Amla Articles 1

© 2012

A Pilot Clinical Study To Evaluate The Effect Of Emblica Officinalis Extract (Amlamaxtm) On Markers Of Systemic Inflammation And Dyslipidemia

         (Antony, Benny et al. 2008) Download

Emblica officinalis Gaertn., commonly known as the Indian gooseberry or “Amla”, has been used as health food for centuries in India and other Asian countries. The biological effects of amla have been attributed to the antioxidant properties of the low-molecular weight hydrolysable tannins present in the fruit. AmlamaxTM is a purified, standardized, dried extract of amla containing about 35% galloellagi tannins along with other hydrolysable tannins. Our earlier studies on rabbits showed significant reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides as well as increase in HDL. The present study extends these results to human volunteers. Two doses of the extract were evaluated - 500 mg and 1000 mg per day for 6 months. Blood samples were collected at the 3rd and 6th months showed reduction in total and LDL cholesterols and enhancement of beneficial HDL cholesterol. In addition, blood CRP levels, a marker for inflammation, were also significantly reduced. Since dyslipidemia and inflammation are the two major components of cardiovascular diseases, the present results must be considered encouraging and indicate the potential of AmlamaxTM in the management of heart diseases.

Amlamax in the management of dyslipidemia in humans

            (Antony, Merina et al. 2008) Download

Hypercholesterolemia is the major cause of cardiovascular diseases leading to myocardial infarctions leading to considerable morbidity and mortality. During the past decade a group of molecules referred to as statins such as simvastatin, atrovastatin have been tried with great success in reducing total cholesterol. These molecules act by inhibiting the HMG CoA reductase enzyme thereby interfering with the synthesis of cholesterol. But statins reduce all the cholesterol including HDL cholesterol. Long term drug vigilance activity has revealed serious side effects of tendinopathy and related musculoskeletal disorders in some of the subjects. In an effort to manage hypercholesterolemia without serious side effects in a natural way we had tried the use of Amlamax a reconstituted, purified, standardized dried extract of amla (Emblica officinalis) containing 30% ellagitannins with other hydrolysable tannins on humans. We report the hitherto unobserved significant elevation of HDL cholesterol by the administration of Amlamax.

Triphala, Ayurvedic formulation for treating and preventing cancer: a review

            (Baliga 2010) Download

BACKGROUND: Triphala (Sanskrit tri = three and phala = fruits), composed of the three medicinal fruits Phyllanthus emblica L. or Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia chebula Retz., and Terminalia belerica Retz. is an important herbal preparation in the traditional Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. Triphala is an antioxidant-rich herbal formulation and possesses diverse beneficial properties. It is a widely prescribed Ayurvedic drug and is used as a colon cleanser, digestive, diuretic, and laxative. Cancer is a major cause of death, and globally studies are being conducted to prevent cancer or to develop effective nontoxic therapeutic agents. Experimental studies in the past decade have shown that Triphala is useful in the prevention of cancer and that it also possesses antineoplastic, radioprotective and chemoprotective effects. CONCLUSIONS: This review for the first time summarizes these results, with emphasis on published observations. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects and lacunas in the existing knowledge that need to be bridged are also discussed.

Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn), a wonder berry in the treatment and prevention of cancer

            (Baliga and Dsouza 2011) Download

Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or amla, is arguably the most important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Various parts of the plant are used to treat a range of diseases, but the most important is the fruit. The fruit is used either alone or in combination with other plants to treat many ailments such as common cold and fever; as a diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hair tonic; to prevent peptic ulcer and dyspepsia, and as a digestive. Preclinical studies have shown that amla possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemia, antihypercholesterolemia, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties. In addition, experimental studies have shown that amla and some of its phytochemicals such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, pyrogallol, some norsesquiterpenoids, corilagin, geraniin, elaeocarpusin, and prodelphinidins B1 and B2 also possess antineoplastic effects. Amla is also reported to possess radiomodulatory, chemomodulatory, chemopreventive effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory activities, properties that are efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. This review for the first time summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility as a cancer preventive and therapeutic drug in humans.

