Alzheimers 4 - Niacinamide

© 2011

Nicotinamide restores cognition in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice via a mechanism involving sirtuin inhibition and selective reduction of Thr231-phosphotau

            (Green, Steffan et al. 2008) Download

Memory loss is the signature feature of Alzheimer's disease, and therapies that prevent or delay its onset are urgently needed. Effective preventive strategies likely offer the greatest and most widespread benefits. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors increase histone acetylation and enhance memory and synaptic plasticity. We evaluated the efficacy of nicotinamide, a competitive inhibitor of the sirtuins or class III NAD(+)-dependent HDACs in 3xTg-AD mice, and found that it restored cognitive deficits associated with pathology. Nicotinamide selectively reduces a specific phospho-species of tau (Thr231) that is associated with microtubule depolymerization, in a manner similar to inhibition of SirT1. Nicotinamide also dramatically increased acetylated alpha-tubulin, a primary substrate of SirT2, and MAP2c, both of which are linked to increased microtubule stability. Reduced phosphoThr231-tau was related to a reduction of monoubiquitin-conjugated tau, suggesting that this posttranslationally modified form of tau may be rapidly degraded. Overexpression of a Thr231-phospho-mimic tau in vitro increased clearance and decreased accumulation of tau compared with wild-type tau. These preclinical findings suggest that oral nicotinamide may represent a safe treatment for AD and other tauopathies, and that phosphorylation of tau at Thr231 may regulate tau stability.

Cell Life versus cell longevity: the mysteries surrounding the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide

            (Li, Chong et al. 2006) Download

Nicotinamide, the amide form of niacin (vitamin B(3)), is the precursor for the coenzyme beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and plays a significant role during the enhancement of cell survival as well as cell longevity. Yet, these abilities of nicotinamide appear to be diametrically opposed. Here we describe the development of nicotinamide as a novel agent that is critical for modulating cellular metabolism, plasticity, longevity, and inflammatory microglial function as well as for influencing cellular life span. The capacity of nicotinamide to govern not only intrinsic cellular integrity, but also extrinsic cellular inflammation rests with the modulation of a host of cellular targets that involve mitochondrial membrane potential, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, protein kinase B (Akt), Forkhead transcription factors, Bad, caspases, and microglial activation. Further knowledge acquired in regards to the ability of nicotinamide to foster cellular survival and regulate cellular lifespan should significantly promote the development of therapies against a host of disorders, such as aging, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's disease, and cancer.

Nicotinamide prevents NAD+ depletion and protects neurons against excitotoxicity and cerebral ischemia: NAD+ consumption by SIRT1 may endanger energetically compromised neurons

            (Liu, Gharavi et al. 2009) Download

Neurons require large amounts of energy to support their survival and function, and are therefore susceptible to excitotoxicity, a form of cell death involving bioenergetic stress that may occur in several neurological disorders including stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Here we studied the roles of NAD(+) bioenergetic state, and the NAD(+)-dependent enzymes SIRT1 and PARP-1, in excitotoxic neuronal death in cultured neurons and in a mouse model of focal ischemic stroke. Excitotoxic activation of NMDA receptors induced a rapid decrease of cellular NAD(P)H levels and mitochondrial membrane potential. Decreased NAD(+) levels and poly (ADP-ribose) polymer (PAR) accumulation in nuclei were relatively early events (<4 h) that preceded the appearance of propidium iodide- and TUNEL-positive cells (markers of necrotic cell death and DNA strand breakage, respectively) which became evident by 6 h. Nicotinamide, an NAD(+) precursor and an inhibitor of SIRT1 and PARP1, inhibited SIRT1 deacetylase activity without affecting SIRT1 protein levels. NAD(+) levels were preserved and PAR accumulation and neuronal death induced by excitotoxic insults were attenuated in nicotinamide-treated cells. Treatment of neurons with the SIRT1 activator resveratrol did not protect them from glutamate/NMDA-induced NAD(+) depletion and death. In a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemic stroke, NAD(+) levels were decreased in both the contralateral and ipsilateral cortex 6 h after the onset of ischemia. Stroke resulted in dynamic changes of SIRT1 protein and activity levels which varied among brain regions. Administration of nicotinamide (200 mg/kg, i.p.) up to 1 h after the onset of ischemia elevated brain NAD(+) levels and reduced ischemic infarct size. Our findings demonstrate that the NAD(+) bioenergetic state is critical in determining whether neurons live or die in excitotoxic and ischemic conditions, and suggest a potential therapeutic benefit in stroke of agents that preserve cellular NAD(+) levels. Our data further suggest that, SIRT1 is linked to bioenergetic state and stress responses in neurons, and that under conditions of reduced cellular energy levels SIRT1 enzyme activity may consume sufficient NAD(+) to nullify any cell survival-promoting effects of its deacetylase action on protein substrates.


