review considers both genomic and cell biological explanations as to why ER(+) breast cancer cells persist, progress and cause an incurable, lethal, systemic disease. The design and outcomes of clinical trials are considered with the perspective that resistance mechanisms are heterogeneous, and therefore biomarker and somatic mutation-based stratification and eligibility will be essential for improvements in patient outcomes.

Vaginal Testosterone Cream vs Estradiol Vaginal Ring for Vaginal Dryness or Decreased Libido in Women Receiving Aromatase Inhibitors for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
            (Melisko et al., 2017)  Download
Importance:  Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are associated with significant urogenital atrophy, affecting quality of life and drug compliance. Objective:  To evaluate safety of intravaginal testosterone cream (IVT) or an estradiol-releasing vaginal ring (7.5 μg/d) in patients with early-stage breast cancer (BC) receiving an AI. Intervention was considered unsafe if more than 25% of patients had persistent elevation in estradiol (E2), defined as E2 greater than 10 pg/mL (to convert to pmol/L, multiply by 3.671) and at least 10 pg/mL above baseline after treatment initiation on 2 consecutive tests at least 2 weeks apart. Design, Setting, and Participants:  Postmenopausal (PM) women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive stage I to III BC taking AIs with self-reported vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, or decreased libido were randomized to 12 weeks of IVT or an estradiol vaginal ring. Estradiol was measured at baseline and weeks 4 and 12 using a commercially available liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry assay; follicle-stimulating hormone levels were measured at baseline and week 4. Gynecologic examinations and sexual quality-of-life questionnaires were completed at baseline and week 12. This randomized noncomparative design allowed safety evaluation of 2 interventions concurrently in the same population of patients, reducing the possibility of E2 assay variability over time and between the 2 interventions. Main Outcomes and Measures:  The primary objective of this trial was to evaluate safety of IVT or an estradiol vaginal ring in patients with early-stage BC receiving an AI; secondary objectives included evaluation of adverse events, changes in sexual quality of life using the Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System sexuality subscales, changes in vaginal atrophy using a validated 4-point scale, and comparison of E2 levels. Results:  Overall, 76 women signed consent (mean [range] age, 56 [37-78] years), 75 started treatment, and 69 completed 12 weeks of treatment. Mean (range) baseline E2 was 20 (<2 to 127) pg/mL. At baseline, E2 was above the postmenopausal range (>10 pg/mL) in 28 of 76 women (37%). Persistent E2 elevation was observed in none with a vaginal ring and in 4 of 34 women (12%) with IVT. Transient E2 elevation was seen in 4 of 35 (11%) with a vaginal ring and in 4 of 34 (12%) with IVT. Vaginal atrophy and sexual interest and dysfunction improved for all patients. Conclusions and Relevance:  In PM women with early-stage BC receiving AIs, treatment with a vaginal ring or IVT over 12 weeks met the primary safety end point. Baseline elevation in E2 was common and complicates this assessment. Vaginal atrophy, sexual interest, and sexual dysfunction were improved. Further study is required to understand E2 variability in this setting. Trial Registration:  clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00698035.

 


References

Aguirre, LE, et al. (2015), ‘High aromatase activity in hypogonadal men is associated with higher spine bone mineral density, increased truncal fat and reduced lean mass.’, Eur J Endocrinol, 173 (2), 167-74. PubMed: 26142101
Brandt, JE, et al. (2015), ‘Sex differences in Sjögren’s syndrome: a comprehensive review of immune mechanisms.’, Biol Sex Differ, 6 19. PubMed: 26535108
Brown, KA, et al. (2010), ‘Metformin inhibits aromatase expression in human breast adipose stromal cells via stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase.’, Breast Cancer Res Treat, 123 (2), 591-96. PubMed: 20300828
Cutolo, M, A Sulli, and RH Straub (2012), ‘Estrogen metabolism and autoimmunity.’, Autoimmun Rev, 11 (6-7), A460-4. PubMed: 22155198
Cutolo, M., et al. (2006), ‘Estrogens and autoimmune diseases’, Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1089 538-47. PubMed: 17261796
Ellem, SJ and GP Risbridger (2010), ‘Aromatase and regulating the estrogen:androgen ratio in the prostate gland.’, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 118 (4-5), 246-51. PubMed: 19896534
Ma, CX, et al. (2015), ‘Mechanisms of aromatase inhibitor resistance.’, Nat Rev Cancer, 15 (5), 261-75. PubMed: 25907219
Melisko, ME, et al. (2017), ‘Vaginal Testosterone Cream vs Estradiol Vaginal Ring for Vaginal Dryness or Decreased Libido in Women Receiving Aromatase Inhibitors for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial.’, JAMA Oncol, 3 313-19. PubMed: 27832260
Nelles, JL, WY Hu, and GS Prins (2011), ‘Estrogen action and prostate cancer.’, Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab, 6 (3), 437-51. PubMed: 21765856
Shim, GJ, et al. (2004), ‘Aromatase-deficient mice spontaneously develop a lymphoproliferative autoimmune disease resembling Sjogren’s syndrome.’, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101 (34), 12628-33. PubMed: 15314222
Tan, RB, AT Guay, and WJ Hellstrom (2014), ‘Clinical Use of Aromatase Inhibitors in Adult Males.’, Sex Med Rev, 2 79-90. PubMed: 27784593
Zarkavelis, G, et al. (2016), ‘Aromatase inhibitors induced autoimmune disorders in patients with breast cancer: A review.’, J Adv Res, 7 (5), 719-26. PubMed: 28275510