Emblica officinalis and its enriched tannoids delay streptozotocin-induced diabetic cataract in rats

            (Suryanarayana, Saraswat et al. 2007) Download

PURPOSE: Aldose reductase (AR) has been a drug target because of its involvement in the development of secondary complications of diabetes including cataract. We have previously reported that the aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis and its constituent tannoids inhibit AR in vitro and prevent hyperglycemia-induced lens opacification in organ culture. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of Emblica and its enriched tannoids on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic cataract in rats. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in Wistar-NIN rats by STZ (35 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) and the animals were divided into three groups (Group II, III, and IV). The control rats (Group I) received only vehicle. While Group I and Group II animals received AIN-93 diet, rats in Groups III and IV received 0.2% of standardized mixture of Emblica tannoids and 2% of Emblica pericarp, respectively, in an AIN-93 diet for a period of eight weeks. Cataract progression due to hyperglycemia was monitored by slit-lamp biomicroscope and classified into four stages. At the end of the eight weeks, the animals were sacrificed and markers of the polyol pathway, oxidative stress, and alterations in protein content and crystallin profile in the lens were measured. Blood glucose and insulin levels were also determined. RESULTS: Both Emblica and its tannoids did not prevent STZ-induced hyperglycemia as assessed by blood glucose and insulin levels. However, slit lamp microscope observations indicated that these supplements delayed cataract progression. The present studies suggest that Emblica and its tannoids supplementation inhibited AR activity as well as sorbitol formation in the lens. The results also point out that Emblica and its tannoids might counter the polyol pathway-induced oxidative stress as there was a reversal of changes with respect to lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Emblica also prevented aggregation and insolubilization of lens proteins caused by hyperglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide evidence that Emblica and an enriched fraction of Emblica tannoids are effective in delaying development of diabetic cataract in rats.


Emblica officinalis corrects functional, biochemical and molecular deficits in experimental diabetic neuropathy by targeting the oxido-nitrosative stress mediated inflammatory cascade

            (Tiwari, Kuhad et al. 2011) Download

Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus which affects more than 50% of diabetic patients. Diabetic neuropathic pain is amongst the most difficult types of pain to treat mainly due to the lack of understanding of its etiology and inadequate relief with available drug therapy. The present study targeted oxidative stress mediated nerve damage in diabetic rats using an aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis, a potent natural antioxidant. Diabetic rats exhibited significantly decreased tail-flick latency in the tail-immersion test (thermal hyperalgesia) and decreased paw withdrawal threshold in both Randall-Selitto (mechanical hyperalgesia) and von-Frey hair test (mechanical allodynia). A decrease in the nociceptive threshold was accompanied by significantly increased oxidative stress, nitrite levels and cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and TGF-beta1) both in the serum and sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. Treatment with the Emblica officinalis aqueous extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day) significantly attenuated all the behavioral, biochemical and molecular alterations in a dose-dependent manner. The major finding of the study is that insulin alone corrected the hyperglycemia and partially reversed the pain response in diabetic rats. However, combination with Emblica officinalis extract not only attenuated the diabetic condition but also reversed neuropathic pain through modulation of oxidative-nitrosative stress in diabetic rats.

Effect of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis GAERTN.): an ayurvedic preparation on memory deficit rats

            (Vasudevan and Parle 2007) Download

The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis GAERTN.), an Ayurvedic preparation, on memory in rats. Anwala churna was administered orally in three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) for 15 days to different groups of young and aged rats. The elevated plus-maze and Hebb-Williams maze served as exteroceptive behavioral models for testing memory. Diazepam-, scopolamine-, and ageing induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral models. Anwala churna (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a dose-dependent improvement in memory scores of young and aged rats. Furthermore, it reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Based on these results, Anwala churna may prove to be a useful remedy for the management of Alzheimer's disease due to its multifarious beneficial effects such as memory improvement and reversal of memory deficits.