No evidence for cognitive improvement from oral nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) in dementia

            (Rainer, Kraxberger et al. 2000) Download

Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is advertised as an over-the-counter product or dietary supplement to treat Alzheimer's disease. We performed a 3-month open-label study with oral 10 mg/day NADH with 25 patients with mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer, vascular, and fronto-temporal types in addition to their current cholinomimetic drug medication. In 19 patients who completed the study, we found no evidence for any cognitive effect as defined by established psychometric tests. We conclude that NADH is unlikely to achieve cognitive improvements in an extent reported earlier, and present theoretical arguments against an effectiveness of this compound in dementia disorders.

Nicotinamide homeostasis: a xenobiotic pathway that is key to development and degenerative diseases

            (Williams and Ramsden 2005) Download

Monkeys and man are very closely related genetically. Yet intellectually there are big differences and they suffer from a broad range of different diseases. For example, monkeys do not get Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. The former is surprising given that both get parkinsonism from MPTP poisoning and the latter initially less surprising as the cortex predominantly affected in Alzheimer's never developed as fully in the monkey. Man is an omnivore whilst other primates are predominantly herbivores. The one primate who was almost wholly carnivorous was Neanderthal man who became extinct. Red meat has a high content of Nicotinamide, Choline, and methyl donors. The enzyme NNMT converts nicotinamide to N-methyl-nicotinamide using SAM as the methyl donor. It is not present to any degree in herbivores. It has recently been shown to be present in human brain and up regulated in Parkinson's disease. Omnivores presumably need it for nicotinamide homeostasis but the production of N-methyl-nicotinamide will also be beneficial as it will reduce the export of Choline from neurones. Both will aid brain growth and development. However, as N-methyl-nicotinamide resembles MPTP it could cause parkinsonism later in life for man but not monkeys as they would be predicted not to have as much NNMT. Humans with a diet low in Nicotinamide,Choline or methyl donors early in life and low enzyme activity may be prone to Alzheimer's as their brain and therefore its reserves may never have developed as fully. The possession of NNMT plus a diet rich in Nicotinamide, Choline and methyl providers may explain many of the advantages but also the disadvantages of the human condition. One prediction is that a diet rich in these micronutrients whilst young will improve brain development and reduce the risk of Alzheimer's but that a lower dose later in life will reduce the risk of Parkinsonism. A second prediction is that it will become clear that dietary factors including vitamins are signalers and at the head of vital biochemical pathways. A time point will be reached when errors emerge that could not be deleted by evolutionary pressures. Finding and rectifying them will be the key to preventing many common diseases.

NAD+ and NADH in brain functions, brain diseases and brain aging

            (Ying 2007) Download

Numerous studies have suggested that NAD+ and NADH mediate multiple major biological processes, including calcium homeostasis, energy metabolism, mitochondrial functions, cell death and aging. In particular, NAD+ and NADH have emerged as novel, fundamental regulators of calcium homeostasis. It appears that most of the components in the metabolic pathways of NAD+ and NADH, including poly(ADP-ribose), ADP-ribose, cyclic ADP-ribose, O-acetyl-ADP-ribose, nicotinamide and kynurenine, can produce significant biological effects. This exquisiteness of NAD+ and NADH metabolism could epitomize the exquisiteness of life, through which we may grasp the intrinsic harmony life has evolved to produce. The exquisiteness also suggests a central regulatory role of NAD+ and NADH in life. It is tempted to propose that NAD+ and NADH, together with ATP and Ca2+, constitute a Central Regulatory Network of life. Increasing evidence has also suggested that NAD+ and NADH play important roles in multiple biological processes in brains, such as neurotransmission and learning and memory. NAD+ and NADH may also mediate brain aging and the tissue damage in various brain illnesses. Our latest studies have suggested that NADH can be transported across the plasma membranes of astrocytes, and that NAD+ administration can markedly decrease ischemic brain injury. Based on this information, it is proposed that NAD+ and NADH are fundamental mediators of brain functions, brain senescence and multiple brain diseases. Because numerous properties of NAD+ and NADH remain unclear, future studies regarding NAD+ and NADH may expose some fundamental mechanisms underlying brain functions, brain pathologies and brain aging.


References

Green, K. N., J. S. Steffan, et al. (2008). "Nicotinamide restores cognition in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice via a mechanism involving sirtuin inhibition and selective reduction of Thr231-phosphotau." J Neurosci 28(45): 11500-10.

Li, F., Z. Z. Chong, et al. (2006). "Cell Life versus cell longevity: the mysteries surrounding the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide." Curr Med Chem 13(8): 883-95.

Liu, D., R. Gharavi, et al. (2009). "Nicotinamide prevents NAD+ depletion and protects neurons against excitotoxicity and cerebral ischemia: NAD+ consumption by SIRT1 may endanger energetically compromised neurons." Neuromolecular Med 11(1): 28-42.

Rainer, M., E. Kraxberger, et al. (2000). "No evidence for cognitive improvement from oral nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) in dementia." J Neural Transm 107(12): 1475-81.

Williams, A. C. and D. B. Ramsden (2005). "Nicotinamide homeostasis: a xenobiotic pathway that is key to development and degenerative diseases." Med Hypotheses 65(2): 353-62.

Ying, W. (2007). "NAD+ and NADH in brain functions, brain diseases and brain aging." Front Biosci 12: 1863-88.