Memory enhancing activity of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.): an Ayurvedic preparation

            (Vasudevan and Parle 2007) Download

Ayurveda means "the science of life". Ayur means "life" and Veda means "knowledge or science". It is the oldest medical system in the world. Its origins can be traced as far back as 4500 BC, to four ancient books of knowledge, (the "Vedas") and it is still officially recognized by the government of India. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), an Ayurvedic preparation on memory, total serum cholesterol levels and brain cholinesterase activity in mice. Anwala churna was administered orally in three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) for fifteen days to different groups of young and aged mice. Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioral models for testing memory. Diazepam-, scopolamine- and ageing-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral models. Total serum cholesterol levels and brain cholinesterase activity also estimated. Anwala churna (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a dose-dependent improvement in memory scores of young and aged mice. Furthermore, it reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Interestingly, brain cholinesterase activity and total cholesterol levels were reduced by Anwala churna administered orally for 15 days. Anwala churna may prove to be a useful remedy for the management of Alzheimer's disease on account of its multifarious beneficial effects such as, memory improving property, cholesterol lowering property and anticholinesterase activity.

Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) prevents dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in the ageing process

            (Yokozawa, Kim et al. 2007) Download

Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) is widely used in Indian medicine for the treatment of various diseases. We have investigated the effects of amla on the lipid metabolism and protein expression involved in oxidative stress during the ageing process. SunAmla or ethyl acetate extract of amla, a polyphenol-rich fraction, was administered at a dose of 40 or 10 mg/kg body weight per d for 100 d to young rats aged 2 months and aged rats aged 10 months. The lipid levels, such as cholesterol and TAG, in serum and liver were markedly elevated in aged control rats, while they were significantly decreased by the administration of amla. The PPARalpha is known to regulate the transcription of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. The PPARalpha protein level in liver was reduced in aged control rats. However, the oral administration of amla significantly increased the hepatic PPARalpha protein level. In addition, oral administration of amla significantly inhibited the serum and hepatic mitochondrial thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels in aged rats. Moreover, the elevated expression level of bax was significantly decreased after the oral administration of amla, while the level of bcl-2 led to a significant increase. Furthermore, the expressions of hepatic NF-kappaB, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels were also increased with ageing. However, amla extract reduced the iNOS and COX-2 expression levels by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation in aged rats. These results indicate that amla may prevent age-related hyperlipidaemia through attenuating oxidative stress in the ageing process


References

Antony, B., M. Benny, et al. (2008). "A Pilot Clinical Study To Evaluate The Effect Of Emblica Officinalis Extract (Amlamaxtm) On Markers Of Systemic Inflammation And Dyslipidemia." Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 23(4): 378-381.

Antony, B., B. Merina, et al. (2008). "Amlamax in the management of dyslipidemia in humans." Indian J Pharm Sci 70(4): 504-7.

Baliga, M. S. (2010). "Triphala, Ayurvedic formulation for treating and preventing cancer: a review." J Altern Complement Med 16(12): 1301-8.

Baliga, M. S. and J. J. Dsouza (2011). "Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn), a wonder berry in the treatment and prevention of cancer." Eur J Cancer Prev 20(3): 225-39.

Suryanarayana, P., M. Saraswat, et al. (2007). "Emblica officinalis and its enriched tannoids delay streptozotocin-induced diabetic cataract in rats." Mol Vis 13: 1291-7.

Tiwari, V., A. Kuhad, et al. (2011). "Emblica officinalis corrects functional, biochemical and molecular deficits in experimental diabetic neuropathy by targeting the oxido-nitrosative stress mediated inflammatory cascade." Phytother Res 25(10): 1527-36.

Vasudevan, M. and M. Parle (2007). "Effect of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis GAERTN.): an ayurvedic preparation on memory deficit rats." Yakugaku Zasshi 127(10): 1701-7.

Vasudevan, M. and M. Parle (2007). "Memory enhancing activity of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.): an Ayurvedic preparation." Physiol Behav 91(1): 46-54.

Yokozawa, T., H. Y. Kim, et al. (2007). "Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) prevents dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in the ageing process." Br J Nutr 97(6): 1187-95.